Rational design of thermostable vaccines by engineered peptide-induced virus self-biomineralization under physiological conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Center for Biomaterials and Biopathways, and Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 04/2013; 110(19). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1300233110
Source: PubMed


The development of vaccines against infectious diseases represents one of the most important contributions to medical science. However, vaccine-preventable diseases still cause millions of deaths each year due to the thermal instability and poor efficacy of vaccines. Using the human enterovirus type 71 vaccine strain as a model, we suggest a combined, rational design approach to improve the thermostability and immunogenicity of live vaccines by self-biomineralization. The biomimetic nucleating peptides are rationally integrated onto the capsid of enterovirus type 71 by reverse genetics so that calcium phosphate mineralization can be biologically induced onto vaccine surfaces under physiological conditions, generating a mineral exterior. This engineered self-biomineralized virus was characterized in detail for its unique structural, virological, and chemical properties. Analogous to many exteriors, the mineral coating confers some new properties on enclosed vaccines. The self-biomineralized vaccine can be stored at 26 °C for more than 9 d and at 37 °C for approximately 1 wk. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that this engineered vaccine can be used efficiently after heat treatment or ambient temperature storage, which reduces the dependence on a cold chain. Such a combination of genetic technology and biomineralization provides an economic solution for current vaccination programs, especially in developing countries that lack expensive refrigeration infrastructures.

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Available from: Guangchuan Wang
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    • "The World Health Organization has mandated that, in order for a vaccine to be considered “effective”, less than 1 Log10 decrease in the original titer is tolerated56. Several approaches like biomineralization, addition of silk or albumin have been applied but unfortunately they often have multi-step preparation protocols or cause unwanted immune responses34578910111213. Consequently, novel methods for the preservation of vaccines are urgently required. "
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    ABSTRACT: The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log10 PFU mL(-1) during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log10 PFU mL(-1) during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log10 PFU mL(-1) after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.
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    • "Furthermore, peptides can easily be synthesized and characterized and are generally more stable than whole pathogens or proteins. Studies have shown peptide-based vaccine candidates to be effective following ambient temperature storage (3). This lowers the need to maintain a cold chain, which is of significance particularly in developing countries that lack expensive refrigeration capability. "
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide-based vaccines offer several advantages over conventional whole organism or protein approaches by offering improved purity and specificity in inducing immune response. However, peptides alone are generally non-immunogenic. Concerns remain about the toxicity of adjuvants which are critical for immunogenicity of synthetic peptides. The use of lipopeptides in peptide vaccines is currently under intensive investigation because potent immune responses can be generated without the use of adjuvant (thus are self-adjuvanting). Several lipopeptides derived from microbial origin, and their synthetic versions or simpler fatty acid moieties impart this self-adjuvanting activity by signaling via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Engagement of this innate immune receptor on antigen-presenting cell leads to the initiation and development of potent immune responses. Therefore optimization of lipopeptides to enhance TLR2-mediated activation is a promising strategy for vaccine development. Considerable structure-activity relationships that determine TLR2 binding and consequent stimulation of innate immune responses have been investigated for a range of lipopeptides. In this mini review we address the development of lipopeptide vaccines, mechanism of TLR2 recognition, and immune activation. An overview is provided of the best studied lipopeptide vaccine systems.
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    ABSTRACT: The natural extracellular matrix (ECM), with its multitude of evolved cell-instructive and cell-responsive properties, provides inspiration and guidelines for the design of engineered biomaterials. One strategy to create ECM-mimetic materials is the modular design of protein-based engineered ECM (eECM) scaffolds. This modular design strategy involves combining multiple protein domains with different functionalities into a single, modular polymer sequence, resulting in a multifunctional matrix with independent tunability of the individual domain functions. These eECMs often enable decoupled control over multiple material properties for fundamental studies of cell-matrix interactions. In addition, since the eECMs are frequently composed entirely of bioresorbable amino acids, these matrices have immense clinical potential for a variety of regenerative medicine applications. This brief review demonstrates how fundamental knowledge gained from structure-function studies of native proteins can be exploited in the design of novel protein-engineered biomaterials. While the field of protein-engineered biomaterials has existed for over 20 years, the community is only now beginning to fully explore the diversity of functional peptide modules that can be incorporated into these materials. We have chosen to highlight recent examples that either (1) demonstrate exemplary use as matrices with cell-instructive and cell-responsive properties or (2) demonstrate outstanding creativity in terms of novel molecular-level design and macro-level functionality.
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