Evaluation of vaccine-induced antibody responses: Impact of new technologies

Health Sciences Division, RTI International, 3040 East Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Electronic address: .
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 04/2013; 31(25). DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.03.065
Source: PubMed


Host response to vaccination has historically been evaluated based on a change in antibody titer that compares the post-vaccination titer to the pre-vaccination titer. A four-fold or greater increase in antigen-specific antibody has been interpreted to indicate an increase in antibody production in response to vaccination. New technologies, such as the bead-based assays, provide investigators and clinicians with precise antibody levels (reported as concentration per mL) in ranges below and above those previously available through standard assays such as ELISA. Evaluations of bead assay data to determine host response to vaccination using fold change and absolute change, with a general linear models used to calculate adjusted statistics, present very different pictures of the antibody response when pre-vaccination antibody levels are low. Absolute changes in bead assay values, although not a standard computation, appears to more accurately reflect the host response to vaccination for those individuals with extremely low pre-vaccination antibody levels. Conversely, for these same individuals, fold change may be very high while post-vaccination antibodies do not achieve seroprotective levels. Absolute change provides an alternate method to characterize host response to vaccination, especially when pre-vaccination levels are very low, and may be useful in studies designed to determine associations between host genotypes and response to vaccination.

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    • "In the subset of patients who received a vaccine at baseline, vaccine responders were considered to be patients whose antibody titer was non protective before the trip and protective after the trip; and also patients with a three-fold increase [16] [17] [18] in their antibody titer after the trip. We chose a three-fold increase as a tradeoff between a weak (uninformative) and strong (hard to evaluate) criterion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few data are available on the seroprotection status of HIV1-infected patients with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. To describe, in a population of HIV1-infected migrants on stable, effective ART therapy, the seroprevalence of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever antibodies and serostatus for hepatitis B, and to identify factors associated with seroprotection. Vaccine responses against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and yellow fever were also studied. Sub-Saharan African patients participating in the ANRS-VIHVO cohort were enrolled prior to travel to their countries of origin. Serologic analyses were performed in a central laboratory before and after the trip. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with initial seroprotection. 250 patients (99 men and 151 women) were included in the seroprevalence study. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39-52), median CD4 cell count was 440/μL (IQR 336-571), and 237 patients (95%) had undetectable HIV1 viral load. The initial seroprevalence rates were 69.0% (95%CI 63.2-74.7) for diphtheria, 70.7% (95%CI 65.0-76.3) for tetanus, and 85.9% (95%CI 81.6-90.2) for yellow fever. Only 64.4% (95%CI 58.5-70.3) of patients had protective antibody titers against all three poliomyelitis vaccine strains before travel. No serological markers of hepatitis B were found in 18.6% of patients (95%CI 13.7-23.3). Patient declaration of prior vaccination was the only factor consistently associated with initial seroprotection. We found a low prevalence of seroprotection against diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus and hepatitis B. HIV infected migrants living in France and traveling to their native countries need to have their vaccine schedule completed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control's 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group's 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE