Pulmonary Coccidiomycosis Masquerading as Refractory Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma
*Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital †Department of Anatomic Pathology, Urology and Radiation Oncology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
(Impact Factor: 0.9).
04/2013; 36(1). DOI: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e318286d4fd
We report the case of a patient who presented with a large pelvic mass, which was biopsy-proven to be Ewing sarcoma. The patient was also found to have 18 pulmonary lesions on a staging CT that were presumed to represent metastatic disease. After induction chemotherapy, a PET/CT scan revealed a marked reduction in his pelvic mass along with improvement in nearly all his pulmonary lesions except 2, which increased in size. The mixed response to chemotherapy was unusual and the decision was made to resect one of the growing lesions. Fungal culture from the excised lesion grew Coccidioides immitis.
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ABSTRACT: Coccidioidomycosis is a respiratory fungal infection with occasional systemic dissemination. The disseminated coccidioidomycosis is considered a multifaceted disease. In medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is included within a group of infectious diseases that have been referred as the great imitators. In many cases, malignancies are included in the presumptive diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is common in dogs. Nonetheless, despite of being a diagnostic dilemma, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is underestimated and frequently not included into differentials, even in endemic zones. Herein, we describe three cases of granulomatous inflammation caused by Coccidioides spp. which were masquerading malignancies in dogs (0.39 %). The presumptive diagnoses in these cases were osteosarcoma, lymphoma and neurofibroma, respectively. A PCR assay employing tissues in paraffin blocks resulted positive for C. posadasii in one of these cases. A comparative discussion on the ambiguous clinic-pathological presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in dogs and humans is included.
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