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Data Communications and Networking, 4nd Edition

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... Protokol ini menentukan apa yang akan dikirimkan, bagaimana cara mengirimkan data dan kapan mengirimkan data. Terdapat tiga elemen utama di dalam protokol agar tugas yang dibebankan dapat terlaksana dengan baik, yaitu (Forouzan, 2007): ...
... Sedangkan frekuensi dan amplitudo dari gelombang pembawa tetap. Namun secara matematis dapat dibuktikan bahwa modulasi fasa pada dasarnya sama dengan modulasi frekuensi (Forouzan, 2007;Stalling, 2001) dengan perbedaan: modulasi frekuensi mengubah-ubah frekuensi dari gelombang pembawa mengikuti perubahan amplitudo dari gelombang asli, sedangkan modulasi fasa mengubah-ubah frekuensi dari gelombang pembawa mengikuti perubahan gradien amplitudo dari gelombang asli. Ilustrasi modulasi fasa dapat dilihat dalam Gambar 6.17. ...
... Gambar 7.7. Ilustrasi Synchronous TDM (Forouzan, 2007) Berdasarkan gambar di atas kita dapat mengambil beberapa prinsip pada synchronous TDM, yaitu: ...
Book
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Buku ini terutama ditujukan untuk pembelajaran bagi mahasiswa tingkat II, baik bagi mahasiswa bidang teknik elektro maupun bidang komputer sistem komputer (teknik komputer) dan Teknik Informatika. Juga tidak tertutup kemungkinan bagi mahasiswa yang berasal dari bidang lain membaca buku teks ini. Dalam mempelajari buku ini tidak dibutuhkan persyaratan penguasaan matakuliah tertentu. Karena itu penurunan matematis dan konsep komunikasi yang rumit secara sengaja dihindari tanpa mengurangi kualitas dan kedalaman pembahasan buku ini. Di samping itu pada bagian akhir dari setiap bab diberikan soal-soal latihan untuk tujuan pengayaan materi. Isi dari buku meliputi: pengantar, protocol dan standar, data dan sinyal, media transmisi, transmisi analog dan digital, multiplexing, spread spectrum, deteksi dan koreksi kesalahan, kendali data link, metode akses kanal, jaringan area local (LAN) dan teknologi komunikasi modern.
... Some applications need a mechanism for detecting and correcting errors to recover the transmitted data [29]. ...
... The code will have the maximum burst error correction if the length allocated to correct the bursts is set greater than the length of the error patterns. This maximum capacity is limited by code specifications .That mean the two or more bits in the data unit have changed from one to zero or from zero to one [29] as shown in Figure ...
... In error detection received codeword is invalid; while in error find (or guess) the original codeword sent. Thus, the error correction need more redundant bits than for error detection ways [29][37]: ...
Thesis
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The main objective of this study is to get a secure data in real time applications for image files and to increase the degree of detection and errors correction in these data. This objective can be achieved by implementing different proposed architectures, methods and algorithms in block cipher structure to increase the degree of detection and correction of errors in such file. The error detection and correction for the encrypted data over the noise channels is important to achieve the confidentiality and integrity of the information .The existing algorithms CRC64 (Cyclic Redundant Check), Decimal Matrix Code (DMC) and Hybrid Matrix Code (HMC) are applied on BMP color images to detect and correct errors during transmission for images through the network. Besides, the proposed LUT-CORR (Look Up Table Correction) algorithm is also applied to correct errors in the encrypted images and the redundant bit attached with them. Security for multimedia information is considered as an important issue due to the fast evolution of digital data exchange over unsecured network. Data security can be achieved by methods of cryptography, which deal with encryption of data. In this work, the LUT-CORR and the aforementioned algorithms were merged to correct errors in color images, the output results of the proposed algorithm LUT-CORR correct the corrupted images with a 100 % noise ratio almost. The obtained high correction ratio due to some unique values that the LUT-CORR algorithm have. The HMC and the proposed algorithm were applied to different BMP images, the obtained results from LUT-CORR are compared to HMC for both Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to the Noise Ratio (PSNR) and correction ratio to evaluate the output results. The outcome from the proposed algorithm shows a good performance and has a high correction ratio to retrieve the source BMP image.
... Computer systems classification Figure 2. 5 Peer to peer model Figure 2. 6 General client_ server model 13 SSL Handshake protocol message types Figure 2. 14 Original AES algorithm encryption and decryption Figure 2. 15 The process of generating the hash value in general Figure 2. 16 Three-authenticator categories Attributes Figure 2. 17 General Scheme of a biometric recognition system Figure 2. 18 Histogram equalization results Figure 2. 19 Model of Rubber Sheet of Daugman's for Normalization Figure 2. 20 Deep learning idea Figure 2. 21 The architecture of Convolutional Neural Network Figure 2. 22 UniNet architecture Figure 2. 23 Framework of System Evaluation Methodology Chapter three Figure 3. 1 Block diagram for PSM parts. Flowchart for client authentication Figure 3. 4 Flow chart for main iris extraction steps Figure 3. 5 UniNet main structure and result example Figure 3. 6 8-bit LFSR circuit Pupil and iris detection steps Figure 4. 5 Iris detection steps example Figure 4. 6 Iris detection example result with different dataset Figure 4. 7 Segmentation method evaluation Figure 4. 8 Normalization process result example Figure 4. 9 FRR chart Figure 4. 10 FAR chart Figure 4. 11 Recognition Rates Figure 4. 12 Test results for original and modified AES with different type files Figure 4. 13 Encryption and histogram result for image Figure 4.14 NIST test results Figure 4. 15 User Interface For The System Figure 4. 16 Database Manager interface ix List of Tables Table no. Table title Chapter two Table Contents Table 4. 8 Candidates Table Contents Authentication is used to verify the claimed identity of the user [2]. ...
... 11 SSL protocol stack.[4][5]. ...
... This protocol is used on any application before sending results. It consists of a series of messages exchanged by the client and server[4], all in the format shown in theFigure (2.13). ...
Thesis
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this is a PhD thesis about secured distributed system ,where E- voting system is designed and implemented to be secured. where the system is protected at three level using different techniques at each level ,for authentication iris recognition depending on deep learning model was used , secured channel to transmit important data encrypted with modified light weight algorithm and also ensure the security of data during saving.
... Computer network can be defined as a number of computer systems and other computing hardware devices that linked together for sharing information in form massage, files, data bases in organization that may be in one building or spread over large campus [1] [2] [3]. In addition to that the networks decrease cost, time, effort and thereby increase productivity [1] [4]. ...
... Computer network can be defined as a number of computer systems and other computing hardware devices that linked together for sharing information in form massage, files, data bases in organization that may be in one building or spread over large campus [1] [2] [3]. In addition to that the networks decrease cost, time, effort and thereby increase productivity [1] [4]. Network connections devices are connected together by using any type of communication media such as the copper coaxial cable, twisted pair cable, fiber optic cable and wireless. ...
... While the network devices include Network interface cards (NIC), Hubs, Switches, Bridges, Routers, Gateways and Modems. Each one of these devices has various properties than others from jobbing, security and application [1][5] [6]. This paper is highlighted on the VLANs (Virtual Local Area Network) and VTP (VLAN Tracking Protocol) switch as well as EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). ...
... rivacy is a major concern for users of public networks such as the Internet [1]. Encoding is one of the major concerns that are used to provide privacy [2]. There are many methods of encoding data, some of them are: open space methods that encode through manipulation of white space, syntactic methods that utilize punctuation, and semantic methods that encode using manipulation of the words themselves [3].In this Research a new coding method is proposed and in this method Move to front coding method and B + tree are used. ...
... After applying swapping with S_Box values the result will be like the values in List5 List5= [ 31 35 50 0 41 45 41 62 56 51 ] 7) Apply move to front to list5 using set3, get list6. For example we will take each value in List4 ,(e.g.39) look for this value in s_box table and return it's row (2) and column (7) .These row and column convert to binary representation(Row=010,Column=111) ,combine these binary values together, get the binary representation of 6 bits(010111) ,and get the decimal value corresponding to this binary representation(23),insert it in list5,this process will continue until the list5 complete. ...
... Firstly, the digital signal is fed into channel encoder to be converted into analog form with a narrow bandwidth around a specific frequency. Then the digital signal will be modulated with a concatenation of digits known as a spreading sequence or a spreading code that is produced by a pseudorandom number or a Pseudo-Noise (PN) generator in order to increase the bandwidth of the transmitted signal [64]. On the other hand, the received signal will be demodulated on the receiver's side by the same spreading code, to be fed later on into a channel decoder to retrieve the original data. ...
... In this technique, every bit in the original signal will be represented by numerous bits that compose the transmitted signal using a spreading code [63]. In other words, every bit of the original signal will be multiplied by a sequence of n bits that is called a chip, where its rate is equal to n times of the original signal bit rate [64]. The multiplied signal will be then spread across a wider frequency band that is proportional to the chip's PN, size as shown in Figure 8. ...
... The goal of these protocols is to give medium access permission to the multiple users that share the physical resources. In [19], the MAC protocols are separated into three categories: random access protocols, controlled-access protocols and channelization protocols. ...
... Since the introduction of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, in the 1970s, industry and academia have designed communication systems that allow for the coexistence of different generations of devices and technologies (from 2G to 5G). Although the OSI model is a reference for the design of compatible communication networks and protocols, the TCP/IP model was developed earlier and is still applied in the industry, despite the fact that much has changed since its first version[19].Although the models do not match perfectly, both OSI and the TCP/IP model have some equivalent layers. The Physical Layer (PHY) is the one at the bottom of the OSI stack, preceded by the data-link layer. ...
Thesis
Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA) is a code-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). In this scheme, $J$ users share $K$ orthogonal resources, in a scenario where $J>K$. This scenario is said to be overloaded, since orthogonality is not possible and users will collide with each other in the resources. In SCMA, each user spreads its information using a sparse signature. Hence, the number of collisions in each resource is limited to a number significantly smaller than the number of users. The sparsity of the signatures allows for the use of a multiuser detector based on the message-passing algorithm (MPA). In this thesis, multi-stage design strategies for uplink SCMA are discussed. A state-of-the-art review of related researches is provided, where SCMA is divided into three categories: SCMA codebook design methods, multiuser detection algorithms and resource allocation methods. One contribution of this work is a design method of SCMA codebooks using the underlying structure of vector-subspaces generated by linear block codes. Using the proposed method, it is possible to design $M$-ary $N$-dimensional modulations with signal-space diversity $N-1$ using alphabets of relatively small size $q \ll M$. The designed codebooks have a good error-rate performance while keeping a feasible detection complexity order with the MPA. A second contribution is a threshold-based edge selection MPA. This is a modified receiver from an edge-selection MPA known in the literature, where the messages of each edge are calculated treating weak users as noise, according to a given threshold. A closed-form expression for the average complexity order of the algorithm is also derived. Results show that it is possible to adjust the threshold in order to obtain a good trade-off between error-rate and complexity order, outperforming the original method. Finally, a discussion on the resource allocation design for SCMA is presented. The analysis considers both complexity and information theory figures of merit. In particular, we discuss the achievable symmetric capacity and the error-rate performance of symmetric rate SCMA systems with regular and irregular spreading degrees. The scenario considers a wide-area network with both large-scale and small-scale fading channels.
... Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network that is designed for a limited geographic area such as a building or a campus. Although a LAN can be used as an isolated network to connect computers in an organization for the sole purpose of sharing resources, most LANs today are also linked to a wide area network (WAN) or the Internet [10]. ...
... An access point has its own range. When two or more access points are in an environment, the range overlaps to provide roaming [15], and also has the responsibility of transferring signal from Ethernet cable mean of connection to a wireless signal of frequency either 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz [10]. ...
Article
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The demand for setting up a wireless LAN internet connectivity is almost mandatory for every commercial building, home, company, and educational institutions. With the growing number and height of buildings as well as the number of users, it has become essential to apply new techniques to provide better wireless network services, especially for security issue with many applications used by an attacker that can decrypt the traditional password to use network resources, that’s lead to poor network performance for providing network services for people authorized to use it. All of that is almost a very challenge issue when applying outdated techniques. In this research a wireless network has been created considering a large number of users in a multi-floor building using a new control system which can solve the problems by setting up RADIUS authentication via that wireless network with a webpage that automatically appears to the user immediately after connecting to the wireless radio signal and automatically gaining an IP address, lead user directly to the temporary page asking him for authentication, if the user has the right username and password or even sometimes a code called Voucher, he will get a package assigned to his priority. This technology will eliminate the vulnerability on the wireless connection and the unauthorized user will be discarded from the router, in addition of that authorized users will get authenticated to make better use of network resources.
... ferdi82@rocketmail.com , 2 fbaralangi@gmail.com1,2 Universitas Atma Jaya Makassar ...
... Studi literatur dilakukan untuk mendapatkan dasar teoritis dan juga metode analisis terkini agar diperoleh hasil yang sesuai dengan perkembangan dalam bidang ilmu teknologi informasi dan multimedia. Kegiatan yang dilakukan pada tahapan ini adalah mengumpulkan dan mempelajari artikel, jurnal dan referensi lainnya yang mutakhir berkaitan dengan Modbus TCP Protocol [2][7], HMI SCADA [3] dan DSC LabView termasuk jurnal penelitian dari IEEE [4] [5]. ...
Conference Paper
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Data logging is the measurement and recording parameters during a specific time period. Utilization of data-logging is necessary so that the electrical energy consumption as the largest fossil energy more efficiently. This research aims to create a program that is integrated data logging application in systems using the Modbus TCP protocol. Data communication architecture in this study using the Modbus TCP protocol from the sensor to the database so that users can monitor the amount of electricity in a building at anytime. Software applications that are built using LabView 9.0 tools. Schneider PM 810 that serves as an RTU (Remote Terminal Unit). LabView 9.0 as MTU (Master Terminal Unit) will calculate the power factor and energy consumption of electricity generated from derivative formulas are processed by the system. The method used in building applications and communications data is centralized processing approach. With this application, data logging, the building manager can perform an analysis of the historical data in order to support decision making related to the efficient use of electrical energy.
... Considerable amounts of money are being exchanged over the network, either through e-commerce sites, auction sites, online banking, stock threading, and even government. [9] Communication with these sites is secured by the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or its variant, Transport Layer Security (TLS), which are used to provide authentication, privacy, and integrity [9]. A key component of the security of SSL/TLS is the cryptographic strength of the underlying algorithm used by the protocol. ...
... Considerable amounts of money are being exchanged over the network, either through e-commerce sites, auction sites, online banking, stock threading, and even government. [9] Communication with these sites is secured by the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or its variant, Transport Layer Security (TLS), which are used to provide authentication, privacy, and integrity [9]. A key component of the security of SSL/TLS is the cryptographic strength of the underlying algorithm used by the protocol. ...
Article
In this paper, we present a new method for solving multivariate polynomial elliptic curve equations over a finite field. The arithmetic of elliptic curve is implemented using the mathematical function trace of finite fields. We explain the approach which is based on one variable polynomial division. This is achieved by identifying the plane p with the extension of and transforming elliptic curve equations as well as line equations arising in point addition or point doubling into one variable polynomial. Hence the intersection of the line with the curve is analogous to the roots of the division between these polynomials. Hence this is the different way of computing arithmetic of elliptic curve.Transport layer security provides end-to-end security services for applications that use a reliable transport layer protocol such as TCP. Two Protocols are dominant today for providing security at the transport layer, the secure socket layer (SSL) protocol and transport layer security (TLS) protocol. One of the goals of these protocols is to provide server and client authentication, data confidentiality and data integrity. The above goals are achieved by establishing the keys between server and client, the algorithm is called elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) and elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH). These algorithms are implemented using standard for efficient cryptography(SEC) prime field elliptic curve secp-384r1 currently specified in NSA Suite B Cryptography. The algorithm is verified on elliptic curve secp-384r1and is shown to be adaptable to perform computation.
... This metric is observed in the time interval between the fault detection in the working LSP and data flow switching to the alternative LSP. In addition, this metric influences the throughput and the recovery time proportionally, (Behrouz A. Forouzan 2012, Larry L. Peterson et al. 2010, Eq.(1) shows the computation of the packet loss and can be written as follow: ...
... The end-to-end delay defines how long an entire message takes to completely arrives at the destination from the first bit time sent for the source. Eq.(4) shows the computation of the average end-to-end delay (Behrouz A. Forouzan 2012). ...
... A table on the switch, called a MAC address table, contains a list of all of the active ports and the host MAC addresses that are attached to them. When a message is sent between hosts, the switch checks to see if the destination MAC address is in the table list; if it is, the switch builds a temporary connection called a circuit between the source and destination ports [3]. This new circuit provides a dedicated channel over which the two hosts can communicate. ...
Article
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This paper discusses the performance evaluation of duplex mode parameter in a wired local area network (IEEE 802.3 wired LAN) with four nodes. IEEE802.3 is a protocol standard used for a Wired Local Area Network (Wired LAN). A wired LAN connects computers that are placed relatively close to each other with wires. In this paper, two duplex mode parameters were considered: Full duplex and Half duplex; but the metrics studied were traffic received and bit error rate. A software called OPNET was used in this research to simulate the wired LAN with four nodes by varying the full and half duplex mode parameters so as to study the effects on the qualities of service: the Traffic received and Bit error rate. Graphical results obtained show that when full duplex mode was implemented, the traffic received was increased, but for half duplex mode, it was lower. The result also confirmed that when full duplex mode was implemented, the bit-error rate reduced to zero. These results validated the theoretical concept on the usage of full duplex mode parameter at all times.
... Measurement the maximum throughput of a computer network is called Bandwidth test [5].The term Bandwidth is often incorrectly used to describe the amount of data within a prescribed period of time transferred to or from the website or server. Bandwidth consumption accumulated over a month measured in gigabytes per month [6], [7].For this meaning the more accurate phrase used of a maximum amount of data transfer each month or given period is monthly data transfer [8], [9]. Bandwidth management is done in present days only for IP to IP or for a block of IPs where bandwidth is divided by the same limit to all IPs [ Figure 1]. ...
Article
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Network management is a broad range of functions including activities, methods, procedures and the use of tools to administrate, operate, and reliably maintain computer network systems. Strictly speaking, network Management does not include terminal equipment (PCs, workstations, printers, etc.). Rather, it concerns the reliability, efficiency and capacity/capabilities of data transfer channels. Now we take a look about Bandwidth management in various Routers to pc’s ports in network management [4] and to solve the way in which they can go to solve the technological allegation to a non Wi-Fi Router about their functional limitations in DHCP Protocol. In computer network where IP are assign in a Static (IPV4) way the Bandwidth management can be done in a good way but IP conflict arise when two pc have the same IP. But to avoid IP conflict when the network is in DHCP protocol where IP is assigned to hosts in a random way, Bandwidth for a specific IP cannot be done properly.
... The ultimate goal of Quality of Service (QoS) is to provide better and planned network services with dedicated bandwidth and controlled latency and increase the lost of characteristics, or QoS is the ability to guarantee the delivery of important data streams or in other words a collection of various sets from various performance criteria that determine the level of satisfaction of a service. The quality level of a network is adjusted to the Quality of Service (QoS) standard through the tables issued by TIPHON [3]. Like the table below. ...
Article
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The internet has a very important role in education. Many activities are done through internet. AMIK DCC Bandar Lampung is an educational institution that uses the internet as one of the supporting facilities and infrastructures to manage and organize the data and information used by the student to find references about the lecture. There are three buildings on the main campus building A building B and C buildings, where each building using WLAN to deploy internet access. There are some complaints submitted by students related wireless network encourage researchers to study the quality of service WLAN. Thus the researchers wanted to analyze the Quality of Service WLAN networks in building A, building B, and C, in each floor. The method used in this research is Quality of Services (QoS). Where an analysis wireless network by four parameters. There are namely delay, packet lost, bandwidth, and throughput. The results of the measurement and monitoring of Quality of Service WLAN at AMIK DCC Bandar Lampung in building A, building B, C on each floor of the building can be classified in the category of good which value index is 3, and the factors that occurred in the signal range cannot cover every room in every building and have not good bandwidth management.
... Now, the two users require only sharing the generating key, and each can generate the key stream. 1 Pseudo-noise sequence created by the linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) which utilized in cryptography field with some nonlinear combining functions have been suggested as running key generators in the stream cipher, test-pattern generation, signature analysis, uses in digital broadcasting and communications. T. Siegenthaler has stated that the number of attempts to attack these ciphers can be minimizing by using correlation ways (3). ...
Article
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In this paper, new method have been investigated using evolving algorithms (EA's) to cryptanalysis one of the nonlinear stream cipher cryptosystems which depends on the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) unit by using cipher text-only attack. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) which are used for attacking one of the nonlinear cryptosystems called "shrinking generator" using different lengths of cipher text and different lengths of combined LFSRs. GA and ACO proved their good performance in finding the initial values of the combined LFSRs. This work can be considered as a warning for a stream cipher designer to avoid the weak points, which may be found in the stream cipher, and may be explored by the cryptanalysts. This work can find the optimal solution for text with minimum lengths of 20 characters and 100 iteration were very enough to find the real initial values of key stream.
... We have presented a block diagram of symmetric-key Cryptography in Fig 1(a). 2. Asymmetric-key Cryptography [7][8][9][10]: In this cryptography, k is distributed to all the senders and l is only known to a particular user(receiver). But the major drawback of this key cryptography is slower as compared to symmetric algorithms. ...
Chapter
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Data security is an open Das Sudhansu Bala challenge due to the rapid evolution in communication over an unsecured network. In this direction, cryptographic algorithms play an important role in providing the data security against Mishra Sugyan Kumar attacks. This paper elaborates a new asymmetric cryptography approach, i.e. modified RSA algorithm. This proposed method reduces complex calculation involved in RSA algorithm. A novel algorithm has Sahu Anup Kumar proposed for finding the value of public key (k) and private key (l). Also, a newly derived formula is used to find the ciphertext (N) and plaintext (M). We have explored some major research challenges in the field of RSA algorithm.
... The World Wide Web (commonly known as the web or WWW) is an architectural framework for accessing information spread out over millions of machines all over the Internet [1,2,3]. The information is generated by multiple sources and is carefully organized in the form of files and web pages, which, when grouped together to form a single entity, become a website. ...
Article
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Rapidly needing for indexing the contents of web pages to update the search engine's indexes in the case of any potential modifications of its contents, represents a time and resource consuming operation which finally affects a new content or a content modification to be easily reflected in the search engines results. This paper proposes an approach called Multilateral Web Indexing Model (MWIM), which aims to describe a solution to the previously mentioned issues by establishing a more tied collaboration between websites and search engines. The collaboration consists in exposing to search engines auto generated metadata about the structure of a website and the contents of each web page. The Document Object Module (DOM) tree has used as an efficient tool for representing the web page content, while the XML Path language (Xpath) has used to provides a powerful syntax to address specific elements of DOM tree and extract metadata from HTML web page. Consequently, the search engine does not need any more to retrieve the web page markup code and perform the data extraction because this stage is performed directly on the website's platform when a web page was created or modified. Where every site had reliable metadata along of files, the work of a search engine would be made a lot easier and less time-consuming and resources and bandwidth, where the percentage of savings is 66.49%.
... These enable the invention of different topology and network media for the design and implementation of efficient and secure networks. 28 Design of a Virtual Area Network for National Open University Sokoto Study Center Forouzan in [10,11] clarified that research in data communications and networking has resulted in new technologies, whose first goal is to enable the exchange of data in forms as text, audio, images and video from all points in the world, especially in a network settings like National Open University Sokoto study center ICT center. ...
Article
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Nowadays, there is a need for an efficient and effective way in which computers are interconnected. In National Open University Sokoto Study Center network there exist problems such as: more traffic which may slower the network performance, bandwidth wastage and security problems because the host and servers that are connected to Layer 2 switch are part of the same network segment. To resolve these problems we identify the networking media that best suits the network to enable person-to-person communication, determine the best network architecture that would enable effective resource sharing between all staff offices, design respective VLANs for different units, configure network addresses for each units and identify configurations required on router and switches to create VLAN's and Inter VLANrouting. After the implementation of proposed Virtual Local Area Network in ICT unit of National Open University Sokoto study center, effective resource sharing and communication is achieved. Hence, implementation of this study is practically cost effective.
... Measurement the maximum throughput of a computer network is called Bandwidth test [5].The term Bandwidth is often incorrectly used to describe the amount of data within a prescribed period of time transferred to or from the website or server. Bandwidth consumption accumulated over a month measured in gigabytes per month [6], [7].For this meaning the more accurate phrase used of a maximum amount of data transfer each month or given period is monthly data transfer [8], [9]. Bandwidth management is done in present days only by IP to IP and for a block of IP where bandwidth divided by the same limit to all IP [ Figure 1]. ...
Article
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Network management and Performance management can be categorized as Bandwidth management. The process of administering and managing computer networks are Network management (NM) [1]. Ensuring that goals in an effective and efficient manner are consistently being met by Performance management (PM) includes activities. Network management & Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service [2],[3]. Now we take a look about Bandwidth management in various Routers in network management and performance management level [4] and to solve the way in which they can go against or to solve the technological allegation at non Wifi Router about their functional limitations in DHCP Protocol. In computer network where IP are assign in a Static (IPV4) way the Bandwidth management can be done in a good way but IP conflict arise when two pc have the same IP. But to avoid IP conflict when the network is in DHCP protocol where IP is assign in a random way, Bandwidth for a specific IP cannot be done properly.
... HELLO messages are employed for links detection and checking to neighborhood nodes [4]. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer protocol adopted by applications that involve defini te delivery [5]. It is a link oriented byte stream protocol and TCP is a trustworthy stream transport protocol. ...
Article
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A mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) stands for a group of wireless mobile nodes which have communication capability with other mobile nodes without any central base station or fixed wireless hardwires. Routing protocols handle the approach for selecting the finest path from source to destination. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing protocol (AODV) is one of the extensively used routing protocols in MANET networks. This paper presents an investigation for the performance of the transport layer protocol (TCP, UDP) for multimedia application with AODV routing protocol using diverse simulation scenarios on MANET with AODV routing protocol. Execution measurements like throughput, packet delivery fraction (PDF) and average delay (AED) are employed to evaluate the TCP and UDP protocols .Network Simulator (NS-2.35) is adopted as network test tool in this study for all investigational parameters.
... The end-to-end delay defines how long an entire message takes to completely arrives at the destination from the first bit time sent for the source. Eq.(4) shows the computation of the average end-to-end delay (Behrouz A. Forouzan 2012). ...
Article
This paper presents an efficient method for rerouting traffic in the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) network, when a fault occurs in the working link. The method has been designed to handle both single and multiple faults based on the protection switching and rerouting techniques. The proposed method leads to less packets loss, has better Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), good throughput and eliminates packet disorder. The proposed method has been simulated using the Network Simulator (NS2) version 2.34 and the simulation results have shown that the proposed method significantly improves the network performance in comparison to similar existing methods. Keywords: MPLS network, Working link, Protection switching, Rerouting, Network simulator.
... Resources allocation could be categorized as a layered approach problem based on the different layers of the International Standards Organization (OSI) model (Application, presentation, session, transport, network, network, data link and physical) layer or earlier Transmission Control Protocol/ Internetworking Protocol (TCP/IP) suite (physical, data link, network, transport and application) layer depending on the nature of resources. An overview on how to solve resource allocation on the different levels have been addressed in [22][23]. ...
... Why do we have to go through this? This technique can only be used in places where 3G or 4G equipment is not usable [11][12]. ...
Article
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Landslides is one of the most dangerous geologic hazards that can occur in almost any country on the planet. Landslides kill and injure thousands of people each year around the world, as well as cause significant losses in a short period of time. To save many lives, effective technology must be developed in a timely manner. Sensor Networks is a vital role to monitor the environment. Several online and real-time intensive care studies on landslide recognition were conducted on soil dislocation caused by non-natural rainfall and earthquake. To build an advanced level early warning landslide monitoring system based on the “Internet of Things” using a wireless sensor network. This is a high-level project that can monitor the earth’s vibrations, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. All of these sensors are linked to various IoT Nodes, which form the entire network. The number of nodes may be increased or reduced depending on the situation. A single Blynk-designed smart phone software is used to track all of the Landslide detection nodes. Data from sensors reveals that each parameter has the potential to be used in landslide monitoring.
... Even for a dual cylinder system, there exists a significant number of potential VDN topologies, i.e., topologies related to the hydraulic side. To aid the classification of topologies, consider the classification from data communication network theory illustrated in Figure 2 inspired by [52], (https://www.cert iology.com/computing/computer-networking/network-topology.html ...
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This paper present the powerful tool of Bellman Ford and Dijkstra Algorithms in solving most multiple constrained routing problems that occur in the computer network as well as comparison between both algorithms. We evaluate the performance of these routing algorithms in term of attenuation and throughput. These algorithms were written and simulated using Microsoft Visual Studio C++ 2008 Express Edition. Our results show that, using the shortest widest path algorithm for routing guaranteed traffic can result in relatively low throughput for best effort traffic. It is also shown that although these algorithms are polynomial, they have much higher computational complexity than the Bellman Ford algorithms used in today's Internet. We propose approximation algorithms that have a running time within a constant factor of that of the Bellman Ford algorithm without sacrificing network throughput. Overall, the approximation algorithms that select the shortest delay path results in consistently high network throughput.
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