The Importance of Tibial Tunnel Placement in Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

ArticleinArthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 29(6) · April 2013with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.02.003 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to measure the anterior edge of the tibial tunnel after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on lateral radiographs and to determine whether the difference in tibial tunnel placement affects postoperative outcomes. METHODS: For 60 patients who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction with semitendinosus tendon, we evaluated the side-to-side difference in anterior tibial translation on stress radiographs, as well as rotational stability by the pivot-shift test, 2 years after surgery. Loss of extension (LOE) was evaluated on lateral radiographs of both knees in full extension, and graft integrity was assessed during second-look arthroscopy 1 to 2 years after surgery. On true lateral radiographs, we measured the anterior placement percentage of the tibial tunnel using the method described by Amis and Jakob. The cutoff value was set at 25% of the mean value of the anterior edge of the ACL that Amis and Jakob reported, and patients were divided into 2 groups (27 in the anterior group and 33 in the posterior group). Postoperative clinical results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The mean anterior placement percentage was 26.0% ± 4.1%. The postoperative mean side-to-side difference was 1.4 ± 2.7 mm for the anterior group and 3.0 ± 2.7 mm for the posterior group, a significant difference (P < .05). The positive ratio of the pivot-shift test was not significantly different between groups (P > .05). Mean LOE in the anterior and posterior groups was 0.9° ± 3.0° and -0.8° ± 4.0°, respectively; the difference was not significant (P > .05). Five of 27 knees in the anterior group and 5 of 33 knees in the posterior group had superficial graft laceration or elongation, which was not significantly different (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Anterior placement of the tibial tunnel in anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction leads to better anterior knee stability than posterior placement does. Anterior tibial tunnel placement inside the footprint did not increase the incidence of LOE and graft failure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    • "With this new data, the question arises as to what is the most appropriate landmark for tibial ACL tunnel reconstruction. Kasten et al. and others have suggested that ACL tunnel placement should be individualized as ACL tibial insertion is variable between patients [13,15]. Thus, the lateral meniscus may be an appropriate landmark despite its variable radiographic location in the sagittal plane found in the present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The goal of this study was to prospectively evaluate the accuracy and consistency of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus as a landmark in achieving the desired tibial tunnel location during primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: One hundred consecutive adult patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction were enrolled in the study. One sports-fellowship trained surgeon performed all ACL reconstructions using independent tunnel drilling with an accessory anteromedial portal for the femoral tunnel. All guide pins for the tibial tunnel were placed using a 55-degree guide using the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus as a landmark. Following pin placement, a true lateral fluoroscopic image was obtained. These were digitally analyzed to measure the location of the pin along the length of the tibial plateau. Results: The average anteroposterior (A-P) distance achieved using the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus as a landmark for tibial tunnel placement was 37.0%±5.2% (mean±standard deviation) [range 26.4%-49.2%]. 66% of tibial tunnels were located between 30.0% and 39.9% of the A-P tibial distance. Only 18% of tibial tunnels localized between 40.0% and 44.9%, the area of the anatomic footprint described by Staubli and Rauschning [9] 16% of patients were significant outliers, with tunnels localizing to 25.0%-29.9% (6 patients) or 45.0%-49.9% (10 patients). Conclusions: Use of the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus as a landmark for tibial tunnel placement during anatomic ACL reconstruction yields an inconsistent tunnel location. Level of evidence: II, Prospective study.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258). The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this has no effect on the clinical recovery of the patient.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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