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Library and Information Services in Pakistan: A Review of Articles Published in Foreign Journals



The paper presents a statistical and subjective review of the journal articles on various aspects of library and information services in Pakistan. Only the articles published in the journals outside Pakistan are included. Articles are selected from four abstracting services, i.e. LISA, ISA, LSA, and ERIC. Authorship characteristics of 97 articles are analysed and compared with the previous studies of LIS periodicals. Authorship details include collaboration, occupation, affiliation, and the author's country. Other publication details of the articles include year, language, journal, and the country of publication. The findings show that library science teachers write more than the other professionals and the most popular subject is the library and information science education. Library science faculty at Karachi University contributes more articles in international journals. The articles are mostly published in English language journals and in English speaking countries, i.e. UK and USA.International Information and Library Reviewpublished more articles on this topic. Problems in library research in Pakistan are discussed and recommendations are made. A brief review of the articles is given according to 16 major subjects. A bibliography of the articles reviewed is also compiled.
Library and Information Services in
Pakistan: A Review of Articles Published in
Foreign Journals
The paper presents a statistical and subjective review of the
journal articles on various aspects of library and information
services in Pakistan. Only the articles published in the journals
outside Pakistan are included. Articles are selected from four
abstracting services, i.e. LISA, ISA, LSA, and ERIC. Author-
ship characteristics of 97 articles are analysed and compared
with the previous studies of LIS periodicals. Authorship details
include collaboration, occupation, affiliation, and the author’s
country. Other publication details of the articles include year,
language, journal, and the country of publication. The findings
show that library science teachers write more than the other
professionals and the most popular subject is the library and
information science education. Library science faculty at
Karachi University contributes more articles in international
journals. The articles are mostly published in English language
journals and in English speaking countries, i.e. UK and USA.
International Information and Library Review published more articles
on this topic. Problems in library research in Pakistan are
discussed and recommendations are made. A brief review of
the articles is given according to 16 major subjects. A
bibliography of the articles reviewed is also compiled.
©1996 Academic Press Limited
Pakistan came into being as the result of the partition of India in 1947,
when the provinces of Sind, Balochistan, North-West Frontier and the
parts of Punjab and Bengal having Muslim majority constituted as a
separate country. Pakistan had two wings, West Pakistan and East
*Lecturer, Department of Library & Information Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore,
Intl. Inform. & Libr. Rev. (1996), 28, 383–405
1057-2317/96/040383+ 23 $25.00/0 © 1996 Academic Press Limited
Pakistan, each separated from the other by a distance of about 1600
kilometers of Indian territory. East Pakistan became an independent
country in December, 1971 and is now called Bangladesh. Pakistan
(former West Pakistan) has a total area of 796 095 sq. km, with a
population of 131·5 million in 1994. It is a federal Islamic republic and
the per capita GNP in 1991 was US$400. This country has progressed
through several development plans and has made substantial progress in
several vital areas such as education, scientific and technological research,
industrialization, rural uplift and several other areas of socio-economic
development. Overall literacy is estimated to be 34% in 1992 and the
government has extensive programmes for the eradication of illiteracy in
the country. The infrastructure of education and research consists of
schools, colleges, polytechnics, universities, laboratories and research
institutes. There are presently 23 universities, 691 colleges and a fairly
large number of research institutes and laboratories in the country.
Hamid (1992) estimated the number of libraries in Pakistan to be 1500
which are employing 3000 professional librarians. There are six library
schools offering library and information science education at postgraduate
level. The 2-year academic programme is divided into 1 year diploma/
bachelor and 1 year Master degree. Total number of diploma and Master
degree holders was estimated in 1992 to be 3304 and 2349,
Library research in Pakistan started when Asa Don Dickinson, an
American, wrote a textbook, Punjab Library Primer, that was published in
1916 by the University of the Punjab. Afterwards, a number of books,
reports and proceedings on various aspects of Pakistani librarianship were
published. A remarkable research was carried out in six library schools in
the form of Masters theses. Bibliographies of library literature in Pakistan
were compiled time to time and some articles on this topic were also
The most popular media of publishing is the periodicals. Why are
journals mostly used in research activities? Budd (1988) answers this
A primary means of scholarly communication in virtually all disciplines (and certainly
in library and information science) is the journal. The journal offers authors and
readers some advantages over the monograph: the opportunity for dissemination of a
larger number and broader scope of issues and questions; intensive study of very
specific questions or aspects of large problems; and the timely publication of intended
Librarians of the area that is now called Pakistan understood the
importance of library journals and Modern Librarian, the first professional
journal, was published in Lahore in 1930 as a monthly organ of the
Punjab Library Association. Pakistan Library Bulletin started its publication
in 1968 and is being published regularly. Some other library journals are
also published in the country. Besides the literature published within the
country, there is a good number of international library journals published
throughout the world. Bottle and Efthimiadis (1984) noted a cumulative
total of 1545 professional journals currently published in 1983. Reviewing
the period 1860–1933, they calculated that the number of journals for the
profession doubles every 13·8 years. Since the existence of Pakistan, local
and foreign authors have been contributing on Pakistani librarianship in
the journals published outside Pakistan. How much research on this topic
was published? Bibliographies and other studies published in the country
did not cover these articles.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution on the
different aspects of library and information services in Pakistan in the
form of articles published in professional journals of the countries other
than Pakistan. How many articles were published? Who wrote more on
this topic? What are the institutional affiliations and occupations of
published authors? What is the trend of collaboration among authors of
Pakistani librarianship? When and where were the articles published?
Which journals published more articles? In which language were the
articles published? What is the coverage of articles in different abstracting
services? What are the subject contents of the articles with regard to
different aspects of Pakistani librarianship? By answering these questions
this study will present on one hand a subject review of the articles and a
comprehensive bibliography on the topic on the other.
Only articles indexed/abstracted in the following abstracting services are
included in the study:
dLibrary and Information Science Abstracts LISA (UK based, covers 550
journals from 60 countries, 1969 to the present, updated monthly)
dInformation Science Abstracts ISA (USA based, covers 300 journals,
1966 to the present, updated monthly)
dLibrary Science Abstracts LSA (UK based, published quarterly from
1950–1968, in 1969 changed into LISA)
dEducational Resources Information Center — ERIC (USA based, covers 750
journals, 1966 to the present, updated monthly)
Items other than articles, i.e. books, reports, dissertations, conference
proceedings, research projects, etc. abstracted in these abstracting services
are not included in the study. Other possible sources of information were
also searched, and the reviewer made every effort to find such articles
published abroad. These sources include published indexes like Library
Literature. Senior professionals were also consulted in this regard. In spite
of all efforts there is a chance that some articles may have been missed in
this review. Two types of articles are included: (1) articles written
particularly on the whole or any aspect of Pakistani librarianship; (2)
articles that do not particularly deal Pakistani librarianship but discuss it
Articles published in the Pakistani journals are not included. Articles
particularly written on East Pakistan and similarly articles published in
Eastern Librarian (Published from East Pakistan now Bangladesh) are
excluded. The time period covered in the study is 1947–1995.
Approach to the abstracting services in the field of library and information
science was not possible in Pakistan. The author, during his stay at the
Department of Library & Information Science, Haagse Hogeschool, The
Hague in April 1996, searched for required articles in online databases of
LISA, ISA, and ERIC provided by the DIALOG. Descriptors like
Pakistan, four provinces of the country, big cities, etc. were searched (free-
text) in the databases. The abstracts of articles were downloaded. For
searching of articles abstracted in LSA, the author used the British
Library Information Sciences Service (BLISS) at London. The required
abstracts were photocopied. The decision of inclusion of the articles in this
study was taken after having a careful look into the abstracts. In order to
be fully aware of the topic, most though not all of the articles included in
the study were physically seen by the author. Findings of the study were
analysed and tabulated in Pakistan. For more information about LIS
journals included in the study, various editions of Ulrich’s International
Periodicals Directory and other available reference tools were consulted.
After searching in four abstracting services, 97 items were classified as
journal articles falling in the scope of the study. Three articles were
published twice in six different journals. For the purpose of this study
those three articles were considered as six independent entries. See
Bibliography for a full list of the articles included in the study.
Coverage of articles by abstracting services
Number of articles
Rank Name of abstracting service abstracted Percentage
1 Library and Information Science Abstracts
(LISA) 74 76·29
2 Information Science Abstracts (ISA) 28 28·87
3 Library Science Abstracts (LSA) 14 14·43
4 Educational Resources Information Center
(ERIC) 7 7·22
Coverage of Articles by Abstracting Services
The maximum number of articles, 74 (76·29%), were abstracted in LISA,
followed by ISA which abstracted 28 (28·87%) articles. LSA and ERIC
abstracted only 14 (14·43%) and seven (7·22%) articles, respectively (see
Table I). Only 19 (19·59%) articles were abstracted in more than one
abstracting service. Of those 19, 14 (14·43%) were included by two
services while five (5·15%) were covered by three services.
Publishing Activities
69 (71·13%) articles were written particularly on Pakistani librarianship,
and 28 (28·87%) articles contained partial information about Pakistan. In
these 28 articles, most were written on South Asia, developing countries,
and Third World countries.
Collaborative Authorship
A total of 66 authors were counted. Four (4·12%) articles were found to be
anonymous. Of the 93 authored articles, only seven (7·53%) had more
than one named author. The majority of the articles (92·47%) had a single
author. Two authors were found in four (4·3%) articles. The maximum
number of authors in one article was four (see Table II).
Affiliation and Occupation of Authors
Finding the type of institution with which each author was affiliated was
not possible in many of the cases. According to a rough estimate, based on
the personal knowledge of this reviewer, 25 (37·88%) authors were
affiliated with Pakistani libraries and LIS schools. The other 41 (62·12%)
were foreigners (see Table III). Of these, a large number of authors were
from UK and India. Information about other authors is not available. Of
66 authors, 12 (18·18%) contributed more than one article. These 12
Collaboration among authors
Number of Number of
authors articles Percentage
1 86 92·47
2 4 4·30
3 2 2·15
4 1 1·08
Total: 93 100·00
Affiliation of authors
Number of
Affiliation authors Percentage
Pakistan 25 37·88
Other countries 41 62·12
Total: 66 100·00
Authors published most
Number of
Rank Name Occupation articles
1 Syed Jalaluddin Haider LIS faculty 12
2 Anis Khurshid LIS faculty 11
3 Attaullah University librarian 4
4–6 Mumtaz A. Anwar LIS faculty 3
4–6 P. B. Mangla LIS faculty 3
4–6 Sajjad ur Rehman LIS faculty 3
authors wrote a total of 48 (49·48%) articles. The six mostly published
authors contributed 36 (37·11%) articles. Of these six authors, five were
Pakistani and one was Indian. Of the six mostly published authors, five
were library and information science teachers and only one worked as
university librarian (see Table IV). Only two authors contributed more
than 10 articles each, and both were the faculty members of library school
at Karachi. In a study of five international LIS journals conducted by
Raptis (1992), out of 184 authors, 59 (32·07%) were LIS teachers.
Language of Articles
Number of
Language articles Percentage
English 94 96·91
German 1 1·03
Portuguese 1 1·03
Russian 1 1·03
Total: 97 100·00
According to another survey of sixteen journals conducted by Buttlar
(1991), most of the authors (18·69%) were faculty of LIS schools.
Language of Articles
Most of the articles 94 (96·91%) were published in English. The other
three articles were in German, Portuguese and Russian (see Table V). The
large number of articles published in English language is due to the reason
that the official language of Pakistan is English. Almost all of the Pakistani
authors who went abroad for education purposes went to English-
speaking countries like the USA, UK and Australia. They wrote for
foreign journals published in English. Other authors from abroad who
had any concern with Pakistani librarianship and came to Pakistan for
various assignments were also from USA to UK. They also wrote on the
topics in which they had experience.
Publication Year of Articles
The span of 49 years was divided into nine groups. In the first group of
9 years only one article was published; that article was published in 1952.
After 1980 there was a trend of increase in the publication. The maximum
number of articles, 23 (23·71%), were published during 1991–1995 (see
Table VI). If we examine the data according to the number of published
articles during a single year, 1988 and 1994 will be ranked at the first two,
when the number of articles were eight each. If we divide the total period
studied, i.e. 49 years, into two equal parts, we will find that only 20
(20·62%) articles were published during the first half, while the rest, 77
(79·38%), were published in the second half.
Coverage of Articles by Journals
It was found that the total 97 articles were published in 52 journals. The
Distribution of articles by year of publication
Number of
Year articles Percentage
1947–1955 1 1·03
1956–1960 9 9·28
1961–1965 2 2·06
1966–1970 5 5·15
1971–1975 10 10·31
1976–1980 8 8·25
1981–1985 17 17·53
1986–1990 22 22·68
1991–1995 23 23·71
Total: 97 100·00
number of articles published in various journals varied. Only 15 (28·85%)
journals published 60 (61·86%) articles. The other 37 (38·14%) articles
were published in 37 (71·15%) journals. International Library Review is the
first in the ranked order which published the maximum number of 16
articles. Afterwards, the International Library Review changed its title as the
International Information and Library Review. The second and third are Libri
and Unesco Bulletin for Libraries which published seven articles each (see
Table VII).
Country of Publication
The journals having articles on Pakistani librarianship were published
from 12 different countries. The country of publication of four journals
having five articles could not be identified. Of 92 articles, 77 (83·7%) were
published from only five (41·67%) countries. The maximum number of
articles, 32 (34·78%), were published from UK. 22 (23·91%) articles were
published from USA, and nine (9·78%) were from France (see Table
Subject Contents of Articles
Articles were classified in 16 broad subject categories. Library and
information science education and research as a subject occupied a
maximum number, 18 (18·56%) of the articles. The second and third most
popular subjects were special library services and general library services,
which were described in 17 (17·53%) and 15 (15·46%) articles,
respectively. These three subjects covered 50 (51·55%) articles. See Table
Journals that frequently publish articles on Pakistan
Number of
Rank Journal title Country articles
1 International Information and Library Review UK 16
2–3 Libri Denmark 7
2–3 Unesco Bulletin for Libraries France 7
4 Information Development UK 5
5–7 Herald of Library Science India 3
5–7 Scientometrics Netherlands 3
5–7 Special Libraries USA 3
8–15 Asian Libraries Hong Kong 2
8–15 Indo-Pacific Exchange Newsletter * 2
8–15 Journal of Library History USA 2
8–15 Library Journal USA 2
8–15 Library Review UK 2
8–15 Quarterly Bulletin of the International France 2
Association of Agricultural Information Specialists
8–15 SALG Newsletter UK 2
8–15 Third World Libraries USA 2
*Country unidentified.
Distribution by country of publication
Number of
Rank Country articles Percentage
1 UK 32 34·78
2 USA 22 23·91
3 France 9 9·78
4–5 Denmark 7 7·61
4–5 India 7 7·61
5–6 Hong Kong 4 4·35
5–6 Netherlands 4 4·35
7–9 Germany 2 2·17
7–9 Singapore 2 2·17
10–12 Brazil 1 1·09
10–12 Fiji 1 1·09
10–12 Russia 1 1·09
Total: 92 100·00
Subject coverage
Number of
Rank Subject articles Percentage
1 Lib. & inf. sc. education & research 18 18·56
2 Special libraries & inf. services 17 17·53
3 Lib. & inf. services 15 15·46
4 Inf. technology & lib. automation 8 8·25
5 Technical services 7 7·22
6–7 Academic libraries 6 6·19
6–7 Lib. materials & collections 6 6·19
8 Bibliography & bibliometrics 4 4·12
9–11 Archives 3 3·09
9–11 Co-operation/Resource sharing 3 3·09
9–11 Public libraries 3 3·09
12–13 Publishing & book trade 2 2·06
12–13 Reading promotion 2 2·06
14–16 Biography 1 1·03
14–16 National libraries 1 1·03
14–16 User education 1 1·03
Total: 97 100·00
IX for the details of 16 subject categories. The study by Raptis also
showed LIS education as most popular subject in the LIS journals, while
in Buttlar’s study the most popular subjects were cataloguing and
automation. LIS education was placed at fourth position. See Appendix 1
for a brief subject review of the articles included in the study.
In the databases having a large number of entries (e.g. LISA contained
133796 records and ISA contained 160000 records in 1993) only 97
records were found which contained information on Pakistani librarian-
ship. This amount of research cannot be considered satisfactory on this
topic. What is the reason of this poor result? Basically, it is the
responsibility of Pakistani professionals to do research on the topic of
Pakistani librarianship and make their articles published in the inter-
national journals, while the study reveals that only 25 Pakistani authors
worked in this field. Haider (1978) discussed the factors responsible for
retarding the growth and expansion of research activities in the country.
Lack of planning and co-ordination, use of unsatisfactory research
techniques, lack of funds, and the lack of interest and encouragement
among library professionals are the major obstacles. Usmani (1986) added
that the lack of recognition of librarianship as a profession affected the
research activities in Pakistan. Rizvi (1987) also enlisted the factors
affecting library research in the country. Lack of trained persons in library
research was a major hurdle. Rizvi wrote that the first Masters
programme, started in 1962 (after 15 years of the birth of Pakistan) at
Karachi. In 1974, Punjab and Sind Universities started Masters
programmes. Research methods were taught as a compulsory course in
Masters programme. After the initiation of Masters programmes, these
three library schools started to produce some research. The present study
also confirms that there is an increase in the research activities after 1980.
Rizvi also discussed some other problems as lack of literature required for
research, lack of co-operation from the individual librarians (people do
not fill the questionnaire), and the lack of the local periodicals in the field
of librarianship. Muhammad Asghar (1992) discussed the major problems
in library research as the lack of opportunities for proper training,
appropriate guidance, availability and access to information sources,
financial assistance and sponsorship, encouragement, publication or
dissemination of research findings, and personal interest and initiative.
The study shows that the major share of publication activity is
accounted for by LIS faculty and, due to this, the most popular subject is
always LIS education. The LIS faculty at Karachi University contributed
more research in international journals. There is a fair number of special
libraries in the country and their condition is comparatively better. The
second most popular subject is special libraries, which include medical,
agricultural, law, and science and technology library and information
services. To introduce the library situation in Pakistan to the world
professional community, the articles of general nature were written in a
large number. Continued interest in automation shows the ongoing
technological innovations in Pakistani libraries.
Most of the articles (96·91%) which appeared in the journals were
published in English language. Also, most of the articles were published in
English speaking countries, i.e. the UK, and USA. There are three
reasons for this. Firstly, most of the LIS periodicals are published from
these countries. Secondly, English is taught as second language in Pakistan
and the official communications are also in English, so the professionals
can easily write in English. Thirdly, it is worth mentioning that the mostly
published authors in this study have been in these English speaking
countries for study purposes and have more acquaintance with the
journals published in these countries.
The promotion of research activities in the field of librarianship in
Pakistan is direly needed in this era of communication. Anwar (1982)
suggested that the research carried out by the Masters students should be
published in international journals. The government of Pakistan should
constitute a National Research Council for Librarianship to investigate
the problem areas and to assign the research projects to the experts.
Pakistan Library Association and the University Grants Commission can
play an important role in the coordination of research activities in the
country. There should be refresher courses for working librarians to teach
them research methods and they should be encouraged to do research in
the field of librarianship. Some international journals are specifically
meant for developing countries. Pakistani researchers should approach
these journals and send their research findings for publication.
1. Anwar, Mumtaz A. (1982) Research in library science at the University of the Punjab,
Lahore (Pakistan). Libri 32, pp. 284–287.
2. Bottle, R.T. and Efthimiadis, E.N. (1984) Library and information science literature:
authorship and growth patterns. Journal of Information Science 9(3), p.114.
3. Budd, John (1988) Publication in library & information science: the state of the
literature. Library Journal 113 (14), p.125.
4. Buttlar, Lois (1991) Analyzing the library periodical literature: content and
authorship. College & Research Libraries 52 (1), pp.38–53.
5. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin (1978) Status of library research in Pakistan, Libri 28, pp.326–
6. Hamid Rehman (1992) Demand and supply of library science graduates in Pakistan.
In Sajjad ur Rehman, Abdus Sattar Chaudhry and Afzal Haq Qarshi (Eds) Library
education in Pakistan: past, present and future. Lahore, PULSAA.
7. Muhammad Asghar (1992) Problems of library and information science research in
Pakistan. In Sajjad ur Rehman, Abdus Sattar Chaudhry and Afzal Haq Qarshi (Eds)
Library education in Pakistan: past, present and future. Lahore. PULSAA.
8. Raptis, Paschalis (1992) Authorship characteristics in five international library science
journals. Libri 42, pp.35–52.
9. Rizvi, Syed Jamil Ahmad (1987) Library science and research methods (Urdu). Islamabad.
Muqtadra Qaumi Zuban.
10. Usmani, Muhammad Adil (1982) Role of library research in Pakistan (Editorial).
Pakistan Library Bulletin 17 (3–4), pp.i–x.
1: S
A review of the articles included in the study is presented here. This
review gives a brief historical background of the library and information
services in Pakistan through various time periods. The arrangement is
alphabetic according to the major 16 subjects. The reference of the
article’s entry in the Bibliography is given with each author.
Academic Libraries
In 1971, Anwar
wrote on the secondary school libraries in Pakistan.
described the experiences of a school librarian working at
Islamabad. Haider
discussed the condition of university libraries in
1975. There were eight university libraries in Pakistan with a total of
800000 volumes. Haider
revised his paper on university libraries that
was again published in 1986. In this paper, he suggested the ways of
improving co-operation among university libraries. Mahmood ul
described the services of the Allama Iqbal Open University
Library. Sajjad ur Rehman
analysed the book availability in Punjab
University Library and compared the results of the study with the surveys
conducted in US academic libraries.
discussed the provision of archives in Pakistan. He described
various departments of government which held the archives. In 1990,
again reported a survey of the administration, care and
accessibility of district records in Pakistan. Slavin
gave an account of the
activities of the National Archives of Pakistan. Problems faced by the
department were discussed.
Papers on the conservation of archives are given under the heading
“Technical Services”.
Bibliography and Bibliometrics
discussed the developments in bibliographic control in Pakistan
focusing on the aspects of legal deposit, registration of publications and
copyright, the national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and
current national bibliographies. Qurashi
analysed the output of two
prolific research groups in scientific discipline. Again, Qurashi
wrote on
the publication rate of some university groups in various countries
including Pakistan. Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Raman
discussed the
collaboration among Asian scientists in scientific research.
Anis Khurshid
presented an appreciation of the library career of Abdul
Moid (1920–1984), who fought for and promoted the cause of
librarianship in Pakistan. Abdul Moid served University of Karachi
Library from 1952–1973. One of his major achievements is the
establishment of the Pakistan Library Association in 1958. He also worked
in Nigeria.
Co-operation/Resource Sharing
presented a paper on the development of resource sharing in
Pakistan at the “International Conference of Directors of National
Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Occeania, Canberra, 1979.”
Anis Khurshid
discussed the situation of resource sharing among
university libraries and suggested the co-operation in the fields of union
lists of serials, union catalogues, photocopying and loan of library
resources, acquisition of foreign periodicals, etc. Attaullah
proposed a
new mechanism and framework for resource sharing among libraries in
Information Technology and Library Automation
This subject is quite new in Pakistan, and the first article on this topic
appeared in the literature in late 1980s. During the span of 8 years, eight
papers have been published in international journals. Horne
the varying degrees of application of information technology to
information services in the different regions of the world. Primarily, the
focus was on the use of international services, prevalence of user interface
software, and development of national and regional networks. Attaullah
and Johnson
21, 22, 24
described the efforts made to modernize and
computerize the NWFP Agricultural University Library. Their two
articles on this topic were published in three different journals. Royan
presented a paper at the Pakistan Library Association Seminar on
“Information for Development”, Lahore, 1992. He discussed the
importance of the use of new technology in information handling.
used data from a number of case studies to identify the major
environmental constraints that influence the introduction of information
technology in Pakistan. Khalid
described the different foreign and local
computer software packages being used in Pakistani libraries. He
discussed the problems in library software development in Pakistan.
Library and Information Science Education and Research
The first paper on library education in Pakistan was written by Anis
in 1961. The four library schools in West and East Pakistan
were producing 80 graduates each year for country’s 500 libraries. There
was lack of co-ordination and uniformity between the schools and
between the libraries. In 1970, Anis Khurshid
wrote on the standards of
library education in Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan. In 1971, an
was published on the history of library education in Pakistan.
gave the details of an experimental course at Loughborough
University of Technology to educate the teachers of library science from
developing countries. In a 1-year Masters in Library Science course,
among seven students, one was from Pakistan. The course was mainly
sponsored by Unesco. Qureshi
described the history of education and
training of librarians in Pakistan from the early 20th century with some
thoughts and suggestions for the future.
explained the need for manpower training for information
handling and described the different categories of personnel for this
purpose. He outlined the training programmes in India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Iran. Rafia
discussed the facilities of library education
and training for professionals and para-professionals in Pakistan. The lack
of teaching staff and professional literature created serious problems. Anis
in 1987, reviewed the growth of library education with
special reference to five universities in Pakistan. Feather and Smith
described a continuing education program which they experienced in
gave an account of library training in Pakistan, Iran, Egypt,
Sudan and some other Arab countries. Sajjad ur Rehman
examined the
extent of coverage and nature of courses relating to information policy in
the curricula of 48 library and information science programmes in North
America and three Asian countries (Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia),
61, 62
wrote on the LIS education facilities in India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. His paper was published in two journals.
Sajjad ur Rehman
evaluated the faculty of six graduate programmes of
library education in Pakistan.
described the status of research in the field of library science
in Pakistan. Anwar
reviewed the research carried out by Masters degree
students at Punjab University, Department of Library Science 1975–1981.
examined library periodicals published from India, Pakistan,
Malaysia and Taiwan. Haider
reviewed the library literature of
Pakistan, including library periodicals, conference proceedings, biblio-
graphical aids, reference works, master theses, and plans and surveys.
Library and Information Services
In 1957, Heyman
discussed the role of Asia Foundation in development
and improvement of library facilities in 15 Asian countries. A grant was
made to publish a “Guide to Pakistan Libraries, Learned and Scientific
Institutions and Societies.” In 1959–1960, three articles were published
on the general library situation in Pakistan. Waller
gave an introduction
to Pakistani libraries, including a description of Liaquat Memorial
Library, Karachi, and library education and research in the country.
discussed the problems faced by the libraries of a newly born
country. Owen
described the situation of university libraries, national
library, library science education and professional associations. Finance,
accommodation and staff were the major problems of libraries. Khan’s
mainly focused on the public libraries in the country. However,
some information was also given on academic libraries. Anis Khurshid’s
on the general situation of librarianship in the country was
published in 1971.
and Anis Khurshid
painted a picture of library development
in Pakistan during the decades of 1970s and 1980s, respectively. Anis
Khurshid estimated that Pakistan had 1261 libraries and 700 box libraries
in 1981, which were increased to 3700 by 1988. In 1981, in another
article, Anis Khurshid
discussed the problems in the proper
development of libraries in Pakistan. He listed lack of co-ordinated library
infrastructure, inadequate bibliographical control, lack of reviewing
arrangements and limited use of books as the main sources inhibiting the
book development in the country. Grover
described the history of
library development in Pakistan including copyright ordinance, the
contribution of foreign experts, the establishment of PASTIC,
bibliographical activities, the National Archives, the International Book
Exchange Centre, library associations, and university and special libraries.
made an account of the working of some important information
centres of Pakistan. Heitzman
discussed the information systems
developed in the Third World countries. He described the problems in
developing information infrastructure in South Asian countries including
Pakistan. Haider
wrote on the library professional associations in the
country. Methven
discussed the plan for library development in
Library Materials and Collections
In 1967, Lahood
reviewed the bibliographic coverage for newspapers in
different directories. Among others, the writer described the newspapers
indexes which also indexed newspapers published in Pakistan. Schlie
described a study of the use of the US patents by developing countries.
The study was undertaken by the University of Denver Research Institute
in collaboration with the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research (PCSIR). The US patents used by the scientists at PCSIR in
designing a particular equipment were studied. Wageman
reference sources with annotations on South Asian countries including
wrote on the status of South Asian collections maintained
by the American academic libraries. These collections including Pakistani
publications were mainly in English and the regional languages to cater
for the needs of the people from South Asia. Wells
described South Asia
Microfilm Project (SAMP) at the Centre for Research Libraries (CRL),
Chicago, Illinois which catalogued, stored and lent microfilm resources to
the project’s member libraries. SAMP started functioning in 1967. In
1990, Anis Khurshid
updated his earlier survey of library resources in
Pakistan. He mentioned that there were 6034 libraries in the country
holding 13354500 volumes.
National Libraries
, the Director General of National Library of Pakistan contributed
a paper in an issue devoted mainly to the subject of national libraries. He
described the opening of NLP and noted its functions, resources, readers’
services, application of modern technology, conservation of library
materials and international relations.
Public Libraries
described the public library development in some African
and Asian countries. Pakistan is one of them. Anis Khurshid
presented a
paper at INTAMEL Meeting 1973, India on the topic of public library
system in the city of Karachi. Muhammad Aslam
gave a description of
rural libraries in Pakistan.
Publishing and Book Trade
The Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Materials of 1950, signed by 30 Unesco Member States, was
discussed in an article
published in 1952. According to that agreement,
there was no duty on printed books, newspapers and periodicals. Some
effects of the Agreement on various countries, including Pakistan, were
given. Ali
reported a meeting, held in Karachi, 1981 to discuss the needs
of developing countries to provide books of the right quality and quantity
and at prices people can afford.
Reading Promotion
gave an account of various schools and colleges in Pakistan and
India and recorded the existence of libraries and the use of books. The
mass need for books did not exist in South Asia. The writer recommended
a complete change in the examination system to promote the need of
books. Stelmakh
described the World Book Congress, which was
arranged by Unesco to stress the importance of reading as a means of
both individual and social development. The writer also mentioned
regional book centres set up by Unesco in Tokyo, Karachi, and Bogota.
Special Libraries and Information Services
Special libraries and information services have always been better in
comparison with the other libraries in Pakistan. A number of articles were
published on various aspects of special library services. In 1977,
Muhammad Aslam
discussed the problems of 242 special libraries in the
country. The author also gave some hints to improve the condition of
special libraries. In 1960, Mohajir
described the services of Pakistan
National Scientific and Technical Documentation Centre (PANSDOC)
which was established in 1957 upon Unesco recommendations. Haider
wrote on the science and technology libraries in 1974. Rafique
described the services of Nuclear Science libraries in Pakistan.
Medical information services is an important area in special
librarianship. In 1960, Cunningham
wrote about the collection and
services of the library of the Basic Medical Sciences Institute in Pakistan.
discussed the state of medical information in the country. He
discussed medical education and research and gave an account of
important medical libraries. Morgan
discussed the program and
objectives of a workshop for medical librarians held at the Agha Khan
University (AKU), Karachi in 1987. Abrantes, Myhre and Oliveira
on the software programs used in primary health care. Several packages
were studied. Microcomputer simulation of PHC developed by the Agha
Khan University, Karachi was discussed. Husein and others
also wrote
on the same topic in 1993.
Agricultural information is another important aspect of special
librarianship. Schenck and George
described two collections focusing on
food and feed grain. Information needs and information center activities
in developing countries including Pakistan were also discussed. Haider
wrote on the existing resources and facilities in the field of agricultural
science. Problems of agricultural libraries were also discussed. Shaheen
described the objectives and activities of an agricultural library
strengthening project, with financial assistance of USAID. He
recommended resource sharing among agricultural libraries in Pakistan.
In 1995, Shaheen
reviewed the status of agricultural librarians in the
Law librarianship is also an important area. Haider’s paper
35, 36
on law
libraries in Pakistan was published in two journals. He examined the
problems of legal information service in the country. Lindley
the difficulties facing parliamentary libraries in developing countries
including Pakistan.
explained the need for management information system
for water and sanitation agencies. He also presented a proposal for
developing such an MIS.
Technical Services
In 1957, Khan
presented the results of a survey about the acquisition
and availability of foreign literature in Pakistani libraries. Similarly Abdul
described the problems in acquiring US scientific and technical
books in Pakistan. Haider
discussed the policies, procedures and
problems in the acquisition of scientific literature in Pakistani libraries.
This paper was published in a special issue of ‘Information Development’
which was on the acquisition of scientific literature in developing
Cataloguing of Muslin names has always been a problem. Anis
discussed this issue in detail. Rait
described the practice of
British public libraries regarding the cataloguing of Punjabi Muslim
Conservation of archives is a vital issue which was discussed in two
papers. First article
gave the details of a training course held in the
conservation laboratory of the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi in
1987. The course’s objectives were the conservation of official government
records. Wettasinghe
discussed the issues of archival conservation in
South Asian countries.
User Education
described developments in user education since 1926, when it
first became a serious study. He presented the findings of two surveys
carried out to discover the extent to which college students and working
scientists in Pakistan received any formal user education. He also put
forward a plan for a national user education programme in Pakistan.
A bibliography of 97 articles arranged alphabetically by author/title is given here. The
code for the source abstracting service is given at the end of each entry.
1. Abdul Haq, A.M. (1964) Difficulties in procurement of U.S. scientific and technical
publications in Pakistan. Library Resources 8(1), 47–50. (LSA)
2. Abrantes, A., Myhre, T., Oliveira, A. (1989) Microcomputers in primary health care
planning and management decision modelling. Information Technology for Development 4
(4), 813–828. (ISA)
3. Ahmed, Munir D. (1988) The training of librarians, documentalists and archivists in
the Near East. Auskunft 8(4), 277–286. (LISA)
4. Akhtar, A.H. (1994) The National Library of Pakistan. Herald of Library Science 33 (3–4),
226–228. (LISA)
5. Ali, Feroz A. (1981) Unesco Collective Consultation on National Book Strategies in
Asia and the Pacific, April 1981: a report. Fiji Library Association Journal, 16–18.
6. Anis Khurshid. (1974) INTAMEL Meeting 1973, India: Research methods in
developing public library system in the metropolitan city of Karachi, Pakistan.
International Library Review 6(1), 103–107. (ISA, LISA)
7. Anis Khurshid. (1977) Is uniformity in cataloguing Muslim names feasible or
possible?: a Pakistani point of view. Libri 27 (4), 282–295. (LISA)
8. Anis Khurshid. (1971) Libraries and librarianship in Pakistan. Libri 21 (4), 301–327.
9. Anis Khurshid. (1987) Library development in Pakistan in the mid-1980s. International
Library Review 19 (1), 61–71. (ISA, LISA)
10. Anis Khurshid. (1987) Library education in Pakistan. Library Times International 4(3),
46–48. (LISA)
11. Anis Khurshid. (1990) Library resources in Pakistan: progress, problems, and
achievements. Third World Libraries 1(1), 10–21. (LISA)
12. Anis Khurshid. (1961) Library training in Pakistan. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 15 (1),
31–33. (LSA)
13. Anis Khurshid. (1981) Problems of libraries: a study in relation to book development
in national and regional languages in Pakistan. Herald of Library Science 20 (3–4),
155–160. (LISA)
14. Anis Khurshid. (1982) Resource sharing of university libraries in Pakistan. Herald of
Library Science 21 (3–4), 169–182. (LISA)
15. Anis Khurshid. (1970) Standards for library education in Burma, Ceylon, India and
Pakistan. Annals of Library Science and Documentation 17, 23–34. (ISA, LISA)
16. Anis Khurshid. (1994) The pioneers: Abdul Moid. Third World Libraries 5(1), 6–10.
17. Anwar, Mumtaz A. (1981) Education of the user of the information. International
Library review 13 (4), 365–383. (LISA)
18. Anwar, Mumtaz A. (1982) Research in library science at the University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan. Libri 32 (4), 284–287. (LISA)
19. Anwar, Mumtaz A. (1971) Secondary school libraries in Pakistan. International Library
Review 3(3), 349–352. (LISA)
20. Arunachalam, S., Srinivasan, R., Raman, V. (1994) International collaboration in
science: participation by the Asian giants. Scientometrics 30 (1), 7–22. (ISA)
21. Attaullah, Johnson, Jane S. (1991) From camels to computers: the realities of
increasing the flow of agricultural information in Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier.
Microcomputers for Information Management 8(2), 105–117. (ISA, LISA)
22. Attaullah, Johnson, Jane S. (1991) From camels to computers: the realities of
increasing the flow of agricultural information in Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier.
Quarterly Bulletin of the International Association of Agricultural Information Specialists 36 (1–2),
105–109. (LISA)
23. Attaullah. (1992) Need a change? try exchange: a framework for resource sharing
among libraries in Pakistan. Library Review 41 (5), 60–64. (LISA)
24. Attaullah. (1994) Use of microcomputers for library automation: NWFP Agricultural
University Peshawar experience. Quarterly Bulletin of the International Association of
Agricultural Information Specialists 39 (3), 237–247. (LISA)
25. Begg, Nemattullah. (1980) Development of resource sharing: Pakistan. International
Library Review 12 (3), 287–304. (LISA)
26. Bowden, Russell. (1976) Improving library education in the developing countries: a
Unesco and Loughborough University experiment. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 30 (5),
255–261. (LISA)
27. Burlingham, Merry. (1988) South Asian collections: using research resources for a
more general public. Collection Building 9(1), 32–37. (LISA)
28. Christine, E.R. (1972) An American school librarian learns the meaning of enshallah-
if Allah wills: Islamabad, West Pakistan. Wilson Library Bulletin 46 (10), 918–920.
29. Conservation of Sind Government Archives. (1988) Library Conservation News (21), 6–8.
30. Cunningham, Eileen R. (1960) The library of the Basic Medical Sciences Institute in
Pakistan. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 48 (3), 292–298. (LSA)
31. Diehl, Katherine Smith. (1967) Books and common education in the Indo-Pak
subcontinent, 1959–1962. Journal of Library History 2(3), 201–210. (LSA)
32. Feather, John, Smith, Inese A. (1988) Post-qualification training. International Library
Review 20 (4), 459–468. (ERIC, ISA, LISA)
33. Grover, D.R. (1984) Library movement in Pakistan. International Library Movement 6(2),
75–85. (LISA)
34. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1989) Acquisition of scientific literature in developing
countries: Pakistan. Information Development 5(2), 73–115. (LISA)
35. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1985) Law information facilities in Pakistan. International
Journal of Public Administration 17 (1), 91–101. (ISA)
36. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1985) Law information facilities in Pakistan. International
Library Review 17 (1), 91–101. (ERIC, ISA, LISA)
37. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1969) Library associations in Pakistan. Unesco Bulletin for
Libraries 23 (3), 148–150, 165. (LISA)
38. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1988) Library literature in Pakistan. International Library
Review 20 (1), 65–100. (ERIC, ISA, LISA)
39. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1981) Medical information in Pakistan. International Library
Review, 13 (1), 117–128. (LISA)
40. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1983) Pakistan librarianship in 1970s: current issues and
emerging patterns. Libri 33 (3), 208–235. (ISA)
41. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1974) Science-technology libraries in Pakistan. Special
Libraries 65 (10–11), 472–478. (ISA, LISA)
42. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1985) Some aspects of agriculture information in Pakistan.
Libri 35 (1), 43–61. (LISA)
43. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1978) Status of library research in Pakistan. Libri 28 (4),
326–337. (LISA)
44. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1975) University libraries in Pakistan. College & Research
Libraries 36 (5), 379–383. (ISA, LISA)
45. Haider, Syed Jalaluddin. (1986) University libraries in Pakistan. International Library
Review 18 (2), 195–216. (ERIC, ISA, LISA)
46. Harvey, John F. (1982). Critique of seven Asian-English language library serials. Serials
Librarian, 7(2), 61–72. (LISA)
47. Hassan, S.Z. (1994) Environmental constraints in utilizing information technologies in
Pakistan. Journal of Global Information Management 2(4), 30–39. (ISA, LISA)
48. Heitzman, James. (1990) Information systems and development in the third world.
Information Processing & Management 26 (4), 489–502. (LISA)
49. Heyman, Juliane M. (1957) Asia Foundation Libraries. Indian Librarian 12 (3),
213–216. (LSA)
50. Horne, Esther E. (1987) International comparison and problems in the application of
information technology to information services. Reference Librarian (17), 23–44.
51. Husein, K., Adeyi, O., Bryant, J., Cara, N.B. (1993) Developing a primary health care
management information system that supports the pursuit of equity, effectiveness and
affordability. Social Science and Medicine 36 (5), 585–596. (LISA)
52. Khalid Mahmood Malik. (1995) Library software in Pakistan. Information Development
11 (3), 165–167. (LISA)
53. Khan, Abdur Rahim. (1957) Foreign literature in the libraries of Pakistan: acquisition
and availability. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 11 (5–6), 111–114. (LSA)
54. Khan, M. Siddiq. (1967) Libraries in Pakistan. Journal of Library History 2(1), 58–65.
55. Khan, M. Siddiq. (1960) The library situation in Pakistan. Indo-Pacific Exchange
Newsletter (6), 1–11. (LSA)
56. Lahood, Charles G., Jr. (1967) Newspapers: directories, indexes and union lists. Library
Trends 15 (3), 420–429. (ISA)
57. Library school histories: library education in Pakistan. International Library Review 3(1),
83–88. (LISA)
58. Lindley, Jane Ann. (1988) Third world parliaments and their libraries. Inspel 22 (2),
169–172. (LISA)
59. Mahindasa, P.G.M.G. (1956) The public library and the community in Africa and
Asia. Malayan Library Group Newsletter 1(5), 97–104. (LSA)
60. Mahmud ul Hassan. (1984) The Allama Iqbal Open University Library. International
Library Review 16 (1), 45–87. (ERIC, ISA, LISA)
61. Mangla, P.B. (1994) Library and information science education in South Asia: India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Education for Information 12 (4), 399–427.
62. Mangla, P.B. (1993) Library and information science education in South Asia: India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Asian Libraries 3(4), 23–40. (LISA)
63. Mangla, P.B. (1979) Manpower development for information handling. Journal of
Library and Information Science 4(2), 113–126. (LISA)
64. Methven, Mildred. (1957) Planning in Pakistan. Library Journal 82 (10), 1287–1289.
65. Middle East datafile. Bibliography, Documentation, Terminology 15 (5), 320. (ISA)
66. Minnatullah, K.M. (1994) Management information systems for water and sanitation
agencies: a conceptual framework. Information Development 10 (2), 96–101. (ISA,
67. Mohajir, A.R. (1960) The development of PANSDOC and its services to the scientific
and technical workers in Pakistan. Indo-Pacific Exchange Newsletter (7), 1–6. (LSA)
68. Moir, Martin. Administering and preserving district records in Pakistan. Information
Development 6(3), 144–149. (ISA, LISA)
69. Moir, Martin. (1983) Archives in Pakistan: some recent developments. SALG Newsletter
(21), 9–12. (LISA)
70. Morgan, Peter B. (1988) A workshop for medical libraries in Pakistan. Health Libraries
Review 5(1), 7–10. (LISA)
71. Muhammad Aslam. (1975) Rural libraries in Pakistan. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 29 (3),
156–158. (LISA)
72. Muhammad Aslam. (1977) Special libraries in Pakistan. Special Libraries 68 (4),
161–164. (ISA, LISA)
73. Owen, John E. (1960) Libraries in Pakistan. Library Journal 85 (4), 715–718. (LSA)
74. Qurashi, M.M. (1993) Dependence of publication-rate on size of some university
groups and departments in UK and Greece in comparison with NCI, USA.
Scientometrics 27 (1), 19–38. (ISA, LISA)
75. Qurashi, M.M. (1991) Publication rate and size of two prolific research groups in
departments of organic chemistry at Dacca University (1944–1965) and zoology at
Karachi University (1966–1984). Scientometrics 20 (1), 79–92. (ISA, LISA)
76. Qureshi, Naimuddin. (1979) The education and training of librarians and information
scientists in Pakistan. Libri 29 (1), 79–89. (LISA)
77. Rafia Mohammadally. (1986) Bibliographical control in Pakistan. International Library
Review 18 (1), 33–56. (ERIC, LISA)
78. Rafia Mohammadally. (1985) Information training in Pakistan. Information Development
1(1), 31–37. (LISA)
79. Rafique, M.M. (1971) Nuclear science libraries in developing countries: with
particular reference to Pakistan. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries 25 (2), 79–83. (LISA)
80. Rait, S.K. (1983) Cataloguing Punjabi Muslim names in British public libraries.
International Library Review 15 (1), 105–113. (ISA)
81. Royan, B. (1993) Our reach and our grasp: development information and the
technological imperative. Focus on International & Comparative Librarianship 24 (3),
106–114. (LISA)
82. Sajjad ur Rheman. (1994) Appraisal of faculty preparedness by using selected
variables. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 35 (1), 20–30. (ERIC,
83. Sajjad ur Rehman. (1993) Comparative measurement of book availability in academic
libraries. International Information and Library Review 25 (3), 183–193. (LISA)
84. Sajjad ur Rehman. (1993) Manpower preparation for developing and implementing
information policies. Library Review 42 (6), 23–37. (LISA)
85. Schenck, H.D., George, P.F. (1986) Using special libraries to interface with developing
country clientele. Special Libraries 77 (2), 80–89. (ISA)
86. Schlie, Theodore W. (1977) The use of patent information in developing countries: a
study of a case in progress. Ciencia da Informacao 6(2), 55–58. (LISA)
87. Shaheen Majid. (1995) Characteristics of agricultural manpower in Pakistan. Asian
Libraries 4(1), 12–21. (LISA)
88. Shaheen Majid. (1993) Strengthening agricultural libraries in Pakistan. International
Information and Library Review 25 (4), 233–245. (LISA)
89. Slavin, Timothy A. (1991) The National Archives of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
American Archivist 54 (2), 220–226. (LISA)
90. Stelmakh, V.D. (1984) From a literate society-to a reading society: some results of the
World Book Congress. Bibliotekovedenie i Bibliografia za Rubezhom (97), 24–37. (LISA)
91. Unesco “Free Flow” Agreement achieves ratification. (1952) Unesco Bulletin for Libraries
6(5–6), E61–E63. (LSA)
92. Wageman, Lynette M. (1986) Reference sources on South Asia. International Association
of Orientalist Librarians Bulletin (28–29), 39–46. (LISA)
93. Waller, Jean. (1959) The library scene in Pakistan. Newsletter of the Library Association of
Malaya 3(3), 12–15. (LSA)
94. Wells, Jack C. (1988) The South Asia Microfilm Project. Microform Review 17 (1),
26–31. (LISA)
95. Wells, N.A. (1989) A program in BASIC for facies-by-facies Markov chain analysis.
Computers and Geosciences 15 (1), 143–156. (ISA)
96. Wettasinghe, Saroja. (1989) Archive conservation in South Asia. SALG Newsletter (34),
9–14. (LISA)
97. Yasmin, N. (1991) Status of information management in Pakistan. Journal of Hong Kong
Library Association (15), 173–178. (LISA)
... Rizvi (1987) considered that a lack of trained individuals in the area of library research was the prominent obstacle in the production of research. Mahmood (1996) suggested that the National Council for Librarianship should be constituted by the Government to examine the library related issues and assigned experts to find out the suitable solution. He emphasized on refreshers course for working librarians to teach them how to conduct research and further encouraged them to write and send their findings to journals. ...
... Some of them used manual technique to draw the results others extracted the results from databases, like LISTA, LISA, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science. The first notable study of this kind was produced by Mahmood (1996), when he was doing Postgraduate Diploma in Library Management from Haagse Hogeschool, Netherlands. He analyzed 97 documents related to library and information services of Pakistan published from 1947 to 1995 in international journals. ...
... This study examined the 251 documents produced by 64 authors from 1969 to 1995 and the highest 57% of the documents were published in PLB. Khurshid (2013) replicated the Mahmood (1996) study, he collected the data of 516 articles published between 1957 to 2011, contributed by 72 Pakistani authors. He added the qualitative evaluation and discovered that out of 516 articles only 29% (n=151) of the articles were published in Impact factor journals. ...
Full-text available
Results: Pakistani LIS authors produced 154 documents, and the majority of the documents (n=97; 63%) were published in international journals and 37% of the documents were published inside of the country. Dr. Kanwal Ameen and Department of Information Management, University of the Punjab, Lahore emerged as the most productive author and most prolific institution with 13 and 46 documents respectively. The examination of the authorship pattern revealed that more than one-third (n=59; 38.31%) of the total documents followed the two-author pattern. Pakistan Library & Information Science Journal (n=35; 22.72%) was found a favorite channel of communication, followed by Library Philosophy and Practice (n=25; 16.23%). The research has been conducted on multiple topics, the majority of documents were found on the subject categories of bibliometrics, social media and information seeking behavior. Conclusion: The launching of LIS doctorate programs and the provision of electronic resources through the National Digital Library of Higher Education Commission in Pakistani universities have a positive impact on the publication growth. There is a need to motivate the practicing information professionals that they should come forward to participate in the research process to improve LIS services.
... All these papers were published in 52 journals and the highest number of papers were published in International Information and Library Review. The study suggested establishing National Research Council for Librarianship to carry out research on the burning issues of Pakistan librarianship (Mahmood 1996). In response to this study, Anwar and Saeed (1999) Two recent studies assessed the research output by Pakistani LIS authors in 2019 and 2020. ...
... The maximum number of documents (83%) were written by multi-author pattern whereas 17% of the papers were written by a single authors pattern. Previous studies endorsed that the ratio of a single-author patterns was on the higher scale as compared to collaborative research (Mahmood 1996;Haq & Alfouzan 2019). ...
Full-text available
The main objective of the current study is to quantify the research productivity in Library and Information Science (LIS) Services produced by Pakistani authors during the period of ten years from 2011 to 2020. The retrospective research method by applying the bibliometric technique has been used. The data of the publications on LIS Services by Pakistani authors has been browsed from various online and print sources. The selected bibliographic parameters of publications were inserted in Microsoft Excel-2016 for data analysis. The findings have been presented in tabular and graphic formats. A total of 1,258 documents were identified, contributed by 3,110 authors including multiple counts with an average of 2.47 authors per document. As a distinct name, a total of 858 authors were recognized and the share of international authors was slightly more than one-fifth (21%). About one-third of the total documents were published in the last two years of the study. Eighty-three percent of the documents were the results of research collaboration and the two-author pattern was found the preferred authorship pattern. The majority of documents (91%) were published as journals articles, followed by conference papers, book chapters and books. The highest number of papers were published in Pakistan Library and Information Science Journal, followed by Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Sixty-four percent of the authors contributed in one paper each while 69 authors contributed ten or more than ten papers each. Dr. Rubina Bhatti, Dr. Kanwal Ameen and Dr. Khalid Mahmood were found the top-three most productive authors with 103, 94 and 77 publications, respectively. The introduction of LIS doctorate programs and the establishment of the National Digital Library of Higher Education Commission put a healthy impact on the growth of publications. There is a need to inspire the practicing librarians that they should come forward to contribute to the research progress to develop LIS services. 1
... Some of the relevant studies have been reviewed to establish a connection with the present research. Mahmood (1996) analyzed the 97 articles related to the Pakistan LIS perspective published in international journals from 1947 to 1995, 69 paperswere produced by Pakistan LIS professionals while other 28 documents contributed by international authors and the word "Pakistan" had been included in their papers. International Information and Library Review was found a favorite option with 16 papers followed by Libri (n=7). ...
... The growth and evaluation of Pakistan LIS literature have been an interesting topic for researchers. Mahmood (1996) examined the 97 articles on Pakistan LIS published in foreign journals only and in the next year Khan and Samdani (1997) pointed out the characteristics of 506 articles published in the 72 issues of PLB during the period of 28 years from 1968 to 1997. Anwar and Saeed (1999) collected the data from LISA-PLUS, they included both locally and internationally published LIS material in their analysis and stated that more than half of the literature was published in PLB. ...
Full-text available
Aim: The citation analysis is one of the quality indicators of research publications. An attempt has been made in this study, to examine the impact of citations on the documents published in the Pakistan Library & Information Science Journal (PLISJ) from 2004 to 2020. Research Methodology: A retrospective research method was applied on the bibliographic detail of documents published in PLISJ and indexed in Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA) - EBSCO Host. The publication data of PLISJ consisted of 17 years from 2004 to 2020 was available on the website of EBSCO ( A total of 68 issues were published in this period but the record of 66 issues was available on the EBSCO website, the data of two missing issues was retained from the hard copies of the journal. The selected dataset was entered in the spreadsheet of the Micro-Soft Excel Sheet for analysis. The record of citations was taken from Google Scholar. Standard Error of Means (SEM) of total publications and citations was calculated by SPSS-22. The articles published in the English Language have been included for analysis. The editorials, book reviews, news items and Urdu Language documents have been excluded. The number of citations gained by each record has been retrieved from Google Scholar from 25th to 30th November 2020. Results: A total of 361 (SEM 21.24±1.32) articles have been identified with an average annual growth rate of 4.04. These documents received the ratio of the citations with SEM 37.94±4.90 and almost half of the documents (49.30%) have been cited. Ten papers quantified the status of h-Index. A strong correlation (0.958349) is found between the authorship pattern and number of citations, as multi-authors papers received more citations as compared to a single author. Dr. Rubina Bhattia and Dr. Khalid Mahmood emerged as the leading authors with 39, 21 papers, respectively. The highest citation impact has been received the document contributed by Dr. Mirza Muhammad Naseer and Dr. Khalid Mahmood. The maximum h-index scale (n=7) is gained by Dr. Khalid Mahmood. A bulk of documents was written on the subject category of “Biographical studies” whereas the highest citation impact has gone to the documents on “Reference Services”. Conclusion: The growing inclination of papers in PLISJ has been observed in the study. As the papers are getting older, the number of citations is also increasing. The authorship pattern has explicitly enhanced from single to multiple authors. Faculty should encourage scholars to submit quality research in national journals.
... Now the number of competent and motivated professionals contributing valuable research on the various aspects of librarianship and information management-related areas (Ahmed & Warraich, 2013). Mahmood (1996) Ahmed and Warraich (2013) evaluated the patterns of LIS research produced by the authors belonging to the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2012. A total of 172 papers were found in the targeted period and more than two-thirds of the papers (67%) were published in international sources. ...
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The study aimed to evaluate the bibliometric research of Library and Information Science (LIS) research contributed by the authors affiliated with the University of Karachi (UoK), Pakistan. The dataset was limited to 22 years from January 2000 to December 2021 and a list of evaluated papers has been proved from various online and print sources. Google Scholar has been employed to access the record of citation(s). Ninety-two papers were identified with at least one author affiliated with the UoK on the subject category of LIS and these papers were cited 707 times. Two-author collaboration was found to be the preferred authorship pattern and the papers written in this pattern got a better citation result. A number of research articles' contributions have been found that female authors are more than male authors. Syed Jalaluddin Haider, Munira Nasreen Ansari and Farhat Hussain emerged as the most prolific authors with 26, 25 and 15 papers, respectively. The papers published in international journals got higher citations and about three-fourth of the papers were published in the top 11 sources which in found from these research. The subject dispersion revealed that LIS Education and Library Management were the favorite areas. The characteristics of the ten most cited papers revealed that 60% citations were gained by these papers. The findings of this paper support understanding the research trends in LIS at UoK. There is a need to accelerate the research activities, revisit the research policies and promote the research culture in the UoK.
... Hussain and Saddiqa (2020) Khurshid (2013) replicated the study of Mahmood (1996) and reported that 72 Pakistani authors wrote 516 articles in foreign LIS journals from1957 to 2011. It was also identified that out of 516 articles, 151 were published in impact factor journals. ...
Purpose: This study examined the research productivity of library automation from 2015-to 2020. The study's objectives were to access the publications based on various parameters such as year-wise distribution, authorship pattern, the total count of citations, most cited publications and the most prolific authors. Methodology: The bibliometric method was applied in the study to analyze the characteristics and trends of papers published on library automation during the years 2015-2020. The data for the study was extracted from Google Scholar by using the bibliometric analysis software “Publish or Perish” and was further analyzed with MS Excel 365. Key Findings: It was found that 342 authors wrote a total of 190 papers during the study period. The results show that the highest number of publications (45) were published in 2019. The single personal authors' pattern was dominant, with 50.52% publications. A total of 355 citations were received by the papers and 118 (33.2%) citations were received in 2017. The paper also highlighted information about the most cited on the topic papers during the study period.
... These studies covered diverse aspects of publications. Mahmood (1996) examined the LIS research on Pakistan published in international journals from 1947 to 1997. Anwar and Saeed (1999) Four studies were conducted on the publication's patterns of the Pakistan Library and Information Science Journal at different times. ...
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the research output and publications trends of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Pakistan for the last 42 years as observed in the Scopus database. IUB is the premier degree-awarding institution of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan and considerably subsidized their valuable share in national research growth. A quantitative bibliometric research technique was employed to enumerate the documents and their parameters. The publications record of IUB from 1980 to 2021 was retrieved on 2nd January 2022. The Microsoft Excel and VOSviewer software were used to appraise the dataset and presented the findings in tabular/graphic formats. The authors affiliated to IUB contributed the share of 2.52% in the national research growth of Pakistan with 6,209 documents and 62% of the documents were published in the last five years (2017-2021). The review papers and subscription-based documents gained more citations as compared to articles and open-accessed documents. The highest numbers of the documents were published on the subject area of "Agricultural and Biological Sciences" and about 15% of the documents were published in top-10 journals. Bahauddin Zakariya University was found on the top among the research collaborative institutions and China emerged as the top preference in the international research collaboration. The findings confirmed that a promising research growth has been explicit in the JIMP Vol.1 No.2 Haq, I. U (2021) 52 last decade. The outcomes of this study are significant for the IUB authorities and they can review their efforts to promote research culture. The findings of this paper would also serve as a benchmark for the future studies on IUB as well as the other universities of Pakistan.
... In Pakistan, especially in the field of LIS, first, the notable study was conducted by Mahmood (1996) on 96 articles related to Pakistani LIS services published in international journals, Anwar and Saeed (1999) further enhanced this area and evaluated 251 LIS documents produced by Pakistani authors during 1969 to 1995 published both in national and international sources. Khurshid (2013) provided a quantitative and qualitative assessment of 516 documents contributed by Pakistani authors in foreign journals from 1957 to 2011. ...
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Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate the bibliometric parameters of the literature published in the Pakistan Journal of Information Management and Libraries (PJIM&L) for the period of 2010 to 2019 and indexed in the Scopus database. Methods: The retrospective method has been applied to the dataset that was downloaded from the Scopus-Elsevier database on 5th January 2021. Two source titles PJIM&L, and its earlier version "Pakistan Journal of Library and Information Science", were selected and all the available bibliographic records of publications were downloaded in Comma Separated Value (CSV) file for analysis. The data was examined by chronological order, by the pattern of authorship and enlist the productive authors, further distribution of documents by affiliated country, keywords occurrence and most cited papers were presented. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to calculate the Mean and Standard Error of Means and the VOSviewer software was applied to visualize the keywords occurrence and author's productivity. Results: A total of 96 papers were identified by the Scopus database published in PJIM&L between 2010 to 2019 with an average of 9.6 papers per year with an average annual growth rate of 44.89. These papers were written by 127 authors and most of the papers (n=37; 40.21%) were written by a two-author pattern. Kanwal Ameen has emerged as a most productive author and most of the papers were contributed by the authors who belonged from Lahore and University of the Punjab found a productive institution. The research contributions from 15 foreign countries showed that international authors have trust in the credibility of the journal. Top-cited papers with their number of citations in Scopus and Google Scholar have been identified. Conclusion: PJIM&L is a reputed and internationally recognized LIS journal. The citation analysis showed that its papers are being cited regularly worldwide. There is a need to change the frequency of publications from annual to biannual to attract more researchers.
... The distinguished personalities of any area of knowledge with exceptional research output have been selected to analyze bibliometrically. Some studies highlighted the most productive author as Mahmood (1996) reviewed the 97 papers by Pakistani Library and Information Science (LIS) professional published in international journals from 1947 to 1995 and Dr. Syed Jalaluddin Haider was found a most prolific author with 12 publications. Anwar and Saeed (1999) studied the 251 LIS items produced by Pakistan from 1969 to 1995 and Dr. Anis Khurshid was found a most productive author with 22 publications. ...
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Aim: This article aims to present the bio-bibliometric portrait of the research productivity created by Dr. Tasawar Hayat, a Distinguished Professor of Methodology: The retrospective method has been applied in this study to assess the attributes of bibliographical records of the documents produced by Dr. Hayat. Elsevier's Scopus database was used to extract the required dataset on the 28 th of October 2020. The required features of the dataset of all types of published papers were downloaded for analysis. The five bibliometric indicators of the dataset wereevaluated, the publications and citations ratio by year, segregation of documents by subjects, frequently used channels for publications, distribution of research collaboration by country and top-ranked co-authors. Microsoft Excel was used for the tabulated pattern and graphic interpretation, and SPSS software was used to calculate the SEM of publications and citations.
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The main theme of this study was to explore the status of college libraries in the District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study aimed to identify the services, reading materials, and technological resources in the college libraries. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The researchers personally visited the population cites, and distribute the questionnaire to collect data from the librarians of two Degree Colleges. The data was analyzed manually with the help of MS Word to draw the results. The findings of the study revealed that these libraries provide many of the services such as cataloging, classification, reference services, current awareness services, and user education. Furthermore, these libraries have least number of reading materials, and Information, and Communication Technology-based resources. Recommendations were made upon the findings of the study.
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Background: University of Peshawar (UoP) is the first university established after the creation of Pakistan. The aim of this study is to present the bibliometric attributes of documents produced by the researchers of the University of Peshawar as reflected in the Elsevier's Scopus database. organizations and countries. Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet has been used for the calculation of frequency and graphic presentations of findings. Microsoft Excel correlation formula has been used to determine the correlation between authorship patterns and the number of citations. Results: A total of 4,820 documents were retrieved from 1957 to 2019. These documents received 57,212 citations with an average of 11.87 citations per document. The maximum research has been produced on the subject of chemistry, and the Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan found a most preferred journal. The bulk of papers have been written by four-author pattern and the highest number of citations were received by the publications having more than nine authors. The majority of research collaboration was done with the researchers of Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan. The analysis of research collaboration by country showed that China has been a top preference for the authors of UoP, followed by United States, United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: The success of university education is to cultivate the ability among the students to transform the conceptual knowledge into sustainable technology for the betterment of the society. The faculty and students of the UoP have been striving hard to get excellence through innovative research and actively involved in research collaboration, nationally and internationally. The remarkable research growth has been recorded during the last decade.
The North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Agricultural University in Peshawar, Pakistan has recently combined with the Ministry of Agriculture research stations in the NWFP to upgrade both the research and training capabilities for agricultural scientists in the province. The development of modern information systems and services within the university library to complement the teaching and research responsibilities of the agricultural scientists in the agricultural sector was begun in 1984 with the beginning of the TIPAN Project, a cooperative USAID-funded development project with the NWFP Agricultural University and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC).
The National Archives of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan presents a fascinating paradox for archivists interested in the work of their colleagues abroad. Faced with the separate problems of poverty, illiteracy, and martial law, the National Archives of Pakistan has established and maintained a model archival program for South Asia. The collections housed at the National Archives of Pakistan-a mix of manuscripts from the Moghul rulers to the administrative papers of the first years of government-reflect the multitude of paradoxes which Pakistan has come to represent.
Production of qualified librarians or information specialists with adequate theoretical knowledge and practical skills in applications of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is found to be a strategic asset that will bring about significant development and changes in any nation’s economy, politics, education, agriculture and other national sectors of the economy. Thoughts that influenced the direction of curriculum and the development of library and information science education in Ethiopia were discussed. The Jimma University Department of information studies’ curriculum and its development was specifically highlighted with reference to the core; supportive, common and education courses of the program. Plans for the future development of the program in Jimma University were also mentioned.
Faculty evaluation criteria were scrutinized utilizing the following variables: academic qualifications, professional experience, and research and publication credentials. The faculty of six graduate programs of library education in Pakistan were evaluated using these variables in order to examine their preparedness. Data were collected by administering two questionnaires to obtain faculty profiles and bio-bibliographic information. It was found that the number of faculty was inadequate in many departments, senior positions were either unavailable or remained unfilled, few teachers had obtained the doctorate, many teachers lacked experience in the areas in which they taught courses, and research and publication credentials were weak. Remedial measures proposed to improve the situation include creating additional positions, providing opportunities for doctoral study, improving recruitment policies, and sharpening research and publication skills of faculty through specialized programs.
Updates the author's earlier surveys and offers historical comparisons. Considers all types of libraries in each province or region. At present there are 6,034 libraries in the country, holding 13,354,500 volumes. The most satisfying development has been in university libraries, which now provide 44 books per student. In the city of Punjab are found the largest of the nation's public libraries and the largest university library. A landmark activity of recent years has been the distribution of 4,373 "box libraries" to the villages. School libraries have been grossly neglected, and the author notes this as a major problem to be dealt with by government and the library profession. There is also need for a mechanism to clarify and update library statistics. Coordinated, cooperative collection development is called for to avoid a decline in library progress..
Facilities for para-professional training and professional education in library and informa. tion work in Pakistan are described. The Uni versity Grants Commission Curriculum for Lib rary and Information Science has been intro duced in all university library science depart ments. The lack of teaching staff and profes sional literature create serious problems. Post- experience courses are offered through an Anglo-Pakistani cooperation programme. Selected Unesco documents on education and training are listed.
Paul Kantor's methodology for availability analysis was applied to measure the degree of success or failure of the users of the General Collection of Punjab University Main Library in getting their needed documents. The availability success rate in this library was found to be 41·3%. Measurement of different performance factors indicated that segmentation of the library collection, absence of appropriate records for tracking down searches, inadequate user skills and insufficient and incompatible acquisitions were among the most significant factors impeding the availability of wanted items. These results were then compared with similar studies conducted in the academic libraries of the United States based on the same measurement methodology. Significant differences were noted in the overall measure of availability as well as for the factors related to library, users and acquisition. Implications of the study were reviewed to propose corrective measures.