ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Purpose This paper aims to survey the web sites of the academic libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (USA) regarding the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies. Design/methodology/approach The websites of 100 member academic libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (USA) were surveyed. Findings All libraries were found to be using various tools of Web 2.0. Blogs, microblogs, RSS, instant messaging, social networking sites, mashups, podcasts, and vodcasts were widely adopted, while wikis, photo sharing, presentation sharing, virtual worlds, customized webpage and vertical search engines were used less. Libraries were using these tools for sharing news, marketing their services, providing information literacy instruction, providing information about print and digital resources, and soliciting feedback of users. Originality/value The paper is useful for future planning of Web 2.0 use in academic libraries.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Adoption of Web 2.0 in US
academic libraries: a survey of
ARL library websites
Khalid Mahmood
Department of Library and Information Science, University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan, and
John V. Richardson Jr
Department of Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles,
California, USA
Purpose – This paper aims to survey the web sites of the academic libraries of the Association of
Research Libraries (USA) regarding the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies.
Design/methodology/approach The websites of 100 member academic libraries of the
Association of Research Libraries (USA) were surveyed.
Findings – All libraries were found to be using various tools of Web 2.0. Blogs, microblogs, RSS,
instant messaging, social networking sites, mashups, podcasts, and vodcasts were widely adopted,
while wikis, photo sharing, presentation sharing, virtual worlds, customized webpage and vertical
search engines were used less. Libraries were using these tools for sharing news, marketing their
services, providing information literacy instruction, providing information about print and digital
resources, and soliciting feedback of users.
Originality/value – The paper is useful for future planning of Web 2.0 use in academic libraries.
Keywords Web 2.0, Academic libraries, Worldwide web, Internet, Web sites, United States of America
Paper type General review
Tim O’Reilly introduced the term “Web 2.0”, second generation of the worldwide web,
describing a series of technologies based on seven underlying principles, i.e. “the Web
as platform, harnessing collective intelligence, data is the next Intel inside, end of the
software release cycle, lightweight programming models, software above the level of
single device, and rich user experiences” (O’Reilly, 2005). The concept has been widely
spread in all walks of life. The applications developed under the 2.0 umbrella include
blogs, really simple syndication (RSS), wikis, instant messaging, social networking
sites (SNS), social tagging, mashups, social media sharing, and many others.
As libraries and library managers have usually been early and enthusiastic
adopters of new information technologies they have welcomed Web 2.0 with the same
zeal. Applying the concept of Web 2.0 to libraries, Michael Casey coined the term
“Library 2.0.” in September 2005. It embraced a new philosophy of library service. “The
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
The first author wishes to thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for financial
support during his Post Doctoral Fellowship Program (PDFP) at the University of California, Los
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
Received April 2011
Revised June 2011
Accepted June 2011
Program: electronic library and
information systems
Vol. 45 No. 4, 2011
pp. 365-375
qEmerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/00330331111182085
heart of Library 2.0 is user centered change. It is a model for library service that
encourages constant and purposeful change, inviting user participation in the creation
of both the physical and the virtual services they want, supported by consistently
evaluating services. It also attempts to reach new users and better serve current ones
through improved customer-driven offerings” (Casey and Savastinuk, 2006). Xu et al.
(2009) proposed a conceptual model of Academic Library 2.0 to indicate how Web 2.0
interacts with librarian, user and information (see Figure 1). According to Boxen (2008),
“Most tech-savvy librarians have embraced at least one or two aspects of Library 2.0
and incorporated them into either their library, their personal interactions, or both”.
A library website is considered as a window for providing its services to the users
electronically even outside the library walls. Libraries have already included many
Web 2.0 applications in their websites. This paper reports a survey of the websites of
academic libraries in the USA regarding the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies.
Literature review
Because Web 2.0 is a new phenomenon for libraries there are a few studies on the
content surveys of library websites regarding the adoption of these technologies.
Tripathi and Kumar (2010) surveyed the contents of 277 university library websites in
Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA. They found that instant messaging was the
most popular Web 2.0 tool, used in 43.7 percent of libraries. Other tools included blogs
(33.2 percent) and RSS (31.4 percent). Purposes for which Web 2.0 technologies used
were also studied. Kim and Abbas (2010) surveyed websites of a small sample of 230
academic libraries worldwide. The technologies found were RSS (73 percent), blog
(65 percent), personalized content (30 percent), podcast (27 percent), bookmark (22
percent), wiki (20 percent), Twitter (15 percent), folksonomy (13 percent) and tagging
(12 percent). Another international study was conducted by Harinarayana and Raju
(2010). They selected 100 universities from the lists of world university rankings.
Fifty-seven universities were offering at least one Web 2.0 service. The content
analysis of these 57 websites revealed that RSS and IM were used by 37 libraries and
blogs were offered by 15 libraries. Wiki, podcast and vidcast were among the least
used technologies. Chua and Goh (2010) studied 120 public and academic library
websites from North America, Europe and Asia. The findings suggested that the order
of popularity of Web 2.0 applications implemented was: blogs, RSS, instant messaging,
social networking services, wikis, and social tagging applications.
Figure 1.
The Academic Library
2.0 model
In North America, Liu (2008) investigated websites of 111 ARL member libraries and
found RSS, blogs, wikis, podcasts and personal bookmarks/tagging in use in various
libraries. Xu et al. (2009) visited the websites of 81 academic libraries in New York
State. They found that only 42 percent of institutions had introduced Web 2.0 tools to
their libraries. Instant messaging was the most frequently used tool. Other Web 2.0
technologies found were blogs, RSS, tagging, wikis, SNS and podcasts, respectively, in
order of frequency. Shrager (2010) studied websites of nine academic law libraries in
the Washington DC metro area. Eight libraries used some form of Web 2.0
technologies. The applications included IM, RSS, blogs, social bookmarking, user
reviews and SNS, respectively, in order of frequency. Morris and Bosque (2010)
evaluated 21 US academic library websites and subject guides to compare the use of
Web 2.0 tools. They found that Web 2.0 features were lower in subject guides than that
in library websites in general. Web 2.0 features found were blogs, chat, RSS, tag clouds,
tagging, user reviews, wikis, and YouTube.
In a survey of academic libraries in New Jersey, USA and Hong Kong, China, Nesta
and Mi (2011) found that instant messaging, blogs, RSS, Facebook, and Twitter were
used but the students’ participation in these technologies was low.
In UK, Shoniwa and Hall (2007) audited library websites of 152 higher education
institutions. Web 2.0 tools found were RSS (18 percent), blogs (11 percent) and podcasts
(5 percent). In China, Si et al. (2009) searched Web 2.0 components in library websites of
30 top-ranked universities. Two-thirds of libraries adopted one or more such
technologies. Applications of various technologies in a descending order include RSS,
IM, toolbar, blog, Ajax, tag/folksonomy and wiki. Another Chinese study is presented
in Han and Liu’s (2010) paper. They selected 38 top ranked universities and found that
31 of them used at least one kind of Web 2.0 tools. The tools used, in their order of
frequency, were OPAC 2.0, RSS, blog, IM, SNS and wiki. In Australia and New
Zealand, Linh (2008) analyzed the content of 47 university library websites. In addition
to the identification of Web 2.0 technologies, this study also explored purposes and
features of their use. Although two-thirds of libraries used such technologies but the
general indexes of their use were low. Applications used include RSS (63.8 percent),
blogs (36.2 percent), podcasts (21.3 percent) and IM (10.6 percent). All these
technologies were applied with their basic features.
Some researchers analyzed contents of individual tools in Web 2.0. Clyde’s (2004)
study is one of the earliest studies on Web 2.0 technology in libraries. She analyzed the
content of 55 library blogs from the USA, Canada and the UK. Among them, 21
belonged to academic libraries. It was found that most of the blogs were made to
provide news or information for library users. Another study on blog analysis was
conducted by Lihitkar and Yadav (2008). They made an in depth study of ten
university library blogs, including contact details, content coverage, ease of
navigation, external links and blog archives. Aharony (2009) analyzed the contents
of 30 LIS blogs. She found that “there was a tendency to write essay-type posts with
hypertext links, there were fewer posts and postings days, as well as fewer readers’
comments, but a larger number of links and tags which were assigned to the posts”. In
another study, Aharony (2010) further analyzed the comments appeared in LIS blogs.
The results show that most of the comments presented personal information. Other
types of information included advisory, reflective, impressive information and
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
courtesy and politeness. Lee and Bates (2007) analyzed eight blogs belonging to
libraries and librarians in Ireland. They found four types of blog:
(1) internal knowledge log (37.5 percent);
(2) external knowledge log (25 percent);
(3) mixed filter/external k-log (25 percent); and
(4) filter log (12.5 percent).
The most common software used was Blogger and the number of readers’ comments
was low. Stuart (2010) analyzed contents of 433 library accounts on Twitter. He found
that libraries were not very active users of this microblogging tool. However, they
mostly used it for broadcasting news and information about library resources.
Problem statement
The tools of Web 2.0 are rapidly gaining popularity in all walks of life. They have
enabled academic libraries to involve faculty and students in their activities and solicit
their feedback for improvement in services. Library websites are the windows through
which they provide electronic services to the distant users. It is assumed that many
academic libraries have already included a variety of Web 2.0 features in their websites
but there is a little research investigating the extent and purpose of the adoption of
such features. The practices of the libraries of world’s top academic institutions in this
regard should be explored to guide other libraries in getting maximum benefit of these
Research questions
This study was conducted to answer the following research questions:
.What type of Web 2.0 technologies have academic libraries adopted as revealed
on their websites?
.What are the uses of these Web 2.0 technologies in academic libraries?
The survey research method was employed in this exploratory study. Based on the
review of the literature a checklist was developed for collection of data. A list of various
Web 2.0 technologies and their possible uses was prepared, with an option for “others”.
A draft of the data collection checklist was sent to experts for content validity and
suggestions for improvement. Ninety-five persons in various countries who had
authored books and articles on the use of Web 2.0 in libraries were contacted for this
purpose. Twenty-eight commented on the checklist. Most of them validated the items
included, while some helped in improving the draft.
The population for this study consisted of 100 academic libraries in USA included in
the Association of Research Libraries’ membership list (see
membership/members.shtml). ARL member libraries from Canada and non-academic
libraries were not selected. The contents of library websites were surveyed in October
to December 2010. The principal investigator browsed all pages on the websites to find
Web 2.0 applications. The web pages were also searched in local search engines using
keywords indicating various Web 2.0 applications. The Google search engine was also
used in some cases.
There are two limitations of this study. Firstly, its scope is limited. Although the
ARL has a membership of almost all large academic libraries, these are not a
representative sample of US academic libraries. Therefore, the results of this study
should not be generalized. Secondly, it is based on the analysis of web content that was
publicly available. Tools of Web 2.0 that were protected with passwords or only made
available on intranets are not covered in this study.
Results and discussion
The websites of all academic libraries in the population were working during the
survey period. Many libraries provided links to Web 2.0 applications on their home
pages. A few developed a separate page to enlist such applications. The others
provided information on the pages of relevant sections and departments.
A list of many Web 2.0 applications shown in academic library websites is provided
in Figure 2. RSS was found to be the most popular tool. The second most popular
feature was instant messaging. Libraries were providing reference and information
services to distant users through live chatting mostly using Meebo software. The next
popular application was social networking. Eighty-nine libraries had a presence on
Facebook. A few also used other social sites. Libraries also made their blogs using
various blogging softwares. Eighty-five libraries were using Twitter for
microblogging. Twitter “allows users to share their thoughts instantly with
everyone in its network, as long as entries are 140 characters or less. The word
limit forces authors to compress and summarize their thoughts. For the reader, it
reduces information overload because the essence of information can be quickly
scanned” (Kim and Abbas, 2010). The libraries in this study used this technology to
share news and announcements.
Fifty-five libraries used social bookmarking or tagging. They used this technology
in three ways. Some libraries offered user tagging in OPACs. Many developed subject
guides using Springshare software, which provides keyword tagging for searching. A
few libraries used the website for social bookmarking.
Figure 2.
Frequency of Web 2.0
technologies in library
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
Forty-seven libraries were using Flickr website for sharing pictures of events.
Similarly, 17 libraries used Slideshare website for sharing PowerPoint presentations.
Ten libraries had a presence in Second Life, a virtual world. Virtual worlds, or
multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs), exist as web-based, three-dimensional,
immersive environments. In these worlds, participants are represented by avatars, or
digital personas, who interact with one another in a persistent world (Bell and
Trueman, 2008). Second Life, started in 2003, is the most popular of these (Trueman
et al., 2007). Second Life residents “can do almost anything they could in the real world”
(Jayasuriya and Brillantine, 2007). Customized webpages and vertical search engines
were the least used technologies.
Really simple syndication (RSS) is an XML format that “allows users to receive
content from sources such as news organizations, blogs and any Web page that
changes its content frequently” (Kajewski, 2007). “Web content is created or published
in one place to be displayed in other places, such as in RSS aggregators, also called
readers” (Stephens, 2007). “Using this function, multiple information sources are
aggregated into one page so users can scan information and select articles of interest
for more detail, alleviating information overload” (Kim and Abbas, 2010). The present
study found that most of the academic libraries were using this technology to publish
library news and announcements and sharing items published on library blogs. RSS
use for providing table of contents of journals was not common (Table I).
Social networking sites are a way to get and stay in touch with friends, family and
associates who are spread out across the world. An SNS is a “Web site that allows
users to (1) create a profile, (2) connect their profile to that of other users, and (3) view
and explore the connections between profiles.” (Landis, 2010). This survey found that
academic libraries were using SNS for sharing news, pictures, and video clips and
marketing their services. A few libraries also offered online reference service and
OPAC search on their Facebook pages (Table II).
Rank Use Frequency
1 Publishing news/announcements 83
2 Sharing items published on library blog 75
3 Providing information literacy instruction 43
4 Providing information about new acquisitions 33
5 Providing information about podcasts/vodcasts 15
6 Providing information about databases/ejournals/TOCs 4
Table I.
Use of RSS (n¼99)
Rank Use Frequency
1 Sharing library news/events 88
2-3 Sharing pictures/video clips 85
2-3 Marketing library services 85
4 Providing online reference service 13
5 Searching OPACs 11
6 Other 4
7 Providing information about new acquisitions 1
Table II.
Use of social networking
sites (n¼89)
Blogging is considered the flagship of Web 2.0 because it is an activity that requires
reading and writing on the Web (Evans, 2009). In 2004, the Merriam Webster Online
Dictionary declared “blog” the number one word of the year (McIntyre and Nicolle,
2008). The term “weblog”, or “blog”, refers to “a particular category of website where
the content is presented in a continuing sequence of dated entries. Put simply, a blog is
an online diary” (Kajewski, 2007). The entries are displayed in reverse chronological
order. “New information appears at the top of the page, previous items are available via
archives, and entries can be assigned to categories” (Murley, 2008). Most blogs also
allow visitors to add comments to the entries (Morris and Allen, 2008). In this study,
blogs were found in 86 library websites. Through blogs libraries were publishing news
and marketing their services. Some libraries were providing information about new
acquisitions and recommending internet resources (Table III).
Mashup technology is also gaining popularity in library websites. This term is
derived from the music community where musicians would sample and remix multiple
song tracks, vocals, and sounds to create a new song (Kraft, 2007). In the Web 2.0
context, it is a “web application that uses content from more than one source to create a
single new service displayed in a single graphical interface” (Engard, 2009). In
academic libraries under survey this application was used to incorporate Google Maps
to show library location. Many libraries provided search interfaces of WorldCat,
Google Scholar and Google Books. Through mashups a few libraries were showing
title images in the OPACs imported from Google Books or Syndetic Solutions
(Table IV).
Libraries were sharing audio and video clips, mainly of tutorials. They used
YouTube and Apple iTunes for this purpose. Some libraries also shared audios and
videos of news, interviews and speeches (Tables V and VI).
Forty libraries were using wiki applications. “Wikis allow documents to be written
collaboratively, using a simple markup language, or using a graphical user interface
(GUI) in a web browser. A ‘wiki’ is a collection of single ‘wiki pages,’ usually
interconnected via hyper-linking” (Lombardo et al., 2008). “Unlike protected web pages,
any information added to a wiki can be changed or deleted by anyone [...] It also
allows for linking among any number of pages. This ease of interaction and operation
makes a wiki an effective tool for mass collaborative authoring” (Robertson et al.,
2008). Libraries were mainly using this technology for managing resources limited to
Rank Use Frequency
1 Publishing library news/announcements/events 85
2 Marketing library services/encouraging use 75
3 Providing information about new acquisitions 31
4 Providing links to recommended internet resources 30
5 Providing information literacy instruction 29
6 Keeping users current with subjects of interest 28
7 Soliciting user feedback/suggestions 8
8-9 Providing online reference services 7
8-9 Posting book reviews 7
10-11 Facilitating staff collaboration 2
10-11 Other 2
12 Inviting suggestions for acquisition 1
Table III.
Use of blogs (n¼86)
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
staff, i.e. committee minutes, procedures, rules, etc. A few libraries used wikis in project
planning and management. Table VII also indicates some unique uses of wikis.
Conclusion and recommendations
The results of this exploratory study indicate an overwhelming acceptance of various
Web 2.0 tools in large academic libraries of the United States. The first generation of the
worldwide web enabled libraries to offer their services to the users beyond their walls.
The applications of Web 2.0 have opened new avenues for libraries as they allowed them
Rank Use Frequency
1 Google Maps 38
2 Search interface of WorldCat 32
3 Search interface of Google Scholar 17
4 Title image in OPAC from Google Books 8
5-7 Title image in OPAC from Syndetic Solutions 5
5-7 Search interface of Google Books 5
5-7 Other 5
8 Google Calendar 3
9-10 Title image in OPAC from Baker & Taylor 2
9-10 Title image in OPAC from Amazon 2
Table IV.
Use of mashups (n¼71)
Rank Use Frequency
1 Providing information literacy instruction/library tutorials 64
2 Sharing library news/events 34
3 Other 4
Table V.
Use of vodcasts/video
sharing (n¼72)
Rank Use Frequency
1 Providing information literacy instruction/library tutorials 41
2 Sharing interviews/speeches 23
3 Sharing library news/events 21
4 Other 2
5-6 Making audiobook collections available 1
5-6 Sharing book reviews 1
Table VI.
Use of podcasts/audio
sharing (n¼65)
Rank Use Frequency
1 Managing staff resources 20
2 Planning projects 12
3 Managing subject guides 6
4 Archiving FAQs 4
5 Training staff 3
6 Developing/managing library policies/procedures 2
7 Managing course reserves 1
Table VII.
Use of wikis (n¼40)
to involve users in their activities and solicit their feedback for improvement in services.
The data suggest that each academic library has adopted some form of Web 2.0
technologies. A significant improvement is seen since the study of library websites of the
same population by Liu (2008). Other studies, too, could not find such extensive adoption
of these tools in academic libraries. In current study, blogs, microblogs, RSS, instant
messaging, social networking sites, mashups, podcasts and vodcasts are found to be
widely adopted, while wikis, photo sharing, presentation sharing, virtual worlds,
customized webpages and vertical search engines are used less. With slight differences,
results on the type of Web 2.0 applications are consistent with the previous studies. This
study presents an optimistic picture of academic libraries as they are keeping pace with
the rapidly changing technological environment. The trend shows that all libraries will
adopt user-participated Web 2.0 tools for enhancing the quality of their services.
This study is one of the earliest investigations on this topic. Further research is
warranted based on the feedback of library staff and users. Research techniques other
than the analysis of website contents can also be applied, for example questionnaire
survey, focus group, interview, case study, transaction log analysis, etc. The questions
to be addressed may include:
.How do librarians make choices among various Web 2.0 applications?
.What problems do library managers face in successful implementation of Web
2.0 tools?
.How do librarians promote the use of Web 2.0 technologies?
.How much Web 2.0 applications have contributed in enhancing the quality of
library services?
.How users perceive about library services provided through Web 2.0
.How these technologies influence the information seeking behavior of library
.What is the impact of distinct tools of Web 2.0 on distinct library services?
.To what extent has a wider sample group adopted these technologies?
.How do libraries collaborate with other academic units in offering Web 2.0 based
.How do Web 2.0 tools contribute in the professional development of librarians?
Aharony, N. (2009), “An exploratory analysis of librarians’ blogs: their development, nature and
changes”, Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 61 No. 6, pp. 587-604.
Aharony, N. (2010), “LIS blog comments: an exploratory analysis”, Libri, Vol. 60 No. 1, pp. 65-77.
Bell, L. and Trueman, R.B. (2008), Virtual Worlds, Real Libraries: Librarians and Educators in
Second Life and Other Multi-user Virtual Environments, Information Today, Medford, NJ.
Boxen, J.L. (2008), “Library 2.0: a review of the literature”, The Reference Librarian, Vol. 49,
pp. 21-34.
Casey, M. and Savastinuk, L. (2006), “Library 2.0: service for the next-generation library”, Library
Journal, Vol. 131 No. 14, pp. 40-2.
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
Chua, A. and Goh, D. (2010), “A study of Web 2.0 applications in library websites”, Library
& Information Science Research, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 203-11.
Clyde, L.A. (2004), “Library weblogs”, Library Management, Vol. 25 Nos 3/4, pp. 183-9.
Engard, N.C. (2009), Library Mashups: Exploring New Ways to Deliver Library Data, Information
Today, Medford, NJ.
Evans, W. (2009), Building Library 3.0: Issues in Creating a Culture of Participation, Chandos,
Han, Z. and Liu, Y.Q. (2010), “Web 2.0 applications in top Chinese university libraries”, Library
Hi Tech, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 41-62.
Harinarayana, N. and Raju, N. (2010), “Web 2.0 features in university library web sites”,
Electronic Library, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 69-88.
Jayasuriya, H.K. and Brillantine, F. (2007), “Student services in the 21st century: evolution and
innovation in discovering student needs, teaching information literacy, and designing
Library 2.0-based services”, Legal Reference Services Quarterly, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 135-70.
Kajewski, M.A. (2007), “Emerging technologies changing our service delivery models”,
The Electronic Library, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 420-9.
Kim, Y.-M. and Abbas, J. (2010), “Adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries
and users: a knowledge management perspective”, Journal of Academic Librarianship,
Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 211-8.
Kraft, M.A. (2007), “Mashing up the internet”, in Wood, M.S. (Ed.), Medical Librarian 2.0: Use of
Web 2.0 Technologies in Reference Services, The Haworth Information Press, Binghamton,
NY, pp. 191-207.
Landis, C. (2010), A Social Networking Primer for Librarians, Neal-Schuman, New York, NY.
Lee, C.M. and Bates, J.A. (2007), “Mapping the Irish biblioblogosphere: use and perceptions of
library weblogs by Irish librarians”, The Electronic Library, Vol. 25 No. 6, pp. 648-63.
Lihitkar, S. and Yadav, M. (2008), “A study of university libraries weblogs: online tool for
information sharing and dissemination”, SRELS Journal of Information Management,
Vol. 45 No. 1, pp. 17-36.
Linh, N.C. (2008), “A survey of the application of Web 2.0 in Australasian university libraries”,
Library Hi Tech, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 630-53.
Liu, S. (2008), “Engaging users: the future of academic library web sites”, College & Research
Libraries, Vol. 69, pp. 6-27.
Lombardo, N.T., Mower, A. and McFarland, M.M. (2008), “Putting wikis to work in libraries”,
Medical Reference Services Quarterly, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 129-45.
McIntyre, A. and Nicolle, J. (2008), “Biblioblogging: blogs for library communication”,
The Electronic Library, Vol. 26 No. 5, pp. 683-94.
Morris, A. and Allen, K. (2008), “Library 2.0 technologies in academic libraries: a case study of
student use and perceptions”, paper presented at Online Information, London, December
1-3, available at:
Morris, S. and Bosque, D. (2010), “Forgotten resources: subject guides in the era of Web 2.0”,
Technical Services Quarterly, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 178-93.
Murley, D. (2008), “What is all the fuss about Library 2.0?”, Law Library Journal, Vol. 100 No. 1,
pp. 197-204.
Nesta, F. and Mi, J. (2011), “Library 2.0 or library III: returning to leadership”, Library
Management, Vol. 32 Nos 1/2, pp. 85-97.
O’Reilly, T. (2005), “What is Web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next
generation of software”, available at:
Robertson, J., Burnham, J., Li, J. and Sayed, E. (2008), “The medical matters wiki: building a
library Web site 2.0”, Medical Reference Services Quarterly, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 21-32.
Shoniwa, P. and Hall, H. (2007), “Library 2.0 and UK academic libraries: drivers and impacts”,
New Review of Information Networking, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 69-79.
Shrager, D.E. (2010), “Moving past Web 2.0h! An exploratory study of academic law libraries”,
available at:
Si, L., Shi, R. and Chen, B. (2009), “A survey of the application of Web 2.0 in top 30 Chinese
university libraries”, paper presented at the Second International Symposium on
Knowledge Acquisition and Modeling, Wuhan, November 30-December 1.
Stephens, M. (2007), “Libraries and the read/write web”, in Gordon, R.S. (Ed.), Information
Tomorrow, Information Today, Medford, NJ, pp. 97-112.
Stuart, D. (2010), “What are libraries doing on Twitter?”, Online, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 45-7.
Tripathi, M. and Kumar, S. (2010), “Use of Web 2.0 tools in academic libraries: a reconnaissance
of the international landscape”, International Information & Library Review, Vol. 42 No. 3,
pp. 195-207.
Trueman, R.B., Peters, T. and Bell, L. (2007), “Get a Second Life! Libraries in virtual worlds”,
in Gordon, R.S. (Ed.), Information Tomorrow, Information Today, Medford, NJ, pp. 159-71.
Xu, C., Ouyang, F. and Chu, H. (2009), “The academic library meets Web 2.0: applications and
implications”, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 35 No. 4, pp. 324-31.
Corresponding author
Khalid Mahmood can be contacted at:
Adoption of
Web 2.0 in US
To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail:
Or visit our web site for further details:
... Usage of Web 2.0 application in library environment is known as Library 2.0. Really simple syndication (RSS) is one of the most popular Web 2.0 tools in academic and special libraries for publishing news, sharing information on library blogs, facilitating information literacy instruction and announcing information about new acquisitions, databases, and ejournals (Mahmood & Richardson, 2011). The use of Web 2.0 tools and technology further enhanced more with the introduction of Second Life concept in 2003. ...
Full-text available
The study aims to present a comparative analysis of Web 2.0 online usage by academic and special libraries in Pakistan. This study adopted quantitative approach and administered a structured questionnaire to collect data from librarians working in special and academic libraries of Pakistan. The researchers administered 156 questionnaires to library staff working in academic libraries and 150 working in special libraries in Pakistan using online data collection tool i.e. Google Docs. Out of 306 administered questionnaires, 202 responses were returned (98 from academic and 104 from special libraries) and analyzed with the help of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Findings of the study show that librarians of both academic and special libraries possess good knowledge of Web 2.0 tools. However, female librarians were less aware about Web 2.0 services as compared to their male counterpart. Academic librarians tend to demonstrate positive perception about usefulness of Web 2.0 applications in libraries as compared to librarians working in special libraries. The study founded that the qualification of respondents influences the usage frequency of Web 2.0 applications in special and academic libraries. Very few studies are available on the use of Web 2.0 applications in libraries of Pakistan. However, this study is the first attempt to make comparative analysis on how librarians, working in different types of libraries, perceive about use of Web 2.0 applications.
... Advocated for subject guides with pedagogical designs that guide students through the research process. In 2011, a survey of 99 academic library websites in the United States discovered that they all provided this type of information 5 . ...
Full-text available
Many libraries have adopted usability testing as a standard practise for ensuring that their online presence is user-friendly and accessible. This study attempt to test usability of LibGuides platform at Shalamar Teaching Hospital, Lahore. The purpose of this qualitative research is to examine the usability, user experience (UX), and information architecture (IA) of LibGuides in the institutional context of Shalamar Medical & Dental College, Lahore, The research explored users’ views and was then extended to discuss the general utility of the Shalamar LibGuides. In this aspect, the study is remarkable because there is a paucity of literature on the subject. Keywords: user-centered design, subject guides, LibGuides, Pakistan, usability; research guides; Medical libraries
... Library professionals started blogging in 2005, according to a survey (Farkas, 2007). Mahmood and Richardson (2011) in a survey of adoption of Web 2.0 in academic and research libraries in United States of America found that the libraries used blogs for publishing library news/announcements/events, marketing library services/encouraging use, providing information about new acquisitions, providing links to recommended internet resources, providing information literacy instruction, keeping users current with subjects of interest, soliciting user feedback/suggestions, providing online reference services, posting book reviews, facilitating staff collaboration, and inviting suggestions for acquisition, in that order. ...
Full-text available
This paper focuses on blogs and their use for library service provision. The meaning of blogs, their origin, nature, general uses as well as for adoption in libraries is described. The paper notes that blogs are not currently used by most librarians and libraries for provision of services in Nigeria. This is attributable to lack of awareness of the existence of the technologies and/or how to use them even when they are freely available on the Web, lack of/poor network technologies in most of the libraries, negative attitude of most heads of libraries towards the use of technologies for service provision, lack of/inadequate technology skills among others. No matter how plausible these reasons may be, the paper advises librarians to embrace the use of blogs to enhance library services in Nigeria.
Purpose The present study aimed to investigate the impact of social networks on the use of academic libraries by university students. Design/methodology/approach The method used in the present study was a survey. The statistical population included 461 university students. The data collection tool was a questionnaire. The result of the Cronbach test was equal to 0.726 indicating the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. For data analysis, descriptive statistical methods and inferential statistical methods using SPSS 21 software were employed. Findings The findings showed that 243 of the participants used social networks for 4–6 h a day, 192 students never used university libraries and 229 used the university library only once in a month. Communication with friends was also reported to be one of the main goals in using social networks. The results of regression analysis also indicated that four predictor variables including information retrieval, social influence, trust and attractiveness of social networking environment were statistically able to explain the variance of reluctance to use university libraries. Originality/value The present study is one of the few studies that has examined the negative impact of social networks on visiting university libraries.
Purpose Open access repository is an essential element of an organization's strategy for enhancing the visibility and accessibility of its intellectual output to a global audience. Owing to its importance, the study aims to explore the current status of open access repositories in India and China by analyzing the different characteristic features of repositories. Design/methodology/approach The data for the study is collected from OpenDoar which is labeled as a quality assured repository directory across the globe. The country-wise contribution of Asian repositories is extracted from OpenDoar using various filtration options available in the repository. Further, the URL of every Indian and Chinese repository was manually accessed to gather the following metadata: Repository Type, Software Usage, Repository Interface Language, Year of Development, Subject Coverage, Content Coverage, and the utilization of Web 2.0 tools by repositories. Findings The findings of the study highlights that among the Asian countries, India is at 4th rank while China is at 5th rank in terms of repository count. The study depicts that India has shown more promising growth than China. However, both the countries mainly focused on institutional repositories while disciplinary, aggregated, and governmental repositories are very few in number, therefore building such repositories is the need of an hour. Dspace as the preferred software and English as a dominant interface language occupy the prominent places in the repositories of both countries. Moreover, the repositories of both countries have embraced web 2.0 tools like RSS 1.0, RSS 2.0 and Atom with little presence of social media tools. Research limitations/implications The study has limitations, and results should be interpreted with caution. The comparison between the two countries is based on only one data source, i.e. OpenDoar. However, there is a possibility that future studies can take various repository directories as a data source that will give a clear picture of comparison. Originality/value The study can be beneficial to the policymakers and the administrators of these two regions as it will provide them a vivid picture of the diffrent characteristic features of their repositories so that they can formulate better policies that will be helpful to foster green open access.
"is facebook down" trended on Google on October 4, 2021, when Facebook became temporarily globally unavailable. Web users proactively seek information when they encounter issues online. System status dashboards are one way libraries can leverage this behavior to share changes to resources or services and improve transparency, reference services, and the user experience. The University at Albany Libraries Discovery Services Librarian and User Experience Librarian implemented Springshare’s System Status Management tool to share system statuses with library staff and the campus community. The institutional context, implementation, and impact are described in this article. The authors reviewed Association of Research Libraries members’ library websites to investigate if and how system statuses are being used to communicate with patrons. Results indicate that the majority of libraries reviewed do not employ a dedicated system status dashboard to share information with their constituents, but may use other types of alerts instead.
Full-text available
2 ABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore recent trends in the application of Web 2.0 features related to Agricultural University Library websites in India. Design/methodology/approach The seventy one Agricultural Universities derived from the website of Higher Education, Government of India were considered for collection of data. This selection was based on whether the website are in English and have at least one Web 2.0 feature. Each university websites were visited and data on their Web 2.0 features (such as Face book , YouTube, Linkedin, Instant Messaging, Wikis and so on) were collected and analyzed. Findings The results reveal that fifty five university libraries use Face book, and forty six university libraries provide twitter for users. About 38 university libraries are using YouTube, whereas Wiki is the least applied Web 2.0 technology, with only ten university using it and few Web 2.0 applications are yet to become popular facilities to be offered in university library web sites. Research limitations/implications The findings of the study can be utilized to assess the status of assorted Web 2.0 tools used in libraries of Agricultural University in India. It may enable future research to investigate other aspects, such as the features of Web 2.0 tools in other academic libraries, special libraries, reference library of a particular country as well as continents.
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to provide a reconnaissance of major academic libraries located in Australia, Canada, the U.K. and U.S.A. that have embraced Web 2.0 tools for enhancing library services. The research is based on a survey of websites of 277 university libraries. The checkpoints used for this evaluative study were given by Nguyen (2008) for evaluating various Web 2.0 tools. Additional checkpoints were arrived at after visiting and browsing the various sites. The findings of the study acknowledge the strength of Web 2.0 tools in improving library services for users. Really Simple Syndication (RSS), Instant Messaging (IM) and blogs are popular in academic libraries. The paper concludes by offering best practices for implementing Web 2.0 tools in academic libraries.
Social networking is rapidly infiltrating the information environment, and it is essential that librarians understand how best to use these sites and tools with their work to better serve their users and reach people who have never before used the library. A Social Networking Primer for Librarians gives librarians a start-to-finish guide to the basics for using and maximizing popular social networking sites in all types of libraries. From planning and implementation to best practices to evaluation, author Cliff Landis provides highly practical, easy-to-follow guidelines for using MySpace, Facebook, and other prominent sites as a way to expand and improve crucial library functions like instruction, outreach, service delivery, and marketing.
Written for information professionals and librarians trying to implement and manage Web 2.0 in their physical and online collections, Building Library 3.0 pays careful attention to the implementation of social web applications, mobile computing, and RFID and QR Code technology. The book details both how to make these technologies work for libraries and also explores why libraries must gain ground in the important new territories of Web 2.0. The changing relationships between information seekers, the information being sought, and the professional information gatekeepers is of great importance in this change, and this book explains both the use of the technology to reach information seeking communities, and the profound ways in which such relationships will change the nature of librarianship. A primer for Library 2.0, and concrete steps available to libraries seeking to catch up to their web-savvy patrons. Detailed and critical examinations of social networking sites, and their potential for libraries outreach. Studies the actions librarians can take right now to prepare for the 'border-bleeding' between physical and virtual collections.
Twitter that provides 140-character microblogging service, has emerged as the latest social media technology for libraries. It offers a simple for these organizations to provide news, highlight resources, share information, and interact with their users. Another factor determining Twitter's successful use by libraries involves its provision of a simple and extensive application programming interface (API). This provides the users with the opportunity to build upon the simple structure of Twitter to create multiple applications for different devices and platforms. It also provides additional functionality, such as incorporating the sharing of pictures, videos, and audio. The API allows for the automatic extraction of information from users' profiles and access to the latest status updates.
The authors discuss the changing library needs of law students as computers, technology, and legal publishing evolve. In order to track the evolving needs of students, the authors discuss ways that librarians can survey students and explain how focus groups and usability tests can provide further insights regarding students' research skills and information needs. The article examines the literature regarding information literacy and suggests minimum standards for legal information literacy upon graduation, and the authors suggest new services that law librarians could create for law students. Next the authors examine the recent literature about Library 2.0 services, and offer suggestions on incorporating Library 2.0 principles into law library services.
Library 2.0 is defined as "the application of interactive, collaborative and multimedia web-based technologies to web-based library services and collections" (Maness 2006, p. 2). Several academic libraries have implemented Library 2.0 using blogs, RSS feeds, wikis, social networking and podcasts. However Library 2.0 is still at an early stage of development and its potential has not yet been fully explored. This paper reviews the types of Library 2.0 technologies available and how these are being implemented within the higher education sector, examines their potential barriers, and describes a small scale research project undertaken to investigate student use and perceptions of Library 2.0 services at Loughborough University.
In this article the authors discuss the changing library needs of law students as computers technology and legal publishing evolve. As students discover new ways to access legal information, libraries must create new services that meet their students' shifting expectations. In order to track the evolving needs of students, the authors discuss new ways that librarians can survey students and explain how focus groups and usability tests can provide further insights regarding students' research skills and information needs. The authors also review the studies concerning the research skills law students posses, both when they start law school and throughout their law school careers. The article also examines the literature regarding information literacy and suggests minimum standards for legal information literacy upon graduation. Next, the authors suggest new services that law librarians could create for law students. First the authors discuss how to design effective legal research tutorials. Next the authors examine the recent literature about Library 2.0 services. Two significant aspects of Library 2.0 services are that they foster participatory and collaborative sharing of knowledge, often through online discussions, and they enable libraries to deliver information and other library services to the patrons' venue of choice rather than require patrons to seek the services in the library. Examples of participatory Library 2.0 services include blogs, wikis and social reference management services. Library 2.0 services that libraries deliver to patrons include the availability of reference via a patron's own instant messaging account, social networking service, course management software, or online virtual reality world.
Blogging, though a relatively new phenomenon, has gained vast popularity, and blogs have become a central feature and an essential information channel in the Web 2.0 information world. The current research seeks to expand our understanding, and examine comments written by readers of LIS blogs. The researcher examined the comments assigned to the posts and the analysis was conducted in two phases: (1) statistical descriptive analysis and (2) content analysis. The primary research questions are: What type of language do comment writers use? What type of information is found in the comments? What is the content of the comments? Research findings indicate that the majority of comments were written in a personal style. Moreover, the research findings reflect the readers' moderate participation and low activity in the creation and dynamics of these blogs. However, comment writers deal with substantive issues which reflect their professional as well as their personal interests. Thus, comments' writers did not express only courtesy comments but they took advantage of the platform and expressed personal, impressive, advisory, as well as reflective comments. The research findings are relevant for librarians and information scientists as they cause them to better understand and explore the LIS blogosphere.