BookPDF Available

Digital libraries: Perception of LIS professionals in Pakistan

Authors:

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.





 ! ! "! !
"   "  #   "$
            %        #     !
     #    !  
   #   
"!
"       "# & 
 '( )#          *
# +)
#" #
&"  # ,
 )   ! 
#

   "
-#  
 +
.&!/.!-!0%/.!
-121-#&#
"
. $"!!#

 !!"# $%&'())*







 !"
 !"
# $%#&'&(
      
       
 ! 
"     #   $!%
!  & $   '  
' ($    '  #%%
)%*%'  $ '
+"%&
 '  ! #       $, 
($
-$$$  
./"/"#012 " )*3- +)
*!4!& 5!6%55787&%
29:;567<=8>!<7>%2?9:;567<=8>!<7>;
0@! 
"A/%B A2(%8>>5
*
& / * ) %
 )*% 
1)*%& 
")*%/
)*+,-./.-0-0.123/.1
$&45'(
    A     2 
        
 !  
"A   (      %

 2 % %% %
   $      $$A
     A       
AA
-$$$  
/"/"#012")*3- +)
*!4!& 5!6%55787&%)A
9:;567<=8>!<7>%C?9:;567<=8>!<7>;
0@! 
 B & "
 B + ADE
)*+,-./.-0-0.123/.1
-AF8>78A/"/"#012")*3- +)

" &8>78
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Concepts of Digital Library 1
1.2 Statement of problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the study 4
1.4 Significance of study 4
1.5 Limitation and Delimitations of the study 4
1.6 Definition of terms 5
1.7 Organization of study 6
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Emergence of Digital Paradigms 8
2.2 Libraries in the Digital Age 8
2.3 The Concept of Digital Library: What, Why and How 9
2.3.1 What is a Digital Library? 10
2.3.2 Characteristics of Digital Libraries 11
2.3.3 Need and Importance of Digital Libraries 17
2.4 Environment and Resources of Digital Library 18
2.5 Issues and Challenges of Digital Libraries 19
2.6 Digital Library Education 28
2.7 Digital Libraries in International Scenario 34
2.7.1 The Digital Libraries Initiative 34
2.7.2 Digital Library Initiatives across Europe 35
2.8 Digital libraries in Pakistani Perspective 38
2.9 Conclusions 40
3. DESIGN OF THE STUDY
3.1. Research Method 42
3.2. Data Collection Instrument 42
3.3. Selection of Sample 42
3.4. Data Collection and Analysis 43
3.5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 43
4. ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1. The Concept of the Digital Library 44
4.1.1 Abstract Databases and Subscribed Electronic Resources 45
4.1.2 Automation and Digital Library 46
4.1.3 The Environment of the Digital Library 46
4.1.4 Audio & Video Cassettes and a Digital Library 46
4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Digital Library 47
4.2.1. Advantages of the Digital Library 47
4.2.2 Disadvantages of the Digital Library 48
4.3 The Situation of the Digital Library in Pakistan 49
4.4 The Problems in Setting up Digital Libraries in Pakistan 50
4.5 Needs and requirements for setting up digital libraries in Pakistan 51
4.6 Suggestions for the Promotion of Digital Libraries in Pakistan 52
4.7 Findings 53
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Scope and Conduct of the Study 54
5.2 Findings Related to Research Questions 54
5.3 Conclusions 57
5.4 Recommendations 58
5.5 Topic for Further Study 59
APPENDICES
A. Research Questions
B. List of Interviewees
C. Transcripts of interviews
D. Cover Letter
REFERENCES
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
4.1 Frequency Distribution of Interviewees’ Perception about the 45
Digital Library
4.1.1 Frequency Distribution of Opinion about Abstract Databases and 46
Subscribed Electronic Resources as a Part of Digital Library
4.1.3 Frequency Distribution of the Opinion about the Environment of the 46
Digital Libraries
4.1.4 Frequency Distribution of Opinion about AV Cassettes and Digital 47
Libraries
4.2.1 Frequency Distribution of the Opinion about the Advantages of the 48
Digital Libraries
4.2.2 Frequency Distribution of the Opinion about the Disadvantages of the 49
Digital Libraries
4.4 Frequency Distribution of the Problems mentioned by the Respondents 51
4.5 Frequency Distribution of Respondents’ Opinion about the Needs and 52
Requirements
1
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Libraries are social institutes meant to preserve human knowledge and
creativity for centuries. Now the libraries have adopted the changed role of providing
access to the users rather than only preserving the knowledge. The idea behind is to
convey the preserved knowledge to the new generations of humanity and this
changing role demands from the libraries to provide free access to the users. New
emerging digital trends have provided many opportunities to the libraries to provide
access to the users no matter where they are and how many they are. This change in
approach and technology has introduced the concept of digital libraries.
The digital library is an umbrella term for conceptual modes of libraries of the
future that focuses on the provision of services associated almost totally with digital
content and to describe those aspects of existing library services that have significant
components (Prytherch, 2005). A digital library comprises digital collections, services
and infrastructure to support lifelong learning, research, scholarly communication and
preservation (Wikipedia, n.d.). It is the collection of services and the collection of
information objects that support users in dealing with information objects and the
organization and presentation of those objects Available directly or indirectly via
electronic/digital means (Biocrawler, 2005). Feather (2003) defines the digital
libraries as organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to
select, structure, offer intellectual access to interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity
of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are
2
readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of
communities.
The history of the digital library can be traced in America when a research
project named “The Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI)” was launched in 1980s as a
result of a community-based process, which began with informal discussions between
researchers and agency program managers. These discussions led to the
announcement of Research in Digital Libraries Initiative in late 1993. The popular
concept of digital library was further promoted with the launching of six well funded
projects. As a result of these research and development activities “The Digital Library
Initiative--phase-2” was announced in 1998 (Griffin,1998 & Besser, 2002).
Developed countries are preserving the human knowledge in digital form,
which has less managerial, preservation and conservation issues and providing instant
access to their users’ and researchers’ community. While developing countries are far
behind in the preservation of information in the digital form, which hinders in easy
and instant provision of access to the users. This digital age has raised the issues of
digital divide between information rich and information power countries. To keep
pace with the new emerging trends many research studies conducted in the developed
world but the scene in Pakistan is not encouraging. Yet no comprehensive study is
conducted at national or local level to find out the status of digital library in Pakistan.
Only a few articles and reports are available which have discussed the issue in
Pakistani perspective.
Tait (2004) has discussed in his news paper article about the launching of
online digital library in Pakistan by the British Council. According to him the project
3
aimed to provide online library services in Pakistan to help individuals and
institutions in their research work.
Pakistan Library Automation Group organized first national greenstone digital
library training program at Riphah International University, Islamabad in 2006
(Paklag, n.d.). Higher Education Commission has started a ‘National Digital Library’
program to provide researchers with access to international scholarly literature across
a wide range of disciplines (HEC, 2006). A digital library consisting of 17,000
science journals had been established in Pakistan (Atta, 2005). Some other digital
library projects are introduced in Pakistan such as United Nations Digital Library at
Islamabad, which is an Open-Access, online searchable repository; Pakistan Library
Network is a research initiative of Planwel Academic and Research Network to build
electronic access network of all the regional libraries for furthering research and
development; Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) is a nationwide
educational intranet connecting premiere educational and research institutions of the
country and The Pakistan Research Repository is a project of the Higher Education
Commission to promote the international visibility of research originating out of
institutes of higher education in Pakistan (Planwel, 2001; PERN, 2004; UN, 2006 &
Eprint, n.d.).
1.2. Statement of Problem
Keeping in view the new emerging trends of digital library all over the world
and changing scenario in Pakistan, it is essentially needed to find the perception of
LIS professionals at Lahore about the digital library and its current status in Pakistan.
4
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to find out the perception of LIS professional
in Lahore regarding the following questions:
1. What is the concept of digital library?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital libraries?
3. What is the situation of digital libraries in Pakistan?
4. What are the problems in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan?
5. What are the needs and requirements for setting up the digital libraries in
Pakistan?
6. What are the suggestions to promote digital libraries in Pakistan?
1.4. Significance of the Study
This Study will help in revealing the perception of Library and Information
Science (LIS) professionals about the digital library and the present situation of
digital libraries in Pakistan, especially in the city of Lahore. It will also help in tracing
the problems faced by the librarians and their needs and requirements in setting up
digital libraries. Recommendations and suggestions cited in this study will act as a
guideline for librarians in this regard.
1.5. Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
The research is limited to the city of Lahore. Limitations of the study include
less availability of relevant literature in Pakistani perspective and slow response rate
by the respondents.
5
1.6. Definitions of Terms
The following contextual and operational definitions have been used in this
study:
Automation is a generic term to represent the use of computer-based systems
in libraries automated systems are used in a wide variety of tasks and contexts from
circulation control, acquisition and cataloguing to the provision of web services and
electronic databases. The term can also be used to include general purpose PCs used
by library staff. (Prytherch , 2005, p. 50.)
Digital Library a) for conceptual models of libraries of the future that focus
on the provision of services associated almost totally with digital content and b) used
to describe those aspects of existing library servicing that have a significant digital
component. (Prytherch, 2005, p. 213.)
DRM (Digital Right Management) is a systems devised for the automated
handling of copyright permissions and fees in the electronic environment (Prytherch,
2005, p.214.).
Electronic Library is a library consisting of electronic materials and
services. Electronic materials can include all digital materials, as well as a variety of
analog formats that require electricity to use. For example, videotapes are an analog
format that requires electronic equipment to view. Thus the term "electronic library"
encompasses all the material that can be held by a "digital library", and is therefore
more inclusive” (Roy, 1999).
Microfilm is a microphotograph on cellulose film it may be negative or
positive and may be 16 or 35 mm wide and of any length, depending on the number
6
of exposures thereon. For special purposes, e.g. copying newspaper, or engineering
drawings or the preparation of Microfiche, film of 70 mm width may be used
(Prytherch, 2005, p.455).
Microfilm Reader is an apparatus for the reading of micro-records by means
of their enlarged projection on an opaque or transparent ground glass screen; printing
facility may be included (Prytherch, 2005, p.456).
Monograph is a separate treatise on a single subject or class of subjects, or
and often containing bibliographies. Frequently published in series. In cataloging, any
publication which is not a serial (Prytherch, 2005, p. 462).
Perception is an interpretation or impression based on one’s understanding of
something (Thompson, 1995, p.1014).
Virtual Library is a technique of virtual reality sophisticated computer
simulations could be used to provide users with library and information services by
electronic means with networked document delivery and access, as if from a real
library but without a physical entity actually being necessary. The term is often used
loosely for networked access to conventional library resources (Prytherch, 2005,
p.727).
1.7 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 includes background of
the study, statement of problem, objective, significance, limitations and delimitations
of the study and the definitions of terms.
7
Chapter 2 consists of a review of related literature. It describes various
theoretical and technical aspects of digital libraries. It also reviews the status of
digital libraries in international and local scenario.
Chapter 3 deals with the design of the study. It describes the research methods
used, the procedures used for literature gathering and review, selection of sample for
interviews along with data collection instrument.
Chapter 4 presents an analysis and interpretation of qualitative data collected
through interviews.
Chapter 5 provides a summary of the study draws conclusions and makes
recommendations. A reference list of information sources cited in the study is
provided at the end.
8
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter examines the literature relevant to this study. The chapter
presents an account of published and unpublished literature covering different aspects
of digital libraries.
2.1 Emergence of Digital Paradigms
We are in the age of digital environment where Information Technology (IT)
has been used extensively to record, store, and disseminate the information in the
digital form and it has almost converted the world into a global village. This
information revolution has influenced the Library and Information world. The
libraries also changing to meet the demand put on it and as a result the traditional
closed access libraries are shifting towards open access library. The open access
libraries are shifting towards automated libraries, the automated one towards the
electronics, the electronics to digital and so on. According to Missouri (1995) The
Digital Revolution is a phrase we use to refer to the dramatic changes taking place
during the last half of the 20th century. This dramatic change has influenced on the
libraries.
2.2 Libraries in the Digital Age
New information and communications technologies have brought information
readily available to the desktop and changed the nature of work everywhere (Schmidt,
n.d.). Now a days nature of work in libraries is also changing as Lynch (2004) says
“Today, libraries as learning places are changing, diversifying, taking on new
9
dimensions. They are moving from passive collections of knowledge to incorporate or
engage active learning spaces”
In the persuasion of this digital revolution the libraries first used computers to
automate their circulation system and then OPACs (Online Public Access Catalogs)
thus card catalogues gradually vanished. According to Ball (2000) “Digital
information has been available online since the late 1960s as databases containing
bibliographic information, specialized databases, fact databases and, only at a later
stage, full text databases. This information was first distributed on magnetic tapes as
fixed data carriers, then on floppy disks and from 1985 on CD-ROMs.” Schatz says
only the scientists were allowed to and even forced to use the CD-ROM databases on
their own.
Today’s libraries are faced with the challenges of integrating the traditional
and the emerging information paradigm. The current information environment
unequivocally prompts libraries to leverage on the latest digital technologies towards
building practical digital libraries and in setting up dynamic electronic information
systems. Digital libraries do enable the seamless integration of the scholarly
electronic information, help in creating and maintaining local digital content, and
strengthen the mechanisms and the capacity of the library’s information systems and
services. They increase the portability, efficiency of access, flexibility, availability
and preservation of digital objects (Sreekumar, 2005).
2.3 The Concept of Digital Library: What, Why and How
According to Borgman (1996) digital libraries are a set of electronic resources
and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information. In
10
this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval
systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or
dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries
includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation,
creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or
relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital
library.
Coming section provides a comprehensive overview of different aspects of
digital library for its better understanding i.e., what is digital library, why it is needed,
how it works and other related issues.
2.3.1 What is a Digital Library?
Literature review reveals that different writers have defined digital library in
different ways. According to University of Illinois (2006) “Digital libraries basically
store materials in electronic format and manipulate large collections of those
materials effectively.” Roy (1999) defines the digital library as a “library consisting
of digital materials and services. Digital materials are items that are stored, processed
and transferred via digital (binary) devices and networks. Digital services are services
(such as reference assistance) that are delivered digitally over computer networks.
The Digital Library is an organized collection of multimedia and other types
of resources available in computer process able form. The function of acquisition,
storage, preservation, retrieval is carried out through the use of digital technology and
access to the entire collection is globally available directly or indirectly across a
network (lisWiki, n.d.).
11
2.3.2 Characteristics of Digital Libraries
Some of the most important characteristics of the digital library as identified
in recently published literature are as follows:
xDigital libraries have content just like any other library. The content is any
material prepared digitally or converted from other formats into digital format.
(Owen, 1999, p. 2). However, important materials still in non-digital format
have to be integrated with the digital formats (Chowdhury & Chowdhury,
1999, p. 412).
xResources are digital networked and available online (Owen, 1999, p.1).
xOn-site access is replaced by distance access (Owen, 1999, p.1). Users are
somewhere else than the information and wish to correlate information from
different sources (Chowdhury & Chowdhury, 1999, p. 412).
xRetrieval systems are used to find the content. This is relatively easy for text,
but still problematic for the retrieval of pictures, sound and moving images
(Cloete, 1992, p. 4; Lesk, 1997. p. 2).
xContent must be delivered to the user. It is delivered virtually (to the user’s
desktop) (Owen, 1999, p. 2). For digital content delivery interface software is
necessary so that the user can see and hear the content. Digital information
may come from a variety of different sources and in different forms and
formats. Therefore the interface becomes critical (Chowdhury & Chowdhury,
1999. p. 421). The universal interface is the Web browser. Through the
interface the users interact with the information with as little outside
intervention (assistance from the librarian) as possible (Barnard, 1999).
12
xThe whole concept of a “document” changes with the use of interactive
multimedia and hypertext. Distinction should be made between documents
that appeared in printed format and are merely also made available on
computer by means of PDF. The electronic document created by means of
hypertext and interactive multimedia is a dynamic source of information that
can easily be manipulated and changed. This results in new challenges
regarding copyright, authority control and quality control, to name but a few
crucial aspects (Cloete, 1999, p. 2)
xDigital content must be preserved for future use. Digital content is often only
available for a limited period and if not saved and preserved, may disappear.
xIt is expected that in the future libraries will become more subject or domain
based (Owen, 1999, p. 2) and not be restricted to an institution or even a
country. One could therefore have one “South African Library of Economics”
instead of academic and other institutions having their own libraries for
economics (Cloete, 1999, p. 2).
xCo-operation among libraries and other organizations will become more and
more important to eliminate duplication and promote resource sharing (Owen,
1999, p. 2). International online networking amongst libraries is already a
daily activity in library work. In South Africa even the smaller public and
community libraries have online electronic access to information sources via
the provincial and national library services (Cloete, 1999, p. 3).
xThe future users of the library, and then in particular the digital library, are
often referred to as the NET generation. (Owen, 1999, p. 2). They are the
13
children of today who grow up in front of computers and who already believe
that if anything is not on the NET, it does not exist. As students they already
pose new challenges to teachers and lecturers. They are not interested in
lectures - they have already found all the information given in lectures on the
NET. They need to learn what to do with the information. They are also media
centre users (school level) and academic library users. Since their information
world is the digital environment it means that they will demand electronic
information sources and hardly use the traditional paper-based sources and
facilities. Whether librarians find this acceptable or not, it will be the reality
(Cloete, 1999, p. 3).
xUser guidance is performed by electronic guides and e-mail access to
librarians (Barnard, 1999). Library instruction could also be built into the
interface in order to guide users to appropriate databases and locating the
information needed.
xServices to users will become much more personalized. Computerized profiles
of users will enable the computer to select the best possible information
sources for the user’s needs.
xThe new authors will also become present on the Web and not in print. More
and more authors and researchers are quite happy to publish their findings and
information directly on the Web and not in printed sources or even electronic
scientific journals. (Owen, 1999, p. 2). Their motivation is that their
information can immediately be available for colleagues and fellow-
researchers. Publishing in scientific journals (paper or electronic) takes too
14
long since an article first has to be reviewed and that can take several months.
In certain study fields this results in the information already being outdated by
the time it is published. A pre-published copy on the Web makes the
information immediately available. Of course this brings new problems.
Information on the Web is not controlled. It can be removed or changed. If it
is not properly indexed, it is very difficult to retrieve. There is no quality
control of the contents. It is up to the user to decide what useful, quality
information is and what not. Where the librarian serves as an intermediary
between the information sources and the user (s)he has to take the decision
(Cloete, 1999, p. 3).
xIn the digital environment, the catalogue will not only describe and locate
information sources in a particular library, but will do that for information
sources anywhere in the world or in cyberspace, in any format. Access should
be provided via multiple access points in the online catalogue. This means that
all the Web sites should also be meticulously catalogued and indexed. The
functions of cataloguing and indexing will not be restricted to librarians any
more, but will also be performed by publishers (formal and informal) and
subscription agents. This means that these people will have to be trained in
cataloguing and indexing skills (Cloete, 1999, p. 4)
xLibraries will compete with other sources of information. There are more
choices for users. Quality and service must go up and cost come down (for the
user) (Cloete, 1999, p. 4).
Some of the important points identified by Lesk (1997, p. 76) are:
15
xDigital technology makes it easy to create documents and save their
content.
xLibraries find it cheaper and easier to store electronic information.
xIt is not so important to possess information sources; it is important to find
relevant information regardless of where it is stored.
xFragile items that should be provided in surrogate form can be widely
distributed once digitized.
xCosts of digitizing information can be shared amongst libraries
According to Bartle (2003) the benefits of electronic information sources are
many, the main ones being that electronic information sources provide:
xAccess to more information with a wider range of resources available to
academics and students and a much wider range of material
xFaster access to Information. More articles can be found and accessed in a
much shorter time
xEasier access to information. Electronic information sources are most
likely to be used when access to the services is available on-line via the
network
xAccess to current information. Electronic information sources can be up
dated very easily and the Internet can even be up dated on a daily basis or
more if necessary. Electronic Journals can be published more quickly than
printed ones. This means that information can be disseminated at a much
greater speed
16
xNo physical boundary: The user of a digital library need not to go to the
library physically, people from all over the world could gain access to the
same information, as long as an Internet connection is available.
xRound the clock availability: Digital libraries can be accessed at any time,
24 hours a day and 365 days of the year
xMultiple accesses: The same resources can be used at the same time by a
number of users.
xStructured approach: Digital library provides access to much richer
content in a more structured manner i.e. we can easily move from the
catalog to the particular book then to a particular chapter and so on.
xInformation retrieval: The user is able to use any search term bellowing to
the word or phrase of the entire collection. Digital library will provide
very user friendly interfaces, giving click able access to its resources.
xPreservation and conservation: An exact copy of the original can be made
any number of times without any degradation in quality.
xSpace: Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital
libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply
because digital information requires very little physical space to contain
them. When the library had no space for extension digitization is the only
solution.
xNetworking: A particular digital library can provide the link to any other
resources of other digital library very easily thus a seamlessly integrated
resource sharing can be achieved.
17
xCost - The cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of
a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money
paying for staff, book maintains, rent, and additional books. Digital
libraries do away with these fees.
2.3.3 Need and Importance of the Digital Libraries
 Time is a major factor for each modern user of the library and digitization is
the only solution to the problem. Digital libraries are needed to provide quality-based
services at the user doorstep. In general digital libraries are needed for the following
reasons.
2.3.3.1. Easy to Understand
The visual or graphical information system of digital libraries is more popular
as compared to text based information system.
2.3.3.2 Shifting of the Environment
The new generation user becomes only happy when they will be able to read
from the computer screen.
2.3.3.3 Multiple Function of Same Information
In case of digital libraries by using hypertext it is possible to structure and
organized the same digital information in a variety of ways, which serve multiple
functions.
2.3.3.4. Information Explosion
Digital library is expected to be able to handle the problem of information
explosion somehow. It will be able to handle and manage large amount of digital
content by simply providing link, without actually procuring the document.
18
2.3.3.5 Information Retrieval
By using digital library one will be able to retrieved information specifically
for e.g. A particular image, photo, a definition etc.
2.3.3.6 Distance Learning
Learning from home, office or other places, which are convenient for user.
2.3.3.7. To Procure Online Publication
More and more information are going to be published over internet, digital
library is needed to procure the online publication and to provide link to important
sources of information (LISWiki, n.d.).
2.4 Environment and Resources of the Digital Library
The resources of a digital library are those, which the computer can store,
organized, transmit and display without any intervening conversion process. It
includes both print and electronic or digital material. The digital material may be of
multimedia types or any other i.e. only digital audio, video, full text information,
photograph, drawing, digitized sound, e-book, v-book, electronic tax, map, image, 3D
representation etc. The collection may also include structured /unstructured text,
scanned images, graphic audios, video recording etc (Wikipedia, 2006).
2.4.1 Online Resources:
xLocal database of traditional books in machine-readable form
xE-book, v-book, electronic tax, map, image, sound, video, multimedia etc
xE-journal
xLAN, MAN, WAN for web browsing, e- mail etc.
xWell trained manpower for online help
19
2.4.2 Off Line Resources:
xC.D-ROM, Jukebox etc.
xAudio visual aid etc.
2.5 Issues and Challenges of Digital Libraries
The digital library is still a complex unstable entity and investment and
implementation is relatively high risk, yet must be faced. This situation is more
challenging than at earlier periods in the development of library information
technology because we are in a global market and content will be the dominant factor
(Borgman , 1996).
The computer viruses, lack of standardization for digitized information, quick
degrading properties of digitized material, different display standard of digital
product and its associated problem, health hazard nature of the radiation from monitor
etc. makes digital libraries at times handicap. Copyright has been called the “single
most vexing barrier to digital library development” (Chepesuik, 1997).
As more and more computers are connected to the Internet its speed of access
is reasonably decreasing. If new technology will not evolve to solve the problem then
in near future Internet will be full of error messages. The infrastructure cost of digital
library, with the much larger volume of digital information, finding the right material
for a specific task becomes increasingly difficult. Many people also find reading
printed material to be easier than reading material on a computer screen (liswiki n.d.).
The optimism and hype from the early 1990’s has been replaced by a
realization that building digital libraries will be a difficult, expensive, and long-term
effort (Lynch, 1995). Creating effective digital libraries poses serious challenges. The
20
integration of digital media into traditional collections will not be straightforward,
like previous new media (e.g., video and audio tapes), because of the unique nature of
digital information. It is less fixed, easily copied, and remotely accessible by multiple
users simultaneously. Collier (1997) and Cleveland (1998) have pointed out some
other serious issues being faced in the development of digital libraries, which are
narrated as under:
2.5.1 Funding
Funding for new technology has always been a problem for libraries. With the
advent of the digital library we do not have so much leeway. Electronic information
gets added to the portfolio without corresponding reduction. Generally speaking
libraries do not envisage huge improvements in budgets to allow for digital
information. Digital information may well expand at the expense of printed
information, which would be a painful process and exacerbate the polarization of
books versus electronic materials. It is possible that operational savings could be
made which could help, but not I suspect sufficient within the library budget to cope
with a step increase in content acquisition. However we should look more widely than
the library budget. In universities, for instance, there is much talk of developing
student centered, resource based learning, both on pedagogic and on financial
grounds. We are not yet seeing the restructuring of teaching and learning, together
with the associated restructuring of expenditure away from teacher centered activity
towards resource based activity. This will surely have to come. As organizations
move towards being learning organizations, or knowledge based organizations this
type of restructuring will need to occur in many types of enterprise. Returning to the
21
library, a new library economy will need to be developed. It is not enough to say that
electronic information is expensive, without making valid comparisons with the
alternatives and measuring the relative cost benefits.
2.5.2 Free or Fee
The debate as to whether libraries should offer fee based services, or be free at
point of use has intensified with the development of online and business information
services. The totally electronic library will require this issue to be faced more than
ever before. As a point of principle, this is most sensitive in public libraries, but it is
an issue for all. As the electronic information market grows ever larger, and budgets
remain constrained, the pressure for income generation will become more intense.
Although I am a firm supporter of the principle of free at point of use for an agreed
core of information, particularly in public libraries, in my view the case for a mixed
economy will become irresistible.
2.5.3 Authority
Authority is an important issue for the quality of library services. In the past
we relied on the process and the reputation of publishers to provide document
authority. Authority was further supported by the librarian, who by professional and
subject knowledge guaranteed the integrity of the collection. In the electronic world
this authority us threatened in two ways:
xProliferation of invalidated documents
xPossibility of alteration of documents
The former is of course not new, but it is the scale of the problem which will
require attention in our new theory. The latter we can reasonably expect to be solved
22
by emerging watermarking and cryptolope techniques such as those developed by
IBM, but in an increasingly commercially driven world our theory will need to alert
librarians to the risks of supplying incorrect material or that which infringes copyright
or paternity rights.
2.5.4 Censorship
Librarians have long been supporters of freedom of information and against
censorship in general. It is one of the basic principles of librarianship. There is,
however a growing recognition that the unprecedented availability of pornographic,
violent and otherwise illegal or undesirable content will require new policy
approaches in the electronic library. Whereas in the past, librarians would protect
children through their acquisitions policy, the electronic library will require active,
preventative measures. I see this as a major issue when we come to network public
libraries in UK.
2.5.5 Social Inclusion
Like many new developments, the electronic library has potential for both
positive and negative outcomes. Nowhere is this more critical than in the area of
social inclusion. For instance, information technology is raising great expectations for
improving access for the disabled, through specialized applications and through home
access. People in rural areas or in minority community groups now have opportunities
for access to information in general or to specialized local services. At the same time
the gap between the rich and the poor, at least in Britain, is widening and there is a
clear danger that the increasing commercialization of the library and information
market will exclude sections of the community. On the wider scale, the ever
23
increasing dominance of the English language threatens global cultural diversity.
These and the next issue I shall raise are indeed weighty issues for our new theory to
encompass.
2.5.6. Democracy and citizenship
In various countries, there is a strong tradition of support for freedom of
information. In Britain, I regret there is no such tradition. From central government
there has been a tradition of secrecy, often taken to absurd lengths. This reminds us
that in Britain we are subjects, not citizens. However we have great hopes that our
new government with its high ideals and huge majority will promote citizenship
through information. This is one of the main thrusts of our proposals for the
``People's Network''. On the global level, the electronic library, which transcends
borders, is potentially a great safeguard against secrecy, propaganda and
disinformation.
2.5.7 Libraries as publishers
Many of these big issues lead to the realization that libraries have the
opportunity, more than that, the responsibility to publish. The technology is not a
problem. Public libraries are the natural collectors and publishers of government,
community, cultural and leisure information at the local level. University libraries
may yet decide to publish their faculty's academic work rather than utilizing the
existing supply chain.
24
2.5.8. Technical Architecture
Technical architecture is the back bone of any digital library system. Libraries
will need to enhance and upgrade current technical architectures to accommodate
digital materials. The architecture will include components such as:
xHigh-speed local networks and fast connections to the Internet
xRelational databases that support a variety of digital formats
xFull text search engines to index and provide access to resources
xA variety of servers, such as Web servers and FTP servers
xElectronic document management functions that will aid in the overall
management of digital resources
xBibliographic databases that point to both paper and digital materials
xIndexes and finding tools
xCollections of pointers to Internet resources
xDirectories
xPrimary materials in various digital formats
xPhotographs
xNumerical data sets
xElectronic journals
2.5.9. Building Digital Collections
One of the largest issues in creating digital libraries will be the building of
digital collections. Obviously, for any digital library to be viable, it must eventually
have a digital collection with the critical mass to make it truly useful. There are
essentially three methods of building digital collections:
25
Digitization, converting paper and other media in existing collections to
digital form (discussed in more detail below). Acquisition of original digital works
created by publishers and scholars. Example items would be electronic books,
journals, and datasets. Access to external materials not held in-house by providing
pointers to Web sites, other library collections, or publishers' servers. While the third
method may not exactly constitute part of a local collection, it is still a method of
increasing the materials available to local users. One of main issues here is the degree
to which libraries will digitize existing materials and acquire original digital works, as
opposed to simply pointing to them externally. This a reprise of the old access versus
ownership issue--but in the digital realm--with many of the same concerns such as:
xLocal control of collections
xLong-term access and preservation
What about digital collection building in a coordinated scheme? There are
many reasons why building digital collections is a good candidate for coordinated
activity. First, acquiring digital works and doing in-house digitization are expensive,
especially to undertake alone. By working together, institutions with common goals
can gain greater efficiencies and reduce the overall costs involved in these activities,
as was the case with retrospective conversion of bibliographic records. Second, it also
reduces the redundancy and waste of acquiring or converting materials more than
once. Third, coordinated digital collection building enhances resource sharing and
increases the richness of collections to which users have access.
26
How can specific materials to be processed by a given institution be
identified? Who collects and/or digitizes what materials could be based on factors
such as:
xCollection strengths: A particular library with a strong collection focus
could be responsible for digitizing selected portions of it and adding new
digital works to it.
xUnique collections. If a library has the only copies of something, they are
obviously the ones to digitize it
xThe priorities of user communities. Such priorities will justify holding the
materials locally, for example, because of the demands of a curriculum
xManageable portions of collections. When there is no other overriding
criteria, then material can be divided up among institutions simply
according to what is reasonable for any one institution to collect or digitize
xTechnical architecture. The state of a library's technical architecture will
also be factor in selecting who digitizes what. A library must have a
technical architecture up to the task of support a particular digital
collection.
xSkills of staff. Institutions whose staff doesn’t have the necessary skills
can't become a major node in a national scheme
2.5.10 Digitization
Recall that one of the primary methods of digital collection building is
digitization. What does this term mean exactly? Simply put, it is the conversion of
any fixed or analogue media--such as books, journal articles, photos, paintings, and
27
microforms--into electronic form through scanning, sampling, or in fact even re-
keying.
2.5.11. Metadata
Metadata is another issue central to the development of digital libraries.
Metadata is the data that describes the content and attributes of any particular item in
a digital library. It is a concept familiar to librarians because it is one of the primary
things that librarians do--they create cataloguing records that describe documents.
Metadata is important in digital libraries because it is the key to resource discovery
and use of any document. Anyone who has used Alta Vista, Excite, or any of the
other search engines on the Internet knows that simple full-text searches don't scale in
a large network. One can get thousands of hits, but most of them will be irrelevant.
While there are formal library standards for metadata, namely AACR, such records
are very time-consuming to create and require specially trained personnel. Human
cataloguing, though superior, is just too labour extensive for the already large and
rapidly expanding information environment. Thus, simpler schemes for metadata are
being proposed as solutions.
While they are still in their infancy, a number of schemes have emerged, the
most prominent of which is the Dublin Core, an effort to try and determine the "core"
elements needed to describe materials. The first workshop took place at OCLC
headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, hence the name "Dublin Core." The Dublin Core
workshops defined a set of fifteen metadata elements--much simpler than those used
in traditional library cataloguing. They were designed to be simple enough to be used
authors, but at the same time, descriptive enough to be useful in resource discovery.
28
The lack of common metadata standards-ideally, defined for use in some
specified context-is yet another barrier to information access and use in a digital
library, or in a coordinated digital library scheme.
2.5.12. DRM (Digital Right Management)
Digital Right Management is a term used for the technologies that
control how the digital content is used and only the copyright holders have a right to
make a copy or the right to distribute a work to the public.
Digital Rights Management is a term used for technologies that control how
digital content is used. While copyright holders have exclusive rights of copyright--
such as the right to make a copy or the right to distribute a work to the public. In
addition, fair use, a statutory exemption to the copyright law, allows users to exercise
a copyright under certain conditions. (ALA, 2006)
According to Prytherch (2005) “Digital Right Management is a systems
devised for the automated handling of copyright permissions and fees in the
electronic environment”
2.6 Digital Library Education
There are profound changes going on in the educational system. These
changes are needed because of ever growing pressure in the school systems
themselves, partly because society itself is changing into one in which knowledge
work becomes ever more important, and partly because of the very information and
communication technologies which are transforming our economies. Both of these
factors evoke change and offer a solution to the problems with which the educational
system struggles. In LIS programs, the current educational approach for digital library
29
education places it within information technology context. This is not surprising
because digital library is easily interpreted to epitomize the promises of technology
and progress, an acceptable ideological position in LIS programs. Integration of
digital library education in the context of foundations, knowledge representation, and
archives is not surprising either. It is driven by the concerns of research and practice
communities. The schools with least developed programs of digital library education
(as indicated by the number of courses offered) typically contain this education within
information technology or foundations context (Saracevic, 2001).
According to Saracevic (2001) the following schools have been identified as
representing the various emerging approaches to digital library education:
xUniversity of British Columbia, School of Library, Archival, and Information
Studies (Vancouver, British Columbia) combines an approach through digital
continuity with tools (multimedia authoring) approach. Although there is no
identification of digital library as such, a number of courses deal with
metadata standards and include courses which address the status of digitally-
born information and the role of digital libraries in managing cultural heritage.
xUniversity of California, Los Angeles, Department of Library and Information
Science reveals a combination of approaches focusing on tools,
administration, standards, and preservation.
xFlorida State University, School of Information Studies (Tallahassee, FL)
reveals (within a compartmentalized approach) an interesting
multidisciplinary perspective on digital library design.
30
xUniversity of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science
(Champaign, IL) introduces a combination of museum informatics and more
traditional approaches to digital library education, including courses in
electronic text creation. Some focus is on content within a museum
informatics course and project-oriented coursework. The information
technology is introduced at the undergraduate level, and electronic text design
on the graduate level. The focus is on project-based learning and application,
accessibility, and electronic publishing. The content and structured text
approach is combined with an advanced tools approach.
xKent State University, School of Library and Information Science (Kent, OH)
presents an interesting case in that the graduate school offerings and
continuing education offering reveal a completely opposite approach. While
the first is a traditional program, various continuing education topics
introducing metadata for digital collections with courses on XML and content
management. This is a tools-approach that is segregated into continuing
education program.
xUniversity of Michigan, School of Information (Ann Arbor, MI) is by far the
most developed program of study for digital librarianship. It combines
practical and skill-based program with a focus on advanced tools, content,
format migration, digital continuity, the digital library as community building
agency, and even an emerging theoretical approach that identifies the general
laws of infrastructure development with attention to differing national cultural
styles of structuring of knowledge. One of the strengths of this program is that
31
it does not single out one route, such as found in other instances, when it is
combined with tools approach. The education for digital libraries combines
proficiencies with critical analysis of digital library as cultural form. The
technological proficiency courses are included in the Digital Tool Kit module;
advanced proficiencies are included in graduate coursework. In addition, a
number of digital library courses explore specialized areas related to digital
libraries. This school is defining the emerging area of digital libraries through
its curriculum. An important component of teaching is related to research and
development. It may be useful to ask what is not included in this developed
program? The archival aspects are present but not overwhelmingly. While
usability is included in the information infrastructures general course, use and
user studies focus is not obvious. There is no evidence of representational
(metadata) aspects of digital libraries but this may be due to the limitation of
website analysis as data collection tool. The traditional library organizational
aspects and issues of access are weak in conceptualizing digital library
education at Michigan, in spite of its bursting innovative energy with focus on
social informatics.
xUniversité de Montréal, École de bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de
l'Information (Montréal, Québec, Canada) is one of the programs that
addresses important theoretical aspects in which digital library education is
conceptualized through a focus on structured documents which, for example,
is lacking in the otherwise strong Michigan approach. This school includes
technological proficiency courses (tools-approach) to continuing education
32
and probably computer science. The strength in document representation,
usability of systems for document presentation and organization of
information in general as well as information retrieval is a definite strength in
this program that could serve as a model for development of other programs.
xUniversity of North Texas, School of Library and Information Sciences
(Denton, TX) is unique in building the concept of digital library from the
context of networked environment. One may identify this as syntetico-analytic
approach, which does not start with the digital library as an isolated
phenomenon but focuses on indirect effects of that phenomenon. It is invoked
as a process of cultural transformation in the social environment of
information work which is dependent on technology.
xUniversity of Pittsburgh, School of Information Sciences (Pittsburgh, PA)
combines an integrated approach with focus on document structure, digital
preservation, and digitizing library and archival research collections for
access, as well as introduction to SGML / XML standards, usability studies of
digital libraries, and other topics.
xUniversity of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Library and Information
Studies (Kingston, RI) reveals an interesting attempt to integrate digital
library technology through an understanding of media perception and
interpreting the emerging environments of the digital libraries in terms of
development of new visual media. This program presents a departure from
tools approach often practiced as a response to market pressures. All programs
might not have resources to offer special courses in digital libraries or those
33
that are developing a specialization track (such as Pittsburgh with the focus on
the archival aspects) or a full-blown program like Michigan's. The approach
taken by this school may be narrow in focus, but it also reveals an interesting
aspect often neglected in other approaches to digital library education,
focusing on visual information.
xRutgers University, Department of Library and Information Science (New
Brunswick, NJ) provides access to digital library education through a master's
level courses including a regular offering of digital libraries course as one of
the central courses within the information systems theme, with specialization
courses including organization of information and multimedia production.
Rutgers Distributed Laboratory for Digital Libraries (RDLDL) enables
doctoral student participation in university-wide interdisciplinary program of
research. The new undergraduate program in Information Technology and
Informatics will provide a new context for digital library education.
xUniversity of California, Berkeley, School of Information Management and
Systems provides a model for digital library education closely tied to research
and development, especially through its Digital Library seminar series. The
LIS programs focus primarily on the interpretation of research and
development coming out of the computer science community to fit the LIS
discourse. In many cases, this means repositioning the digital library within
established social purposes of LIS programs. Berkeley, while it symbolically
repositioned itself outside of these approaches by not seeking ALA
accreditation, expands the problems related to digital environments beyond
34
but not excluding the library settings. In this model, the functioning of a
system is a dominant component of the curriculum. The content component is
hidden and so are the human agents and digital library as social and cultural
agency.
2.7 Digital Libraries in International Scenario
In the early 1990s, NSF, DARPA and NASA were individually supporting
basic research in computing and communications and viewed digital libraries as a
broad, newly emerging topical area of great potential. Informal working groups of
agency managers were formed and met regularly over a period of time to define
programmatic goals and discuss alternative research agendas. These were, then, the
topics of technical workshops funded by the agencies to reconcile with community
values and expectations. According to Griffin (1998) the reports emanating from the
workshops provided the intellectual content of the first program announcement:
Research in Digital Libraries, which was released in the fall of 1993. The Digital
Libraries Initiative was designed as a basic research initiative to advance the means to
collect, store, organize, and access information in digital form via communication
networks. Projects were expected to perform high-risk research, and to test and
demonstrate new technologies.
2.7.1 The Digital Libraries Initiative
The Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) was the result of a community-based
process, which began, in the late 1980s with informal discussions between
researchers and agency program managers. These discussions progressed to planning
workshops designed to develop research values and agendas and culminated in the
35
National Science Foundation (NSF)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research in
Digital Libraries Initiative announced in late 1993. (Griffin,1998).
With the selection and funding of the six DLI projects, interest and activities
related to digital libraries accelerated rapidly. According to Besser (2002) these six
well-funded projects helped set in motion the popular definition of a digital library.
These projects were computer science experiments, primarily in the areas of
architecture and information retrieval.
Based on the recognized achievements of DLI and the promise of additional
Federal investment in digital libraries, a follow-on program was announced in the
spring of 1998. According to Griffin (1998) in the new program, "Digital Libraries
Initiative -- Phase 2", NSF, DARPA and NASA are joined by the National Library of
Medicine, the Library of Congress, and the National Endowment for the Humanities
as primary sponsors. First round awards are expected to be made beginning in
September 1998.
2.7.2 The Digital Library Initiatives Across Europe
There are quite a large number of activities being undertaken in European
countries with respect to digital libraries some at European level, some on national
level, and others at much more local level (Raitt, 2000). A brief overview of these
initiatives is as under:
2.7.2.1 Telematics for Libraries
The Telematics for Libraries program of the European Commission (EC) aims
to facilitate access to knowledge held in libraries throughout the European Union
36
while reducing disparities between national systems and practices. While it's not
exclusively devoted to digital libraries—the program covers topics such as
networking (OSI, Web), cataloging (OPACs), imaging, multimedia, and copy-right,
among others many of the 100 or more projects funded by the European Commission
do cover issues and activities related to digital libraries (Telematics, n.d)
2.7.2.2 Candle (Controlled Access to Network Digital Libraries in Europe)
Candle will facilitate access to digital collections within and without the
library in a controlled way by producing low-cost library management software for
rights control and fee management. The objective is to demonstrate how the Case
Library digital management system can be used to improve the handling of electronic
publications that are acquired by libraries through collaboration with publishers and
supplier agencies. Candle will focus on applying an existing library management
system in environments that encourage publishers to offer electronic products to
libraries in order to meet user needs by addressing license metering, control,
feedback, monitoring, rights management, access control, and promotion. It is
anticipated that there will be benefits for publishers in providing an improved tool for
reaching users and managing costs; benefits for libraries in facilitating management,
control, and security; and benefits for users in providing user-friendly interfaces and
in achieving cost reductions as a result of optimized handling. The project currently
has members in Greece, Italy, Spain, and the U.K. (Candle, n.d.).
2.7.2.3 Decomate II (Delivery of Copyright Materials in Electronic Form)
The goal of the project is to develop a European digital library for economics
an end-user service that will provide distributed access to a variety of information
37
resources held in different libraries throughout Europe. It builds on the successful
Decomate I project by covering both copyright and non-copyright materials of
different types and in different formats and by allowing users to access the resources
in any of the participating libraries through a single, uniform interface. Decomate II
will include personalized user services plus enhanced techniques for knowledge
navigation, and will be also a test bed for license agreements with publishers and
information providers and for standards and models of the use of digital library
services. The software release will be implemented in several European test sites to
gain knowledge on best-practice installations and real costs and efforts. Tilburg
University Library in the Netherlands coordinates the project, which has other
partners in Italy, the U.K., Spain, and Belgium, as well as the Netherlands. A working
demonstrator is now available with two databases, and free access is given in return
for evaluation (Decomate, n.d.).
2.7.2.4 Dieper (Digitized European Periodicals)
The project offers a test bed for studying the impact of providing fast
electronic access to relatively short documents such as journal articles. It addresses
the need in Europe for a central access point or registry where all digitized periodicals
can be recorded and from where full-text searches of articles can be carried out.
Records in the register are linked (via the Web) to comprehensive archives of
periodical literature throughout Europe. Project participants are building up a virtual
library of periodicals by scanning selected journals and linking any existing digital
collections both to the register and to the search engine. The project is expected to
improve access to older periodical literature, preserve items, complete collections,
38
test standards for digitizing and access, and establish what infrastructures are
required. Dieper is coordinated by the Georg August University in Germany and has
partners in France, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Austria, Italy, Greece, and Estonia.
Blind musicians need to read musical scores, and Braille is currently the only means
in regular production whereby this can be done. Production requires knowledge of
music and Braille music encoding. It is labor-intensive and therefore expensive. In an
effort to reduce costs and duplication of efforts, four of the major Braille music
libraries have formed a shared catalog of Braille music. Work is afoot, in a 2-year
project known as Miracle (Music Information Resources Assisted Computer Library
Exchange), to develop a system whereby special libraries can have access to and
download Braille music in digital form from a central database. The Dutch National
Library for the Blind (SVB) in the Netherlands is coordinating the project, which
started in 1999 and has partners in the U.K., Italy, Switzerland, and Spain (Daiper,
n.d.)
2.8 Digital libraries in Pakistani Perspective
No comprehensive literature is written or published on digital library in
Pakistani perspective. Only a few authors have discussed it briefly.
According to Tait (2004) the British Council is considering to launch an
online digital library in Pakistan. We will actively consider providing online library
services in Pakistan to help students and institutions in their research. Pakistan’s
inclusion in the network will mean public universities, colleges, research institutes
and organizations get access to over 11,600 peer-reviewed online academic journals
39
from some of the world’s top publishing houses. In addition, users in Pakistan will
have access to many of the world’s leading bibliographic and reference databases.
First national greenstone digital library training held at Riphah International
University Islamabad from June 22-24, 2006 (Paklag, n.d.).Digital library program is
a programme to provide researchers within public and private universities in Pakistan
and non-profit research and development organizations with access to international
scholarly literature based on electronic (online) delivery, providing access to high
quality, peer-reviewed journals, databases and articles across a wide range of
disciplines (HEC, 2006). Atta (2005) has mentioned that Pakistan was the only
country where a digital library consisting of 17,000 science journals had been
established.
The United Nations Digital Library Islamabad, is an Open-Access, online
searchable repository containing Full-text of documents, reports, publications and
other public information items produced by the country offices of United Nations
Organizations, Programmes and Funds in Pakistan (UN, 2006).
According to Planwel (2001) Pakistan Library Network is a research initiative
of Planwel Academic and Research Network to build electronic access network of all
the regional libraries for furthering research and development; as per the mission
statement of PLANWEL for Building Technology Based Communities and Bringing
Technology to the People. It is an effort to ensure that all underprivileged
communities in the region have equal access to information.
Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) is a nationwide
educational intranet connecting premiere educational and research institutions of the
40
country. PERN focuses on collaborative research, knowledge sharing, resource
sharing, and distance learning by connecting people through the use of Intranet and
Internet resources (PERN, 2004).
The Pakistan Research Repository is a project of the Higher Education
Commission to promote the international visibility of research originating out of
institutes of higher education in Pakistan. The aim of this service is to maintain a
digital archive of the intellectual output of Pakistani institutions, to provide a single-
entry access point to view this research, and to distribute this information as widely as
possible. The repository which is currently being populated with content, has already
made the full-text of over 550 Ph.D. theses available in high-quality digitized format,
whilst a further 200 have been digitized and are in the process of being uploaded onto
repository and made available through the web. An additional 350 Ph.D. theses are in
the process of digitization, and the HEC has introduced a systematic mechanism for
the collection and digitization of the remaining theses. Once completed, the
repository will include all Ph.D. theses published by institutions in Pakistan which are
estimated to be approximately 3200 PhD in number (Eprint, n.d.).
2.9 Conclusions
Literature reviewed reveals that Libraries have always been places for
learning and today libraries as learning places are changing, diversifying, taking on
new dimensions. They are moving from passive collections of knowledge to
incorporate or engage active learning spaces. Today’s libraries are faced with the
challenges of integrating the traditional and the emerging information paradigm. The
current information environment unequivocally prompts libraries to leverage on the
41
latest digital technologies towards building practical digital libraries and in setting up
dynamic electronic information systems. Digital libraries do enable the seamless
integration of the scholarly electronic information, help in creating and maintaining
local digital content, and strengthen the mechanisms and the capacity of the library’s
information systems and services. Digital library trend is much more popular in
European and developed countries, a lot of initiatives have been taken there but in
developing countries particularly in Pakistan the situation is not encouraging. There is
no progress in this regard and serious efforts are the dire need of the hour for the
establishment of digital libraries in Pakistan. It is also found that yet neither any
comprehensive study is conducted nor any specific literature is written and published
on this aspect.
42
Chapter 3
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This chapter describes the research method used to achieve the objectives of
the study. The procedures used for literature review, selection of the sample for
interview, collection of data and analysis of data are discussed here.
3.1. Research Method
Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's
experiences. The flexibility of the technique allows the investigator to probe, to
clarify, and to create new questions based on what has already been heard (Powell,
1997). Therefore, interview technique was used for the collection of data for this
study.
3.2 Data Collection Instruments
The objective of this study was to visualize the perception of library and
information science professionals regarding digital library. To achieve this objective
six research questions were formulated (A copy of research questions is enclosed as
an (Appendix A). These research questions also served as a data collection
instrument, which provide a guideline for interview.
3.3. Selection of Sample
Data to answer research question regarding the perception of library and
information science professionals regarding digital libraries were collected through
interviewing digital library experts from Lahore, a list of digital library experts
(Appendix B) as sample for interview on the basis of following criteria:
43
xA reasonable experience regarding library automation and using digital
libraries
xEnsuring geographical representation of the city (Lahore)
xHaving at least a Master degree in Library and Information Science
xHaving been on a position directly related to digital library
xParticipation in professional activities regarding digital libraries
For the selection of sample a purposive sampling method was adopted.
Interviewees were selected based on their professional knowledge, skills and work
regarding library automation and the use of digital libraries. A list of 40 LIS
professionals was made with the help of senior professionals and the research
supervisor. After scrutinizing the list according to the objectives of this study a list of
25 professionals was made by the researcher. Five out of 25 nominees refused.
3.4. Data Collection and Analysis
The researcher physically visited the participants at their offices according to
the schedule of visit. Almost all the interviews were audio recoded with the help of
MP3 recorder. Only one respondent gave the answers to the questions in written
form. The transcripts of minutely edited audio-recorded interviews are given as
Appendix (C). Then the collected data was qualitatively analyzed by the researcher.
3.5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
A summary and conclusions of the study and recommendations regarding the
topic are also provided in the last chapter of this study.
44
Chapter 4
ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Data collected through interviews from the library and information science
professionals is analyzed and interpreted in this chapter. Interviewees were asked to give
their opinion about the various aspects of digital library. Thematic analysis and
interpretation of the acquired qualitative data is as under.
4.1. The Concept of the Digital Library
The interviewees were asked to define the concept of digital library. The
respondents perceived that it was a confusing term, which can be defined in different
ways. The definitions provided by the respondents are as follows: “The library which
includes digital objects, in broader term electronic documents, sounds, videos and other
documents which is accessible through personal desktop is a digital library” (Frequency =
12). “The collection of the digital library will be in the form of zero and ones”
(Frequency = 2). “All the recorded information in a digital library will be in digital
format i.e., books, journals, thesis, dissertations, patients, encyclopedias etc.” (Frequency
= 2). “Digital library is an organized collection of uniformed electronic artifacts”, “Fully
or partially automated collection is a digital library”, “The Information stored and
accessed through the machine is a digital library”, “Online collection of scanned items is
a digital library”, “Any material in digital format is a digital library”, “The library that is
using electronic devices to disseminate the information is a digital library” (Frequency =
1). The frequency distribution of the acquired responses is presented in Table 4.1.
45
Table 4.1
Frequency Distribution of Interviewees’ Perception About the Digital Library
Concept of Digital Library Frequency
The library that is accessible through personal desktop 12
It has collection in the form of zero and ones 2
It has organized collection of uniformed artifacts 2
It has fully or partially automated collection 2
Any information stored and accessed through the machine 2
It has online collection of scanned items 1
Any Material in the digital format 1
The Use of electronic devices for the dissemination of the
information 1
4.1.1. Abstract Databases and Subscribed Electronic Resources as a Part of Digital
Library
The interviewees also gave their opinion about whether abstract databases and
subscribed electronic resources are included in digital libraries or not. The respondents
answered; “Subscribed resources are not a form of digital library. We can call it the
collection of electronic resources, electronic databases, or online databases but cannot
claim it our own digital library as HEC is using the name “National digital library
program” for subscribed sources” (Frequency = 18). “Abstract databases are the digital
libraries” (Frequency = 14) and “Abstract databases are not the digital libraries but we
can say it a step toward digital libraries as they don’t provide full text information”
(Frequency =11). Frequency distribution of acquired responses is presented in Table
4.1.1.
46
Table 4.1.1
Frequency Distribution of Opinion About Abstract Databases and Subscribed Electronic
Resources as a Part of Digital Library
Concept of Digital Libraries Frequency
Subscribed resources are not a form of digital library 18
Abstract databases are a step toward digital libraries 14
Abstract databases are not a digital library 11
4.1.2. Automation and Digital Library
All the respondents were agreed that the concept of library automation is quite
different from a digital library and they can be interdependent to each other but they are
not the same.
4.1.3 The Environment of the Digital Library
“The environment of the digital library can be both online (Internet or Intranet) or
offline (on CDROM, FLASH disk and other digital devices)” (Frequency =16). “The
Internet is an essential requirement for setting up a digital library” (Frequency = 9).
Table 4.1.3
Frequency Distribution of the Opinion About the Environment of the Digital Library
Environment Frequency
Digital library can be online (Internet or Intranet) 16
Digital library can be offline (On any digital device) 16
Digital library will always be Internet based library 9
4.1.4 Audio & Video Cassettes and a Digital Library
“Video and audio cassettes are not the part of a digital library as this type of
material is not in digital format” (Frequency=18). “Video and audio cassettes are the part
47
of a digital library” (Frequency = 2). Frequency distribution of the acquired responses is
presented in Table 4.1.4.
Table 4.1.4
Frequency Distribution of Opinion About AV Cassettes and Digital Libraries
AV Cassettes and Digital library Frequency
Video and Audio Cassettes are not the part of digital library 18
Only digital AV material is the part of digital library 18
Video and Audio Cassettes are the part of digital library 2
4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Digital Library
The interviewees were asked to opine about the advantages and disadvantages of
the digital library. The acquired responses are presented as follows:
4.2.1. Advantages of the Digital Library
The common advantages narrated by the respondent are as under: “Digital library
has a comprehensive search facility”, “It is always time saving”, “It gives round the clock
access”, “Resource sharing is very easy with the help of digital library” (Frequency =20).
“It occupies minimum space”, “Digital library enables text plus sound and images”,
“Digital library helps in building the better image of the library in the society”
(Frequency =18). “It is portable” (Frequency =16). “It can deliver information very
quickly” (Frequency =15). “Remote access is possible, there is no need to go physically
to the library to get any information” (Frequency =14). “Multiple users can access it at
the same time” (Frequency =13). “It is a safe media” (Frequency =9). The frequency
distribution of the acquired responses is presented in Table 4.2.1.
48
Table 4.2.1
Frequency Distribution of the Opinion About the Advantages of the Digital Library
Advantages Frequency
Time saving 20
Round the clock access 20
Convenient for resource sharing 20
Covers minimum space 18
Enables text with sounds 18
Build the image of the library 18
Portable 16
Quicker 15
Remote access 14
Multi User 13
Safe Media 9
4.2.2 Disadvantages of the Digital Library
All the respondents were agreed that the advantages of the digital library are
much more than its disadvantages. The problems narrated by the respondents are: “the
power failures” (Frequency =20), “Internet security problem” (Frequency =17), “No
physical appearance” (Frequency =16), “Computer or server problem” (Frequency =15),
“Copy right issues” (Frequency =12), and “People prefer to read print material”
(Frequency =9). “Digital library has no disadvantage but only have some hurdles that can
be removed” (Frequency=2). The frequency distribution of acquired responses is
presented in Table 4.2.2.
49
Table 4.2.2
Frequency Distribution of the Opinion About the Disadvantages of the Digital Library
Disadvantages Frequency
Power failures 20
Internet Security Problem 17
No Physical Appearance 16
Computer or Server Problem 15
Copy Right Issue 12
People prefer to read print material 9
No disadvantages 2
4.3 The Situation of the Digital Library in Pakistan
Respondents were asked to opine about the situation of the digital library in
Pakistan. All the respondents were not satisfied with the current situation of the digital
libraries but were of the opinion that now the concept of digital library is making its roots
in Pakistan and different institutes have taken the initiative towards it. They also claimed
that digital libraries of UN and the World Bank are the best examples of a digital library
in Pakistan.
In Lahore all most all the reputed institutes are now thinking about the digital
library setup. Some efforts have also been made by the different institutes like Lahore
University of Management Science (LUMS) has started a digital library of press
clippings, Govt. College University (GCU) has started their digital library of abstract of
thesis and other publications of GCU like RAVI, Scientific Ravi etc., Iqbal Academy has
digitized the work of Allama Iqbal. Further more the institute like COMSATS University,
University of Management and Technology, National University-FAST, Quaid-e-Azam
Public Library, Punjab University Library, Library of University of Engineering and
Technology, Shirkat Gah Library, SAMEDA Library, Lahore University of Management
50
Science Library and many other reputed institutes are going to set up or plan their own
digital libraries. All the respondents were agreed that the collective efforts in this regard
are the dire need of the hour especially at Lahore, although a number of institutes were
thinking about it. All the interviewees were of the opinion that the co-ordination among
the different institutes would be a constant cause of reducing duplication of work.
Keeping the situation of Pakistan in view, all the respondents recommended the
freely available software “Greenstone”, which can be used to set up a digital library. The
astonishing feature of this software is that the help, training and support are also freely
available and a national training workshop on greenstone digital library held in the month
of June 2006 at Islamabad. The respondents (Frequency=6) pointed out that the use of
software for the digital library depends on resource of the institute and there are many
commercial (fee based) software, which are available with unlimited features like VTLS
Virtua digital library module etc. So we should choose the best suitable software to
establish our own digital library.
4.4 The Problems in Setting up Digital Libraries in Pakistan
The interviewees were asked to mention the problems, which hinder in setting up
a digital library in Pakistan. All the respondents agreed that “IT literacy rate is very low
in Pakistan, which is a basic problem in setting up digital libraries” and “The copyright
act is also a hindrance” (Frequency = 20). “Lack of funds is a basic problem in Pakistan”
(Frequency = 16). “Basic required infrastructure for digital libraries is not available in
Pakistan” (Frequency = 14). “Local resources (Publications) are not available for
digitization” (Frequency = 12). “Absence of suitable infrastructure and trained
manpower”, “Resources are available but people are unaware of its importance”, and
51
“The higher administration is not willing for any change” (Frequency = 9). The frequency
distribution of acquired responses is presented in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4
Frequency Distribution of the Problems mentioned by the Respondents
Problems Frequency
Low IT Literacy rate 20
Copy Right Act 20
Lack of funds 16
Non-availability of basic infrastructure 14
Local resources are not available 12
Lack of trained man power 9
Lack of Awareness 9
Lack of interest by the higher management 9
4.5 Needs and requirements for setting up digital libraries in Pakistan
All the respondents felt that “the appropriate hardware and software is essentially
required for setting up digital libraries in Pakistan” (Frequency = 20). “Locally published
documents for digitization are required” (Frequency = 18). “The funding is the major
requirement for setting up digital libraries in Pakistan” (Frequency = 15). The support
and orientation is required in this regard (Frequency = 13). “The cooperation of higher
administration is the basic necessity as they have authority for making decisions and if
they are not willing for any change no one can do anything” (Frequency = 12). “The
availability of trained staff is most important and there is no institute in Pakistan, which
offers it as an individual subject, degree or course” (Frequency = 10). The frequency
distribution of acquired responses is presented in Table 4.5.
52
Table 4.5
Frequency Distribution of Respondents’ Opinion About the Needs and Requirements
Needs and Requirements Frequency
Appropriate hardware and software 20
Availability of documents for digitization 18
Funding 15
Support and orientation 13
Interest and cooperation by the higher administration 12
Training and education 10
4.6 Suggestions for the Promotion of Digital Libraries in Pakistan
The interviewees were also asked to give their suggestions for the promotion of
digital libraries in Pakistan, which is summarized as under:
“Proper arrangements should be made for the training and education of digital
libraries in Pakistan. Library schools can play a vital role in this regard by introducing a
full time digital library course at the Master and M. Phil level. Professional associations
and library schools can organize seminars, conferences, workshops, continuing education
programs, and lecture series etc., on regular bases for the promotion of digital library in
Pakistan. Government or other funding agencies can be helpful in its promotion through
frequent provision of funds. The Library and Information Science professionals can also
play a vital role in this regard. They should work like a unit with full coordination for its
development and promotion. There should be an institute, organization or association of
LIS professionals, which can provide help, support and orientation to all the librarians for
setting up digital libraries in Pakistan.
53
4.7. Findings
Acquired responses reveal that the respondents perceive the digital library as a
confused term, which can be defined in different ways. The most common attribute found
in all the definitions was “the digital library is an organized collection of digital objects”.
The respondents were of the view that in this era of information technology, the digital
library is the dire need of the hour and can play a vital role in the field of research and
development. Keeping the Pakistani perspective in view, the respondents mentioned
many problems, which were hindering in its promotion i.e., power failures, copyright
issue etc. They pointed out that the trained manpower and proper equipments and
infrastructure, along with training, orientation, support and awareness were essential
requirements for setting up a digital library. The present situation of digital libraries in
Pakistan is not satisfactory although some efforts have been made. The respondents
stressed that the training workshops, seminars, lectures and other activities are needed for
the promotion of digital libraries in Pakistan.
54
Chapter 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this chapter is to present a brief summary of the findings and
conclusions, and to offer some recommendations. It also suggests topics for further
research.
5.1 Scope and Conduct of the Study
The main objective of this study was to find out the perception of LIS
professionals regarding digital libraries and to know the concepts, advantages and
disadvantages, current situation, problems, needs and requirements and suggestions to
promote digital libraries in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives a comprehensive
literature review was conducted. Keeping the research questions in view, which also
served as a research instrument, a purposive sample was chosen for the data
collection. The sample was selected on the bases of their professional knowledge,
skills and work regarding digital library. An initial list of forty LIS professionals was
made with the help of senior professionals and the supervisor. After edition a final list
of 30 professionals was prepared. Five out of thirty nominees had refused due to their
tight schedule.
5.2 Findings Related to the Research Questions
Efforts were made to answer six research questions set out for this study.
Major findings regarding these questions are summarized below.
5.2.1. What is the concept of digital library?
Most of the experts were of the view that “Digital library is the library which
includes digital objects, electronic documents, sounds, videos and other documents
55
which can be accessed through your desktop. Digital library can be in online (Internet
Based) or it may be offline (i.e. CD ROM, Hard Disk, Flash drive or any other digital
medium). Talking about the subscribed resources, majority of experts were agreed
that the subscribed resources are not a form of digital library. In response to the
relation of abstract databases with digital library more than half of the experts
answered that the term digital library cannot be used for abstract databases as they
don’t provide full text information.
5.2.2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital libraries?
Data collected through the interviews of the experts show that the digital
library has a comprehensive search facility. It is always time saving and gives round
the clock access. Resource sharing is very easy with the help of digital library. It
covers minimum space and enables text plus sound and images. It helps to build the
image of the library in the society. It is portable and can deliver information quickly.
Remote access is available and there is no need to go physically to the library to get
any information .Multiple users can access it at the same time.
Internet security, Hardware, software, electricity failure, and copyright issues
can be the disadvantages of the digital libraries. In the opinion of digital library
experts (LIS Professionals) all these disadvantages can overcome. But an important
point or disadvantages especially in our local scenario is that the digital library has no
physical appearance and people want to read physical objects.
5.2.3. What is the situation of digital library in Pakistan?
Data collected through the interviews show that the situation of digital library
in Pakistan is not satisfactory. In this era of information technology when digital
56
libraries are so common in developed nation it is direly needed especially for Pakistan
and some serious efforts are needed for this cause.
5.2.4. What are the problems in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan?
Digital library is a newly born term in our country and there are a lot of
problems in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan. IT literacy rate is so low in
Pakistan and is a basic problem in setting up digital libraries. Further more all the
respondents were agreed that copy right , lack of funds and local resources, lack of
awareness, and the attitude of higher administration are the foremost problems for
digital libraries is problem in Pakistan
5.2.5. What are the needs and requirements for setting up the digital libraries in
Pakistan?
All the respondents felt the need of appropriate hardware and software, locally
published documents for digitization, funding, support and orientation, trained staff,
willingness of higher administration and role of library schools in setting up digital
libraries in Pakistan.
5.2.6. What are the suggestions to promote digital libraries in Pakistan?
It was suggested by the respondents that here is a need to be made some
serious effort to promote digital libraries in Pakistan. Library schools or Professional
Associations/ Group should organize a series of lectures, seminar, trainings and
workshops to promote the digital libraries in Pakistan. Library schools can start a full
time specialization program in this field or can offer an additional subject about
digital libraries. Further more the smooth provision of funds for setting up digital
libraries in Pakistan can be so helpful to promote digital libraries in Pakistan.
57
5.3. Conclusions
Following conclusions are based on the literature reviewed and
findings of the study
1. Digital library and library automation are two different things.
2. No comprehensive literature about the situation of digital libraries in
Pakistan is written.
3. The library that can be accesses at your desktop/laptop or through any
other digital medium is a digital library.
4. Subscribed resources are not the digital library.
5. Abstract databases can be a step toward digital libraries.
6. Abstract databases are not a digital library.
7. Digital library can be in online (Internet / Intranet) environment.
8. Digital library can be in offline (On any digital device) environment
9. Digital audio and video cassettes are the part of digital library.
10. Video and audio cassettes are not the part of digital library.
11. Digital libraries are always time saving
12. Digital libraries gave round the clock access
13. Digital library are convenient for resource sharing
14. Digital library covers minimum space
15. Digital library enables text with sounds
16. Digital library builds the image of the library
17. Digital library is portable , quicker and gave remote access
58
18. Digital libraries have a lot of advantages
19. Digital library have some problems like hardware, software, electricity
etc.
20. Situation of digital library in Pakistan is so poor
21. There are a lot problems in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan like
low literacy rate, lack of funds, copyright act, lack of trained man
power etc.
22. Appropriate hardware and software is needed to setting up digital
libraries in Pakistan.
23. Availability of documents for digitization is needed to setting up
digital libraries in Pakistan
24. Funding is the initial requirement for the digital libraries.
25. Support and orientation is needed for digital libraries.
26. Higher administration interest is the need of the hour.
27. Teach digital library as a subject , degree or course
5.4. Recommendations
Following recommendations are made for the promotion of the
concept of the digital libraries in Pakistan:
1. Proper training and education of digital libraries should be arranged in
Pakistan for the smooth provision of trained manpower in this field.
2. Library school and professional associations should play a vital role in
uplift of digital libraries in Pakistan.
59
3. Seminar, workshop, lectures, conferences, continuing education
programs and other activities like that should be organized for the
better results.
4. Fund should be allocated for setting up and promotion of the digital
libraries.
5. Appropriate hardware and software should be available in local
market.
6. All the institute and individuals should cooperate with each others to
remove the duplication of work.
7. Locally published document (books/research journals) should be
available for digitization without any copyright issue.
8. Help, support and orientation should be available in this regard.
5.5. Topic for Further Study
The study has opened different branches for further study; the
following are some suggestions in this regards
1. Keeping in view the rapid change of the concepts and technology of
the digital libraries, the study should be replicated after three years.
2. Comparative study of the software used for digital libraries should be
conducted.
3. In-depth case studies of individual digital library software (available in
local environment) can be conducted.
ƉƉĞŶĚŝdž
Interview Schedule
WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF DIGITAL LIBRARY?
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL
LIBRARIES?
WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARY IN PAKISTAN?
WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS IN SETTING UP DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN
PAKISTAN?
WHAT ARE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTING UP THE
DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN PAKISTAN?
WHAT ARE THE SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN
PAKISTAN?
ƉƉĞŶĚŝdž
LIST OF THE PARTICIPANTS
1. Abdul Waheed Govt. College University
2. Ajmal Khan University of Computer and Emerging Science
3. Asif Ali Main Library University of The Punjab New Campus
4. Ata ur Rehman University of Management and Technology
5. Dr. Kanwal Ameen Department of Library and Information Science
6. Dr. Khalid Mehmood Department of Library and Information Science
7. Dr. M. Ramzan Lahore University of Management Science
8. Haider Ali Lahore University of Management Science
9. Haroon Usmani Quaid-e-Azam Public Library
10. Komal Butt Punjab Group of Colleges PCBA/PICS
11. Manzoor Anjum FC College
12. Muhammad Anwer Lahore University of Management Science
13. Nadeem Sadique University of Computer and Emerging Science
14. Naeema Naeem Pakistan Administrative Staff College
15. Naila Sadiqi University of Computer and Emerging Science
16. Rafique Awan University of Management and Technology
17. Saima Qutab Ministry of Mines and Mineralogy
18. Shafiq ur Rehaman Hailey College of Banking and Finance
19. Shahid Saroya School of Mathematical Science GC University
20. Tariq Najmi COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
ƉƉĞŶĚŝdž
MUHAMMAD ANWER
LAHORE UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (LUMS)
INTRODUCTION
I am Muhammad Anwer. I have had twelve years working experience. I am here in
LUMS from last six years before that I was in SMEDA for eight months and before
SMEDA I was in Shirkat Gahh.
Q: WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF DIGITAL LIBRARY?
Digital library is a library of digital documents. Digital documents can be born
digital or converted into digital form in any format, basically digital library is a full
text searchable thing with full text support. It can be online (Internet / Intranet based)
or it can be offline (on CD ROM or in any other digital medium).According to my
views abstract databases are not actually the digital library we may say abstract
databases are guide to literature and if we talk about subscribed resources we can not
say it our own digital library.
Q: WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL
LIBRARY?
Digital libraries have a lot of advantages. It is time saving. Digital libraries
gave round the clock access and it is helpful in resource sharing. There are many
other advantages are also here like you have information on finger tips, full text
documents are here, searching facility is here for you etc. Digital libraries also have
some disadvantages like electricity, Internet security problem, Copyright etc.
Q: WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARY IN PAKISTAN?
We are still at very beginning, but peoples are in bits and pieces are doing
some efforts. But this concept is not matured in our country. Some collected efforts
are needed in this regards.
Q: WHAT ARE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTING UP
DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN PAKISTAN?
First thing is that collection should be there for digitization then availability of
hardware and software, provision of required infrastructure are needed for setting up
digital libraries in Pakistan.
Q: WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS IN SETTING UP DIGITAL LIBRARY IN
PAKISTAN?
There are a lot of problems in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan. Low
literacy rate is one of them, copyright act is a problem in Pakistan, lack of funding,
and lack trained manpower, unavailability of required infrastructure may cause a
problem in setting up digital libraries in Pakistan.
Q: WHAT ARE THE SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE DIGITAL LIBRARIES
IN PAKISTAN?
Trainings, orientations, visions, curriculums and sort of revision should be
taught at university level and people have already graduated they should have an
opportunity for professional development.
DR. MUHAMMAD RAMZAN
LAHORE UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (LUMS)
INTRODUCTION
Chief Librarian Lahore University of Management Science (LUMS)
Q: WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF DIGITAL LIBRARY?
Electronic library, virtual library and digital library you can simply sat the
data and knowledge in non print media. Electronic libraries are those where you use
electronic digits for library operations. From digital library what I mean is where the
information is in digital format. Digital library and automation is two different things.
Abstract data bases cannot fulfill the definition of digital library.
Q: WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL
LIBRARY?
Delivery of information has become fasten similarly the amount of
information that you can acquire or you can transfer or can access become limitless.
There are some limitations to digital library resources like technical problems, cost
factor, copyright act etc.
Q: WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARY IN PAKISTAN?
We are not very bad in this regard. With the growing knowledge of librarians
and our users now people are exploring these things and it depends on two things one
is library leadership and the second is the organization. The situation is satisfactory
level and in some cases very good, people are happy but in towns and villages
situation is so poor.
Q: WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS IN SETTING UP DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN
PAKISTAN?
Hardware and software may cause of problem, maintenance of hardware and
software. Unavailability of local documents is a constant cause of problem in this
regards.
Q: WHAT ARE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTING UP
DIGITAL LIBRARY IN PAKISTAN?
Trained manpower, required infrastructure, interest of the higher
administration, willingness of the librarian, availiblity of documents to digitize or
digitized documents and funds all these things are required for setting up digital
libraries in Pakistan.
Q: WHAT ARE THE SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE DIGITAL LIBRARY
IN PAKISTAN?
I will suggest seminar, conferences, lecture series to promote digital library in
Pakistan. One thing I will suggest to HEC not to stop what they are doing in this
regard. Library schools can play a vital role.
ABDUL WAHEED
GOVT. COLLEGE LAHORE
INTRODUCTION
My name in Abdul Waheed and I am very first chief librarian of the Govt. College
University and I am the first chief librarian of the education department having
foreign qualification and much more I was selected twice in the University of the
Punjab first on the contract bases but through the selection board and second time I
was selected on regular basis and I got seventeen increments and now I am the very
first chief Librarian in the Govt. College University with grade 20.
Q: WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF DIGITAL LIBRARY?
It is very confused term digital library, electronic library and virtual library
these are the three words and I think these are the synonym terms but if you go into
the bottom of these words what ever the provident in the present stages that all the
libraries they are using electronic devices to disseminate the information and it is of
course we have to be believe that what ever the improvement and development is in
progress in the developed countries not the developing courtiers and in the developing
countries where I am very much interested is the Malaysia. Now I am focusing on the
digital libraries where they informed you the disseminated and you can access the
library by the internet to the library and by the internet you may access the library
through there OPAC. In Pakistan there is no one library is completely digital library
say one Institute claims that they are the most advanced library but I think they are no
more advance because I think they are just providing their information through their
OPAC and they have good software. If you compare our libraries with the libraries in
the west they are more than that but we should think in our scenario.
When you get the reference the bibliographical detail and you may contact the
library through internet from the home this is electronic library.If you provide the
required information though the internet is the digital library. In my opinion where
the information is provided by the librarian as full text is a digital library.
Virtual library is a just a library which is beyond the wall virtual library itself
is nothing it is an effort by a library or librarian to provide bulk of updated
information on a one point to its user. I am to give you the very latest information
that daily jang has started the online paper. In Pakistan all library web pages are the
example of virtual library but it should be updated.
Q: WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN THE
PAKISTAN?
Digital library concept is even not stated in any library even the abstract of
thesis are not available online in the good libraries of Lahore GCU have provided the
abstract of all Mphil and Phd thesis.
Q: WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL
LIBRARIES?
I think every picture has two aspects. If we talk about the advantages of the
digital libraries in the Pakistan it is the dire need of hour. I will suggest what ever is
the available in the library it should be in digital form.
Q: WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS IN SETTING UP DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN
PAKISTAN?
But at the other hand there are a lot of problems like funding, trained
manpower etc and it is depend upon the institute where some one is working. There
are some disadvantages but it is necessary to go to digital library. The value of the
book can not be reducing so I am recommended a beautiful combination of manual
and digital library. The copyright does not exist after 50year and we want to digitize
our archives materials. Funding is the problem.
Q: WHAT ARE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTING UP
THE DIGITAL LIBRARIES IN PAKISTAN?
I think if your NIAT is good your administration is with you and if we will
provide a very clear idea to our administration they will provide you the funds.
Supose our RAVI and Scientific RAVI they are available online. When you will say
sir these are the advantages of digital library and this is the right man to do the same
and in the end I will say we must orientate our faculty.
Q: WHAT ARE THE SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE DIGITAL LIBRARIES
IN PAKISTAN?
Until or unless the concept of resource sharing will not grow in our local
libraries the concept of digital libraries can not be grow rapidly. The professional
associations are doing nothing.
ƉƉĞŶĚŝdž
REFERENCES
Atta, (2005, March 28). Pakistan only country to have digital library. The Daily Times
Retrieved October 25, 2006 from www.dailytimes.com.pk
Ball, R. (2000). The scientific information environment in the next millennium.
Library Management, 21, 10-12
Barbnard. (1999). Web accessible library resources for emerging virtual universities.
The journal of library services for distance education, 2(1). Retrieved October
17, 2006 from http://www.westga.edu/library/jlsde/vol2/1/Jbarnard.html
Besser, H. (2000).The Next Stage: Moving from Isolated Digital Collections to
Interoperable Digital Libraries. First Monday, 7(6), Retrieved November17,
2006 from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_6/besser/index.html
Biblioteca Universalis Project (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://www.konbib.nl/gabriel/biblioteca-universalis/index.htm
Borgman, C. L. (November 1996). Final report of UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of
Digital Libraries Workshop 96: Invitational workshop, February 15-
17, 1996 held at University of California, Los Angeles
Bratle, C., & Waltson, G. (2003) Effective Use of Electronic Information Sources.
Journal of Academic Librarianship, 29(1), 60-64
Bush, V. (1945). As We May Think. Atlantic Monthly, 176 ,(1) Retrieved October
22, 2006 from http://www.histech.rwthaachen.de/www/quellen/bush/as-
wema.html
Candle project retrieved (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://www.cordis.lu/libraries/en/projects/candle.html
Chepesuik, R. (1997). The future is here: America's libraries go digital. American
Libraries, 2(1), 47-49.
Chowdhury, G.G. & Chowdhury, S. (1999). Progress in documentation: digital
library research: major issues and trends. Journal of documentation, 55(4)
Cleveland, G. (1998).Digital Libraries: Definitions, Issues and Challenges March
1998 IFLA UDT core Program Retrieved October 17, 2006 from from
http://www.ifla.org/udt/op/
Cloete, L.M. (1992). Inhoudsontsluiting van videomateriaal. MBibl dissertation, Rand
Afrikaans University, Johannesburg.
Cloete, L.M. (1999). Report on the participation in the International Summer School
on the Digital Library, 15-27 August 1999 held at the Katholieke Universiteit
Brabant in Tilburg, The Netherlands. Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http//:cwis.kub.nl/~ticer/summer99/publicat/linda.htm
Collier, M.(1997) Towards a general theory of the digital library Retrieved November
25, 2006 from
http://www.dl.slis.tsukuba.ac.jp/ISDL97/proceedings/collier.html
Decomate II demonstration. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://cwis.kub.nl/~dbi/demomate/demomate.htm
Dieper project available (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://www.cordis.lu/libraries/en/projects/dieper.html
Eprint (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from http://www.eprints.hec.gov.pk/
Feather, J., & Sturges, P. (Eds.). (2003). International Encyclopedia of Information
and Library Science. (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Griffin, S.M. (1998). NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative: A Program
Manager's Perspective. D-Lib Magazine
HEC (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from
http://www.hec.gov.pk/htmls/library/default1.htm
Kahle, B. (2001).Public Access to Digital Material. D-Lib Magazine, 7(10), Oct 2001.
Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october01/kahle/10kahle.html
Lee, H. (2000). What is a collection? Journal of the American Society for Information
Science, 51 (12)
Lesk, M. (1996). Going digital. Scientific American. March, 1996, Retrieved October
17, 2006 from URL: http://www.sciam.com/0397issue/0397lesk.html
Lesk, M. (1997). Practical digital libraries: books, bytes, and bucks. San Francisco,
Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann. (The Morgan Kaufmann series in multimedia
information and systems)
Levy, D.A. (2000). Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose. Bulletin of the
American Society for Information Science, 26 (6), 22-26.
LISWiki (n.d.) Digital library and its different aspect Retrieved October 17, 2006
from http://www.liswiki.com/wiki/Digital_library
Lynch, C. (2004). The New Dimensions of Learning Communities Retrieved October
17, 2006 from www.ciconline.org
Lynch, C.A. (1997). Searching the Internet. Scientific American Retrieved October
17, 2006 from http://www.sciam.com/0397issue/0397lynch.html
Lynch, C.A. (1998). Identifiers and their role in networked information applications.
Lynch, CA (1995). The Tulip project: context, history, and perspective. Library Hi
Tech, 52(13)
Lynch, CA. and Garcia-Molina, H. (1995). Interoperability, scaling, and the digital
libraries research agenda: a report on the May 18-19, 1995 IITA Digital
Libraries Workshop. Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://wwwdiglib.stanford.edu/diglib/pub/reports/iitadlw/main.html
Owen, M. (1999). Libraries beyond 2000. Paper presented at the International
Summer School on the Digital Library, 15-27 August 1999 held at the
Katholieke Universiteit Brabant in Tilburg, The Netherlands.
Paklag (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from www.paklag.org
Pern (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from http://www.pern.edu.pk/
Planwel (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from http://www.planwel.edu/pln.htm
Powell, R. R. (2004). Basic research methods for librarians. Westport,CT : Ablex
Publishing.
Prytherch, R. J. (2005). Harrod’s librarians’ glossary and reference book. (10th ed.).
Hants: Ashgate.
Raitt, D. (2000). Digital library initiatives across Europe. Computers in Libraries, 20
(10) 26-34.
Roy,T. (1999). Digital v. Electronic v. Virtual Libraries Retrieved October 17, 2006
from http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/mydefinitions.html
Schatz, B. R. (1997), Information retrieval in digital libraries: bringing search to the
Net. Science, 275, 327-34
Schmidt, J. (n.d.). From library to cybrary: Changing the focus of library design and
Service delivery
Sreekumar, M.G (2005). Final Essential Strategies and Skill Sets towards Creating
Digital Libraries Using Open Source Software
Tait , Ms. (2004, February 26). British Council may launch e-library. The daily Times
Retrieved October 25, 2006 from www.dailytimes.com.pk
Telematics for Libraries program (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
http://www.cordis.lu/libraries
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Digital Libraries Initiative Glossary
(2006). Retrieved October 17, 2006 from dli.grainger.uiuc.edu/glossary.htm
Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (2006) Retrieved October 17, 2006 from
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_libraries
Buy your books fast and straightforward online - at one of world’s
fastest growing online book stores! Environmentally sound due to
Print-on-Demand technologies.
Buy your books online at
www.get-morebooks.com
Kaufen Sie Ihre Bücher schnell und unkompliziert online – auf einer
der am schnellsten wachsenden Buchhandelsplattformen weltweit!
Dank Print-On-Demand umwelt- und ressourcenschonend produzi-
ert.
Bücher schneller online kaufen
www.morebooks.de
VDM Verlagsservicegesellschaft mbH
Heinrich-Böcking-Str. 6-8 Telefon: +49 681 3720 174 info@vdm-vsg.de
D - 66121 Saarbrücken Telefax: +49 681 3720 1749 www.vdm-vsg.de
... Many studies have found that lack of awareness is associated with lower use of electronic collections (Said, 2006;Warraich, 2007). Hussain (2006) explored the perception of LIS professionals regarding digital libraries. He found the low IT literacy in Pakistan is a barrier to the use of digital libraries. ...
... Many studies have found that a lack of awareness is associated with lower use of electronic collections (Ibrahim 2004;Said, 2006;Warraich, 2007;Bashir, 2008). Hussain (2006) explores the perception of LIS professionals regarding digital libraries. He found the low IT literacy rate in Pakistan to be a barrier to digital libraries (pp. ...
... Therefore, the evaluation of DLRs and information system is a vital factor for developing a standard system and verifying system performance (Baroudi et al., 1986). Numerous studies were carried out on importance, use and satisfaction with HEC DLRs and services in the context of Pakistan (Ameen and Rafiq, 2009;Arif and Kanwal, 2009;Hussain and Mahmood, 2012;Khan and Ahmed, 2013); Tahir et al., 2008;Warraich and Kanwal, 2010;Warraich and Tahira, 2009). However, these studies were limited to the social science, management, humanities and medical science disciplines only. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of digital library resources (DLRs) in accelerating academic and research productivity has been acknowledged worldwide. To examine its impact on engineering research in Pakistan, this study empirically explored the DLRs usage as predictor of respondents’ satisfaction and research productivity. Quantitative research method was adopted to solicit viewpoints from a sample (n=196 out N=707) of Master and PhD students selected randomly from the public sector engineering universities in KPK, Pakistan. After the initial data screening, 177 questionnaires were processed as usable for statistical data analysis while five questionnaires with some missing values, erroneous or insufficient data were rejected. The response rate was computed as 90%. The findings of this empirical study show that the frequency of DLRs usage and purpose of DLRs significantly contributed to users’ satisfaction and research productivity. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the independent variables IVs (DLRs Purpose, DLRs Frequency) and dependent variables DVs (users’ satisfaction and research productivity). Outcomes of the study also supported all the four hypotheses between the variables. Major findings of this study could lead to further change in the provision of information sources by university libraries in order to support research efforts and make a scientific knowledge based society in the country. These outcomes are also helpful for HEC authority, university library administrators, LIS professionals/Information providers to develop e-resources, formulate effective DLRs usage policies through which they could make best use of these resources. This study empirically examines the impact of DLRs usage on engineering research in the context of engineering universities in Pakistan.
... Many studies have found that a lack of awareness is associated with lower use of electronic collections (Ibrahim 2004; Said, 2006; Warraich, 2007; Bashir, 2008). Hussain (2006) explores the perception of LIS professionals regarding digital libraries. He found the low IT literacy rate in Pakistan to be a barrier to digital libraries (pp. 50-56). Sadique (2005) found that lack of awareness about Information Resource Center (IRC) in PUL and low digital literacy were the main causes of lower use of electronic serv ...
Article
A collection of information, alongwith related services managed and stored in the digital formats for accessing over a digital network is called digital library. The study aims to calculate the acceptance of digital library program initiated by higher education commission of Pakistan. Higher education commission is monitoring body that overlooks the higher education institutions and provides them with required facilities, equipment’s and services. One of its biggest services is Digital library program, an outstanding national level digital librar y in Pakistan. For the sake of encourage the research culture and improve the digital infrastructure nation-wide, digital library is introduced. The study is based on a reviewing relevant literature on the subject to evaluate successes of digital library project and assessing its acceptance in perspective of users particularly research students of various universities and to provide theoretical framework towards acceptance of digital library by research students.
Article
The study looked into the readiness of a state college for the establishment of a digital library. In particular, it assessed the knowledge of the respondents about digital library and its uses, digitization process, and electronic resources services. It also evaluated the extent of adequacy and availability of physical resources, adequacy of professional librarians and qualities of library staff, financial resources, library collections, information technology resources and the prospects for a digital library. The study applied the descriptive-evaluative method of research. Three hundred fifty three (353) students and ninety seven (97) faculty and employees from both campuses comprised the four hundred fifty (450) respondents. The questionnaire was the main data gathering tool. Frequency counts, percentages, and mean ratings (with descriptive equivalent) were used as descriptive statistics. Based on the set measure of readiness, generally, the state college is not ready for the establishment of a digital library. However, the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on the aspects of digital library while the physical resources, number of professional librarian, qualities expected to the library staff, financial resources, library collection and information technology resources were evaluated as adequate. As to the prospects for a digital library, 98.22% of respondents favored the establishment of a digital library in the state college libraries as part of additional access to information. They considered the various electronic resources and services as very important.
Article
Full-text available
Today's libraries are faced with the challenges of integrating the traditional and the emerging information paradigm. The current information environment unequivocally prompts libraries to leverage on the latest digital technologies towards building practical digital libraries and in setting up dynamic electronic information systems. Digital libraries do enable the seamless integration of the scholarly electronic information, help in creating and maintaining local digital content, and strengthen the mechanisms and the capacity of the library's information systems and services. They increase the portability, efficiency of access, flexibility, availability and preservation of digital objects. Libraries today face the unprecedented challenge of managing an array of content spread across a host of publication types and in a rapidly proliferating mix of formats. There are a host of problems the enthusiastic library fraternity face in their digital library development endeavours starting from the copyright issues, technology complexities, infrastructure threats, diverse publication types, multiplicity of digital object formats and above all the publishers' stringent policies and monopoly. It is imperative on the part of the information professional to have a componentized and a multi-system approach to knowledge technologies and information management. Seamless aggregation and meticulous integration of diverse datastreams is the most appropriate strategy to be adopted and applied. Digital Libraries of the day need strong foundations of the RDF vision supplemented with descriptive metadata standards such as Dublin Core or METS. They also need the strength of XML encoding schemas, related DTDs and XSL transformations between the diverse data streams and the HTML front-end. Leading edge digital object management systems and digital library technologies founded on field proven interoperability frameworks, complimented with OAI-PMH protocol backing, is a pre-requisite for today's digital libraries. This paper emphasizes the need for deploying interoperable open source digital library softwares and open digital library standards and technologies to be experimented, explored and exploited by the Indian libraries extensively. It illustrates the method of developing a Digital Library using the