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The Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources (OER): An Exploration of Technologies Available

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Abstract and Figures

Open Educational Resources (OER) are a relatively new phenomenon which is fast gaining academic credibility as well as the attention of policy makers on a global scale. With increased funding by governmental and non-governmental organisations paired with generous philanthropy, the volume of rich OER available freely to the masses has grown exponentially. As with any new academic movement, the initial challenge for the OER movement was to spread this new philosophy into mainstream academia whereby the use of OER in teaching and learning becomes accepted practice. With strong advocacy by Open Distance Learning (ODL) institutions buttressed by organisations such as the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and UNESCO, OER is currently achieving this objective and is rapidly gaining acceptance as a credible source of knowledge in many an academic community. The whole philosophy of OER rests on a foundation consisting of two fundamental concepts which are (i) free and open access to knowledge; and (ii) the ability to freely adapt and re-use existing pieces of knowledge. Even though the OER movement has been quite successful in firmly planting the first concept in the academic community, the second concept of re-use and adaptation is still to take flight on a larger scale. Although there are many inhibitors to the wider adoption of the re-use concept of OER, one of the major inhibitors is the current lack in capacities among the various stakeholders to effectively utilise existing technologies to adapt and re-use OER. This in turn has created a community of passive OER consumers who are not contributing to the expansion of the movement. The objectives of this report are to (i) explore the current technology landscape with respect to both proprietary as well as Free and Open-source Software (FOSS) technologies; (ii) identify techniques, actual and in development, for re-use of OER materials; and (iii) discuss the implementation in the context of a typical ODL agency. This peer-reviewed report is a detailed catalogue of technologies available to teachers as well as learners for the re-use of OER material in the forms of text, HTML, audio, video and data. It also compares the technologies based on access, openness, usability and availability. The report will serve as a resource for teachers and learners for re-using OER material.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The Re-use and Adaptation of Open
Educational Resources (OER)
An Exploration of Technologies Available
Prepared for the Commonwealth of Learning
By Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena
May 2012
1
A REPORT ON:
The Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources (OER)
An Exploration of Technologies Available
May 2012
Prepared for the Commonwealth of Learning by:
Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena
Senior Lecturer
School of Science and Technology
Wawasan Open University
54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah
Penang, 10050
Malaysia
e-mail: ishansa@wou.edu.my
website: www.wou.edu.my/IshanAbeywardena.html
© Commonwealth of Learning
CC-BY-SA
The report is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Licence
(international): http://creativecommons.org/licences/by-sa/3.0.
For the avoidance of doubt, by applying this licence the Commonwealth of Learning does not waive
any privileges or immunities from claims that it may be entitled to assert, nor do the Commonwealth of
Learning submit to the jurisdiction, courts, legal processes or laws of any jurisdiction.
Prefatory note:
At a time when the global community of OER stakeholders and enthusiasts are celebrating a decade
of growth in OER, we at COL would like to highlight the importance of overcoming the producer-
consumer divide in the OER paradigm. We have argued that a user should be enabled to be a
producer of OER as well. With this purpose in view, COL has encouraged thought and efforts to
advance the tools and opportunities for re-use and adaptation of OER in various contexts. This report,
authored by Mr. Ishan Sudeera Abeyawardena of Wawasan Open University (WOU), Malaysia, is a
significant contribution in that direction.
A sizeable part of OER use and re-use occurs, and will continue to occur using personal computers
(PCs). There are clear indications that use of OER is becoming limited by the lack of PC-based tools
that could enable easy and credible re-use and adaptation. Informal analysis of results from multi-
country surveys in Asia organised by OER-Asia in 2011-2012 reveals that this is indeed the case,
even with users in better-endowed institutions. In this report, Mr. Abeyawardena has provided concise
overviews on a host of different tools that can enable re-use and adaptation of re-use on a PC. It is
most of the tools he has described are Open Source tools, thus eliminating one layer of costs in the
re-use process. He has also provided case studies on how re-use can lead to credible new material.
This report was developed by Mr. Abeyawardena over a period of time he spent at COL’s
headquarters in Vancouver on an Executive Secondment. We thank him for his contribution and thank
the Vice Chancellor of the WOU for the support extended to Mr. Abeyawardena. A number of
colleagues in COL gave advice and support towards development of this report with Dr. V Balaji
serving as the principal advisor. We hope the global OER Community will find this report a useful
resource in the effort to advance the OER paradigm.
Professor Asha S. Kanwar
President and Chief Executive Officer
Commonwealth of Learning
2
Table of Contents
1.
Executive Summary……………………………………………………………...
03
2.
Re-use and Adaptation of OER
2.1 What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? .........................
2.2 Desirability of OER for Re-use…………………………………….
2.3 Categorisation of Software Available for Re-use of OER……….
2.3.1 Text based resources…………………………………….
2.3.2 Images……………………………………………………...
2.3.3 Audio………………………………………………………..
2.3.4 Video………………………………………………………..
2.3.5 Data…………………………………………………………
2.3.6 Slideshows…………………………………………………
2.3.7 Other Tools..………………………………………………..
2.3.8 Authoring and Delivery……………………………………
04
05
09
11
21
25
26
30
33
35
38
3.
OER and Copyright…………………………………………………………........
42
4.
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………
50
5.
Recommendations………………………………………………………………..
51
6.
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………….........
54
7.
References and Attributions……………………………………………………...
55
3
1. Executive Summary
Open Educational Resources (OER) are a relatively new phenomenon which is fast
gaining academic credibility as well as the attention of policy makers on a global
scale. With increased funding by governmental and non-governmental organisations
paired with generous philanthropy, the volume of rich OER available freely to the
masses has grown exponentially. As with any new academic movement, the initial
challenge for the OER movement was to spread this new philosophy into
mainstream academia whereby the use of OER in teaching and learning becomes
accepted practice. With strong advocacy by Open Distance Learning (ODL)
institutions buttressed by organisations such as the Commonwealth of Learning
(COL) and UNESCO, OER is currently achieving this objective and is rapidly gaining
acceptance as a credible source of knowledge in many an academic community.
The whole philosophy of OER rests on a foundation consisting of two fundamental
concepts which are (i) free and open access to knowledge; and (ii) the ability to
freely adapt and re-use existing pieces of knowledge. Even though the OER
movement has been quite successful in firmly planting the first concept in the
academic community, the second concept of re-use and adaptation is still to take
flight on a larger scale. Although there are many inhibitors to the wider adoption of
the re-use concept of OER, one of the major inhibitors is the current lack in
capacities among the various stakeholders to effectively utilise existing technologies
to adapt and re-use OER. This in turn has created a community of passive OER
consumers who are not contributing to the expansion of the movement.
The objectives of this report are to (i) explore the current technology landscape with
respect to both proprietary as well as Free and Open-source Software (FOSS)
technologies; (ii) identify techniques, actual and in development, for re-use of OER
materials; and (iii) discuss the implementation in the context of a typical ODL agency.
This peer-reviewed report is a detailed catalogue of technologies available to
teachers as well as learners for the re-use of OER material in the forms of text,
HTML, audio, video and data. It also compares the technologies based on access,
openness, usability and availability. The report will serve as a resource for teachers
and learners for re-using OER material.
4
2. Re-use and Adaptation of OER
2.1 What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?
The concept of Open Educational Resources (OER) describes any educational
resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks, streaming
videos, multimedia applications, podcasts, and any other materials that have been
designed for use in teaching and learning) that are openly available for use by
educators and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence
fees. See Basic Guide to OER, for more information on OER
http://www.oerafrica.org/ResourceResults/tabid/1562/mctl/Details/id/39016/Default.a
spx.
The content in this section drew on the following resources:
Wikipedia: Copyright. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
Julien Hofman (2009) Introducing Copyright: A plain language guide to copyright in
the 21st century. Commonwealth of Learning (COL).
http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=312
WIPO: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886).
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/index.html
WIPO: Limitations and Exceptions.
http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/limitations/index.html
The African Copyright and Access to Knowledge Project. http://www.aca2k.org/
Open.Michigan: License your Work. http://open.umich.edu/share/license
University of the Witwatersrand: Copyright Guidelines for Staff & Students of the
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (WITS).
http://libguides.wits.ac.za/content.php?pid=227586&sid=1883163
UNESCO/COL: A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources.
http://www.oerafrica.org/ResourceResults/tabid/1562/mctl/Details/id/39016/Default.as
px
2.2 Desirability of OER for Re-use
What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?” is an adaptation of “What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?” (OER
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
5
When considering the use and reuse of an OER, there are other aspects of a
resource that are fundamental to the usefulness of that particular resource and can
be parametrically identified by a software-based mechanism. The first aspect is
whether a resource is relevant to a user’s needs. This can be assessed by the
search ranking of a resource when searched for with a search mechanism. The
search mechanism will compare the title, description, keywords, and sometimes the
content of the material to find the best match for the search query. The second
aspect is whether the resource is open enough for using, reusing, remixing and
redistributing. This becomes important depending on what the user wants to
accomplish with the resource. The third aspect is the accessibility of the resource
with respect to technology. If the user cannot easily use, reuse and remix a resource
with available technology, the resource becomes less useful. Therefore, the
usefulness of an OER with respect to (i) the level of openness, (ii) the level of
access, and (iii) the relevance can be defined as the desirability of an OER,
indicating how desirable it is for use and reuse for one’s needs. Within the
requirement of being able to use and reuse a particular OER, these three
parameters can be defined as follows:
1. level of openness, the permission to use and reuse the resource;
2. level of access, the technical keys required to unlock the resource; and
3. relevance, the level of match between the resource and the needs of the user.
As each of these mutually exclusive parameters are directly proportionate to the
desirability of an OER, the desirability can be expressed as a three-dimensional
measure as shown in Figure 1.
Desirability of OER for Re-use” is an adaptation of “Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of
Open Educational Resources using D-Index (http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1177/2142) © 2012 by Ishan
Sudeera Abeywardena, Choy Yoong Tham and S. Raviraja used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY 3.0)
6
Figure 1 Desirability of an OER
The Scales
In order to parametrically calculate the desirability of an OER, each of the
parameters discussed above needs to be given a numeric value based on a set
scale. These scales can be defined in the following ways.
The level of openness can be defined using the four Rs of openness (Hilton, Wiley,
Stein, & Johnson, 2010) as shown in Table 1. The four Rs stand for reuse, the ability
to use all or part of a work for one’s own purposes; redistribute, the ability to share
one’s work with others; revise, the ability to adapt, modify, translate, or change the
form of a work; and remix, the ability to combine resources to make new resources.
The values 1 to 4 were assigned to the four Rs where 1 corresponds to the lowest
level of openness and 4 corresponds to the highest level.
Permission
Value
Reuse
1
Redistribute
2
Revise
3
Remix
4
Table 1 The Level of Openness Based on the 4R’s of Openness
The level of access can be defined on a scale of 1 to 16 using the ALMS analysis
(Hilton, Wiley, Stein, & Johnson, 2010), which identifies the technical requirements
7
for localisation of an OER with respect to access to editing tools, level of expertise
required to revise or remix, ability to meaningfully edit and source-file access. As
shown in Table 2, the value 1 corresponds to the lowest accessibility and value 16 to
the highest accessibility.
Access
(Access to editing tools | Level of expertise required to revise or remix |
Meaningfully editable | Source-file access)
Value
Low | High | No | No
1
Low | High | No | Yes
2
Low | High | Yes | No
3
Low | High | Yes | Yes
4
Low | Low | No | No
5
Low | Low | No | Yes
6
Low | Low | Yes | No
7
Low | Low | Yes | Yes
8
High | High | No | No
9
High | High | No | Yes
10
High | High | Yes | No
11
High | High | Yes | Yes
12
High | Low | No | No
13
High | Low | No | Yes
14
High | Low | Yes | No
15
High | Low | Yes | Yes
16
Table 2 The Level of Access Based on the ALMS Analysis
The relevance of a resource to a particular search query can be measured using the
rank of the search results. According to Vaughan (2004) users will only consider the
top ten ranked results for a particular search as the most relevant. Vaughan further
suggests that users will ignore the results below the top 30. Based on this premise,
the scale for the relevance was defined as shown in Table 3, where the value 1 is
the least relevant and value 4 is the most relevant.
8
Search rank
Value
Below the top 30 ranks of the search results
1
Within the top 21-30 ranks of the search results
2
Within the top 11-20 ranks of the search results
3
Within the top 10 ranks of the search results
4
Table 3 The Level of Relevance Based on Search Rank
Calculation
Based on the scales, the desirability of an OER can then be defined as the volume of
the cuboid, as shown in Figure 2, calculated using the following formula.
Desirability = level of access x level of openness x relevance
As a result, the desirability becomes directly proportionate to the volume of the
cuboid.
Fig 2 Calculation of desirability
By normalising the values indicated in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 to make the
scales uniform for the calculation, the D-index of an OER can be calculated using the
following formula.
D-index = (level of access x level of openness x relevance) / 256
Based on the above calculation, a resource becomes more desirable as the D-index
increases on a scale of 0 to 1, where 0 is the least desirable and 1 is the most
desirable.
9
When applying the D-index to an OER repository, the level of access, discussed in
Table 2, needs to be implemented using the file formats of the OER, where their
features are mapped against the ALMS. The level of openness, based on the four Rs
discussed in Table 1, needs to be measured using the copyright licensing scheme
under which the resource was released. The de facto scheme used in most
repositories is the Creative Commons (CC) (see section 3) licensing scheme, which
has six derivations based on the level of openness. However, other specific licensing
schemes such as the GNU Free Documentation License
can also be used for this
purpose as long as they can be categorised into the four levels of openness
constituting the desirability. Table 4 maps the six CC licenses to the four Rs of
openness. However, it should be noted that the level of openness of the CC licenses
starts at the redistribute level.
Permission
Creative Commons (CC) licence
Value
Reuse
None
1
Redistribute
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND)
2
Revise
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)
Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)
3
Remix
Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)
Attribution (CC BY)
4
Table 4 Mapping the CC licenses to the 4 R s
2.3 Categorisation of Software Available for Re-use of OER
When considering software, many of us are aware that there are (i) free of charge
software which can be downloaded over the internet; and (ii) proprietary software
which need to be purchased. However, the confusion starts when we come across
software marked as open source being sold and others which are marked as
proprietary being made available free of charge. So what is free and what is not?
By definition proprietary software are solely owned by an individual, a group of
developers or an organisation. This means that the developing body holds the
intellectual property (IP) rights for the idea behind the software application, the
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html
“Categorisation of Software Available for Re-use of OER” is an adaptation of “Proprietary, Free and Open Source Software:
How are they different? (http://cnx.org/content/m43536/latest/) © 2012 by Ishan Abeywardena, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0)
10
source-code, the algorithms used as well as any graphical user interface (GUI)
designs. These software are usually sold as products under specific licensing
schemes but maybe provided free of charge as trial or evaluation versions which
have limited features. Even though these might be mistaken to be free software, they
are only “free to use” software which cannot be copied, shared, repurposed,
improved or sold without the permission of the IP owners.
Before discussing free software, Open Source Software (OSS) and Free and Open
Source Software (FOSS), the term “free” needs to be clarified. In the context of these
three types of software, the term “free” doesn’t necessarily mean that the software
application is provided free of charge (FOC) but rather that the user has the
“freedom” to modify and/or improve the source code.
There are only very subtle differences between free software, OSS and FOSS. Free
software are usually software applications developed by a single body such as
organisations, universities, research groups etc. which are released along with the
source code. OSS are mostly public collaborative development projects which
involve a large number of developers voluntarily contributing to a single project.
These projects make the complete source code freely available. FOSS are the larger
umbrella which covers both free software as well as OSS. Under FOSS the users
have the right to copy, share, repurpose, improve or even sell the software
application provided that it is released under the same original guidelines.
This report discusses some of the widely used FOSS and proprietary applications
available for repurposing (i) text based resources; (ii) image resources; (iii) audio
resources; (iv) video resources; (v) data resources; and (vi) slideshows.
More details:
Free software
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software
o http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html
Open Source Software
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source_software
o http://opensource.org/
Free and Open Source Software
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_and_open_source_software
o http://foss.org.my/
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2.3.1 Text based resources
(a) Microsoft Office Word
Microsoft Office Word (MS Word) is by far the most commonly used software
application for creating and repurposing text based content. It is part of the MS Office
suite of applications. Although MS Word is accessible to most of us by virtue of our
institutions and organisations purchasing the necessary licences needed to use MS
Word legally, this software application is a proprietary application of the Microsoft
Corporation and is very dear to purchase. MS Office is primarily meant for the
Microsoft Windows operating system. However due to the popularity of the
application and compatibility issues, a MacOS based version is also available for
purchase. Being one of the more powerful word processors in the market, MS Word
supports easy formatting, object inclusion, type conversion, a large library of fonts,
bibliographic entries as well as programmable macros which allow various aspects of
the editing to be automated. The newer versions of MS Word support the Office
Open XML format (.docx) which is a document format based on completely open
standards promoting interoperability, i.e. a .docx document can be created, opened,
used and saved using other word processors such as OpenOffice Writer (see section
2.3.1(b)).
Figure 3 Microsoft Word 2007 Interface
More details on MS Word can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Word
12
(b) OpenOffice Writer
OpenOffice Writer is the free software (GNU Lesser General Public Licence)
counterpart of word processors such as MS Word (see section 2.3.1(a)). Released
as part of the OpenOffice suite of applications which are open source, this word
processor encapsulates almost all of the features available in the more proprietary
versions. Being cross-platform, the OpenOffice Writer primarily supports the .odt file
extension but is capable of supporting open document formats such as the Microsoft
.docx. One of the major highlights of this particular word processor is its ability to
export documents in .pdf format without a third party converter. OpenOffice Writer
features worth noting are the page-layout methods including frames, columns and
tables; embedding or linking of graphics, spreadsheets and other objects; built-in
drawing tools; master documents (to group a collection of documents into a single
document); and the equation editor.
Figure 4 OpenOffice Writer Interface
More details on OpenOffice Writer can be found at
http://www.openoffice.org/product/writer.html
13
(c) LaTeX
LaTeX is a high quality typesetting system available as free software (LaTeX project
public license (LPPL)). LaTeX is not a word processor but a high level
implementation of the low level typesetting system TeX
which allows for precision
formatting and typesetting of documents. The fundamental principle behind LaTeX is
to allow the user to concentrate on the actual content rather than the formatting. Due
to the precision of the formatting, LaTeX is the de facto standard for formatting
scientific and mathematical documents which include graphs, charts, vector graphics
and formulae. There are many editors which implement LaTeX. Many of these
editors are available as free software. One of the major advantages of using LaTeX
is that the content can be output in various formats such as HTML or PDF depending
on the requirement.
Figure 5 The LaTeX input and corresponding output
More details on LaTeX can be found at http://www.latex-project.org/intro.html
http://www.tug.org/
jacobolus. (2006). SVG version of LaTeX output, from the source file at the LaTeX article. Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LaTeX_Output.svg on 2 April 2012.
14
(d) Google Docs
Google Docs is a free to use web based word processor which encapsulates many
of the features found in standalone word processors such as Microsoft Word and
OpenOffice Writer. The only pre-requisite for using Google Docs is that the user
must have a Google account. Google Docs can be used to edit text based
documents of various formats such as .docx, .odt, .html and .txt. Each Google Docs
account will receive 1GB of free online storage space where documents can be
stored. One of the key features of Google Docs is its ability to facilitate collaborative
content development. Users can share documents with other users so that the
document can be edited collaboratively by a group of users. The end product can be
easily made available to everyone using a hyperlink or by making it discoverable via
Google search. The Google Docs suite further supports spreadsheets,
presentations, drawings and forms as well.
Figure 6 Google Docs Online Interface
More details on Google Docs can be found at http://docs.google.com and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Docs
15
(e) PDFedit
PDFedit is a free open source software (GNU GPL version 2) which provides an
editor and a library for manipulating PDF documents. The PDF library is
multiplatform which allows it to work on Unix-like and Windows based operating
systems. There are separate editors for the Unix based operating systems and the
Windows based operating systems. PDFedit is a low-level tool for technical users
that provides access to the internal structure of the PDF file. It may require familiarity
with PDF specifications to be able to make substantial modifications.
Figure 7 PDFedit Interface
More details on PDFedit can be found at http://pdfedit.cz/en/index.html
16
(f) PDFescape
PDFescape is a free to use service which allows the creation and editing of PDF
documents on a completely online platform. Users can create a PDF document from
scratch or upload an existing document to be edited. The rich online interface allows
users to add text, shapes, whiteout; move, delete insert pages; create links to other
PDF pages or web content; change PDF information tags; encrypt PDF contents
using a password; and add images to PDF files. Users can use the service without
registering and download the end product. However, registration is required if the
user wishes to save the project and return to it at a later stage. The registration is
free.
Figure 8 PDFescape Online Interface
More details on PDFescape can be found at http://www.pdfescape.com/
17
(g) Adobe Acrobat Professional
Adobe Acrobat Professional (Pro) is the feature rich version of the Adobe Acrobat
Reader
which is used for reading .pdf documents and is free to use. Acrobat Pro
however is a proprietary software application which comes with a licensing scheme
for legal use. Due to the high licensing cost of this software application, not many
individual users have access to the array of features such as convert or scan to PDF,
export and edit PDF files, combine files from multiple applications, streamline online
document reviews, collect data with fillable PDF forms, protect PDF files and
documents, comply with PDF and accessibility standards; and reach, search, and
share PDF files.
Figure 9 Adobe Acrobat Professional Interface
More details on Adobe Acrobat Professional can be found at
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobatpro.html
http://www.adobe.com/products/reader.html
titantechtraining. (2010). Editing PDF Document Pages in Adobe Acrobat 9. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxI5Qo27s_8&feature=related on 30 April 2012.
18
(h) Foxit Reader
Foxit Reader is a proprietary but free to use software application which allows the
viewing and annotating of .pdf documents. Supported only on the Microsoft Windows
operating system, the software application is a light weight self-contained one which
provides fast and smooth access to .pdf documents. Apart from allowing users to
keep notes directly on the .pdf document using the annotate feature, the free to use
version also allows the insertion of text and images directly into the document. It also
allows for filling in of forms distributed in .pdf format. The Foxit suite also includes
more advanced PDF readers/editors which allow full-scale creation and editing of
.pdf documents. However, these advanced applications come with a licensing cost
for legal use.
Figure 10 Foxit Reader Interface
More details on Foxit Reader can be found at
http://www.foxitsoftware.com/Secure_PDF_Reader/
19
(i) Adobe Dreamweaver
Adobe Dreamweaver is considered to be the de facto web design tool used in
industry. In addition to being a smart HTML, XHTML, XML, Java Script, CSS and
PHP editor which allows the designing of a website using lines of code, the powerful
what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) interface allows for graphical creation of
webpages rich with multimedia such as graphics, animations and embedded
audio/video. It further enables the designers to manage complete web based
projects from a single interface and conduct testing directly via the application. Being
a proprietary software application, a licence needs to be purchased for legal use.
However, a trial version can be downloaded for limited use by teachers, students
and researchers.
Figure 11 Adobe Dreamweaver Interface
More details on Adobe Dreamweaver can be found at
http://www.adobe.com/products/dreamweaver.html
DuffDudeX1. (2010).Screenshot of Adobe Dreamweaver CS5. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dreamweaver_CS5_screenshot.png on 30 April 2012.
20
(j) Coffee Cup HTML Editor
The Coffee Cup HTML editor is another proprietary HTML editor tool which allows
the creation of HTML based content. However, this powerful tool only allows the
editing of web content through lines of code whereas the Adobe Dreamweaver
software application (see section 2.3.1(i)) supports both code driven as well as what
you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) content creation. The Visual Site Designer
version of this editor is a separate software application which allows WYSIWYG
content creation. Being a proprietary software application, a licence needs to be
purchased for legal use. However, trial versions of the software applications can be
downloaded from the website for non-commercial use.
Figure 12 Coffee Cup HTML Editor Interface
More details on Coffee Cup HTML editor can be found at
http://www.coffeecup.com/
Cupids wings. (2008). CoffeeCup HTML editor screenshot. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coffee_Cup_HTML_Editor_2007.GIF on 30 April 2012.
21
2.3.2 Images
(a) Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop is arguably the most widely used image editing software
application used in industry. Some of the applications of the software include web
design, advertising, desktop publishing and enterprise publishing. Photoshop is also
used for creating graphics for 2D/3D animations and the cinema industry. Armed
with an assortment of plugins created by both Adobe and third party vendors, the
software application is capable of seamlessly performing cropping and slicing;
drawing; painting; measuring and navigation; selection; typing; and retouching in
addition to colour correction, special effects and 3D effects. Photoshop is a
proprietary software and needs a licence for legal use. A basic version of the
software can be downloaded for evaluation purposes.
Figure 13 Adobe Photoshop Interface
More details on Adobe Photoshop can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop and
http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop.html
Zach Vega. (2012). Adobe Photoshop CS6 running on Mac OS X Lion. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Photoshop_CS6.png on 30 April 2012.
22
(b) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
GIMP is a free and open source software (GNU General Public License) which
functions as a comprehensive editor for raster graphics. Similar to the Adobe
Photoshop (see section 2.3.2(a)) image editor, GIMP allows for detailed image
retouching and free-form drawing in addition to the basic image processing tasks
such as resizing, editing, and cropping photos, photomontages combining multiple
images, and converting between different image formats. It can also be used to
create animations in GIF or MPEG format. GIMP is available for Microsoft Windows,
Linux and Apple Mac OS X platforms.
Figure 14 GIMP Interface
More details on GIMP can be found at http://www.gimp.org/ and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GIMP
AnonyGnome. (2010). GIMP 2.6 being used to manipulate a digital photo. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gimpscreen.png on 2 April 2012.
23
(c) Open Office Draw
Draw is a vector graphics editor made available under the OpenOffice suite of free
software (GNU Lesser General Public License v3). Draw allows you to import
various image file types such as BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF and WMF; and
manipulate them by rotating, adding 2D and 3D effects. The final output can be
saved in OpenDocument format which allows for it to be used and edited in any
OpenDocument compliant editor. The output can also be exported in various file
formats according to the requirements. One of the most interesting features of Draw
is its ability to edit PDF documents. Although the editing is not identical to the editing
process in a word processor, the PDF document can be manipulated and re-mixed
using an object approach. Refer to Appendix A for more information on how to edit
PDF documents using Draw.
Figure 15 Open Office Draw Interface
More details on Draw can be found at
http://www.openoffice.org/product/draw.html
24
(d) Inkscape
Inkscape is a free software (GNU General Public License) which allows the creation
and editing of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Inkscape is a cross-platform
software application which can be run on Unix-like operating systems, Microsoft
Windows operating systems and Apple Mac OS. The ability to conduct complex
object creation, object manipulation, styling, operations on paths, text support and
rendering makes Inkscape one of the more powerful SVG tools available. It also
supports the export of graphics in raster formats. Inkscape can also be used to edit
PDF documents.
Figure 16 Inkscape Interface
More details on Inkscape can be found at http://inkscape.org/ and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkscape
25
2.3.3 Audio
(a) Audacity
Audacity is a free software (GNU General Public License (GPL)) instructional tool for
digital audio recording and editing. This tool allows users to easily record, edit and
share audio files. Audacity can be run on Windows, Mac OS and Linux. The program
offers many audio editing features ranging from basic to expert. Some of the editing
features allow users (i) to cut out unwanted sounds such as pauses, coughs and
hisses; (ii) to copy, paste and delete sections; (iii) to undo and/or redo an unlimited
number of times; (iv) to rearrange the order of sounds clips; (iv) to adjust volume
levels before, after and while recording; (vi) to fade and amplify sounds; (vii) to mix
multiple clips together and fuse them into one track; and (viii) to change the speed or
pitch of clips. Audio files can be saved in the WAV format to be put on CDs or be
exported as MP3 files.
Figure 17 Audacity Running on Windows
More details on Audacity can be found at http://audacity.sourceforge.net/
“Audacity” is an adaptation of "Digital Audio Recording and its Applications in the Foreign Language Classroom"
(http://cnx.org/content/m18046/latest/) © 2008 by Catherine Schwenkler, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license:
Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 2.0)
Audacity Running on Windows. Retrieved from http://audacity.sourceforge.net/about/images/audacity-windows.png on 21
March 2012.
26
2.3.4 Video
(a) VirtualDub
VirtualDub is a free software (GNU General Public License (GPL)) tool for video
capture and processing. It supports both 32-bit and 64-bit Microsoft Windows
operating systems. VirtualDub is streamlined for fast linear operations on video.
Although it might lack the editing capabilities of more general purpose proprietary
editors, VirtualDub is equipped with batch-processing capabilities for processing
large numbers of files. Its capabilities can be further extended through third-party
video filters. VirtualDub is mainly geared toward processing AVI files, although it can
read (not write) MPEG-1. It can also handle sets of BMP images.
Figure 18 Editing Video in VirtualDub
More details on VirtualDub can be found at http://virtualdub.org/
Lee, A. (2009). Orange Open Movie Team and contributors (Elephants Dream). Retrieved from
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Virtualdub_1.9.0.png on 21 March 2012.
27
(b) Adobe Premiere Pro
Adobe Premiere Pro is a time-line based non-linear editing system preferred for
scale video editing projects. Being supported on both MacOS and Microsoft
Windows, Premiere Pro is one of the few cross platform editors available in the
market. The application supports high resolution video editing, audio sample-level
editing and surround sound mixing. Premiere Pro's plug-in architecture enables it to
import and export formats beyond those supported by QuickTime or DirectShow,
supporting a wide variety of video and audio file formats and codecs on both MacOS
and Windows. When paired with external plugins, Premiere Pro can support 3D
editing as well. It can be integrated into Photoshop and After Effects for advanced
features. Premiere Pro is a proprietary software and requires a license for legal use.
Figure 19 Adobe Premiere Interface
More details on Adobe Premiere Pro can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Premiere_Pro and
http://www.adobe.com/products/premiere.html
Thompson.matthew. (2011). Adobe Premiere Pro CS5.5 Screenshot (on Mac). Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adobe_premiere_pro_cs5_mac.png on 30 April 2012.
28
(c) YouTube Video Editor
Since its inception in 2005, YouTube (www.youtube.com) has transformed how
content is delivered via the web through the introduction of a cloud based service
which offers free hosting space to host short video clips. As it stands today, YouTube
has grown into a global phenomenon which hosts millions of amateur as well as
professionally developed video clips documenting a large array of subject matter
from various domains such as education, science, technology, travel and variety.
Recently YouTube has provided users with the option of sharing their video material
openly under the Creative Commons (see section 3) attribution license enabling the
repurposing and remixing of the video material to create new video material. To
facilitate the remixing and repurposing process, a new online video editor has been
introduced which allows users to combine multiple videos they’ve uploaded to create
a new longer video, trim their uploads to custom lengths, add a soundtrack from the
library of approved tracks and customise clips with special tools and effects.
Figure 20 YouTube Video Editor Interface
More details on YouTube Video Editor can be found at
http://support.google.com/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=183851 and
http://www.youtube.com/editor
29
(d) Adobe Flash Professional
Adobe Flash is a popular multimedia platform used to add animations, interactivity,
games and video into web based content. The movies and animations created using
flash are played through a free to use plugin available from Adobe known as the
Flash Player
. The Flash Professional software application allows for the creation
and editing of flash animations and movies. Flash manipulates vector and raster
graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. It supports
bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input via mouse,
keyboard, microphone, and camera. Flash contains an object-oriented language
called ActionScript and supports automation via the JavaScript Flash language
(JSFL). Adobe Flash Pro is a proprietary software and requires a license for legal
use. However, a trial version can be downloaded for evaluation purposes.
Figure 21 Adobe Flash Interface
More details on Adobe Flash can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash and
http://www.adobe.com/products/flash.html?promoid=DJDTE
http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer.html
zelibober. (2008). How to do easy Animation in animation on Flash CS3 Pro. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNSAC9IyM6s&feature=related on 30 April 2012.
30
2.3.5 Data
(a) Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Excel is a part of the Microsoft Office suite of applications and is widely
used for data analysis and presentation. Excel is all about numbers! There’s almost
no limit to what can be done with numbers in Excel, including sorting, advanced
calculations and graphing. In addition, Excel’s formatting options makes the
presentation of the analyses very professional. Data files created with Excel are
called workbooks (in the same way as Word files are called documents). Excel files
are referred to as spreadsheets. This is a generic term, which sometimes means a
workbook (file) and sometimes means a worksheet (a page within the file). Excel is a
propriety software application similar to the MS Word (see section 2.3.1(a)) and
requires a license for legal use. Although it is primarily built for the Microsoft
Windows based operating systems, a version for MacOS is also currently available.
Figure 22 Microsoft Excel 2007 Interface
More details on Microsoft Excel can be found at
https://vula.uct.ac.za/web/learnonline/manuals/CET%20MS%20Excel%202007%20T
raining%20Manual%20v1.1.pdf and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Excel
“Microsoft Excel” is an adaptation of “Introduction to MS EXCEL 2007 What is Excel?”
(https://vula.uct.ac.za/web/learnonline/manuals/CET%20MS%20Excel%202007%20Training%20Manual%20v1.1.pdf) © 2009
by Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative
Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 2.5)
31
(b) Calc
OpenOffice Calc is the free software (GNU Lesser General Public Licence)
counterpart of spreadsheet software such as MS Excel (see section 2.3.5(a)).
Released as part of the OpenOffice suite of applications which are open source, this
all-purpose spreadsheet application encapsulates almost all of the features available
in the more proprietary versions. Being cross-platform, OpenOffice Calc is capable of
supporting open document formats such as the Microsoft .xlsx as well as CSV,
HTML, SXC, DBF, DIF, UOF, SLK and SDC. One of the major highlights of this
particular application is its ability to export documents in .pdf format without a third
party converter. Among the many features, Advanced DataPilot technology which
makes it easy to pull in raw data from corporate databases; cross-tabulate,
summarise, and convert it into meaningful information; Natural language formulas
which lets you create formulas using words; and the Intelligent Sum Button which
inserts a sum function or a subtotal automatically, depending on context are worth
noting with respect to ease of use.
Figure 23 OpenOffice Calc Interface
More details on OpenOffice Calc can be found at
http://www.openoffice.org/product/calc.html and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenOffice.org_Calc
32
(c) PSPP
The most popular software for statistical analysis is SPSS which stands for
“Statistical Package for the Social Sciences”. SPSS is a proprietary software
application which can be afforded only by large institutions or organisations due to its
high cost of licensing. PSPP is a free software (GPLv3 or later) alternative to SPSS
which provides almost the same functionality as the expensive SPSS suite. PSPP
supports both the variable view (Fig24) which shows the attributes of each variable
(column) as well as the data view which lists all the records (rows). Four of the key
features of SPSS are (i) the large array of inbuilt statistical tests which can be run on
the data; (ii) the ability to conduct descriptive statistical analysis; (iii) the ability to
display the analysis in both numerical and graphical formats; and (iv) the ability to
export the analysis into other file formats such as .html, .odt, .txt and .pdf. The
datasets created in PSPP are interoperable between SPSS and vice versa.
Figure 24 PSPP Variable View
More details on PSPP can be found at http://www.gnu.org/software/pspp/
“PSPP” is an adaptation of “PSPP: a free and open source alternative to SPSS Part 1 (Introduction)
(http://www.ishantalks.com/learning-resources/98-pspp-a-free-and-open-source-alternative-to-spss-part-1-introduction) © 2011
by Ishan Abeywardena, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY
3.0)
33
2.3.6 Slideshows
(a) Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft Office PowerPoint (MS PowerPoint) is by far the most commonly used
software application for creating and repurposing slideshow presentations. It is part
of the MS Office suite of applications. Although MS PowerPoint is accessible to most
of us by virtue of our institutions and organisations purchasing the necessary
licences needed to use it legally, this software application is a proprietary application
of the Microsoft Corporation and is very dear to purchase. MS Office is primarily
meant for the Microsoft Windows operating system. However due to the popularity of
the application and compatibility issues, a MacOS based version is also available for
purchase. Being one of the more powerful slideshow presentation software in the
market, MS PowerPoint supports easy formatting, drag and drop operations, object
inclusion (e.g. audio, video and animations), a large library of clipart, smooth slide
transitions, narrations, voiceovers as well as custom animations. The newer versions
of MS PowerPoint support the OpenOffice XML format (.pptx) which is a document
format based on completely open standards promoting interoperability. i.e. a .pptx
document can be created, opened, used and saved using other slideshow
presenters such as OpenOffice Impress (see section 2.3.6(b)).
Figure 25 MS PowerPoint Interface
More details on MS PowerPoint can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint
34
(b) OpenOffice Impress
OpenOffice Impress is the free software (GNU Lesser General Public Licence)
counterpart of slideshow software such as MS PowerPoint (see section 2.3.6(a)).
Released as part of the OpenOffice suite of applications which are open source, this
word slideshow presentation software encapsulates almost all of the features
available in the more proprietary versions. Being cross-platform, OpenOffice Impress
is capable of supporting open document format such as the Microsoft .pptx. One of
the major highlights of this particular slideshow presentation software is its ability to
support multiple monitors, so that presenters can look at something else while
presenting their slides on a projector. Impress also allows the conversion of the
presentation into a Flash SWF format without the use of third-party converters
enabling the slides to be placed on web pages.
Figure 26 OpenOffice Impress Interface
More details on OpenOffice Impress can be found at
http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html
35
2.3.7 Other Tools
(a) Rhaptos
Rhaptos is the open source content management software that powers
Connexions
, the world’s foremost open education site. Rhaptos is a fully developed
content delivery platform that supports all types of educational content, from
traditional textbooks to the latest interactive game-based multimedia content. The
platform’s technology and licensing structure facilitate frictionless remixing which
allows users to customise content to meet the needs of individual teachers and
learners. Rhaptos features a powerful lensing system for post-publication quality
control, customised tagging, and community-based search and discovery are the
engine behind a truly reusable repository of knowledge and learning. Enterprise
Rhaptos is an installable version of the Rhaptos software.
Figure 27 Rhaptos Interface on cnx.org
More details on Rhaptos can be found at http://cnx.org/aboutus/overview and
http://enterpriserhaptos.org/
Software. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/aboutus/overview on 30 April 2012.
http://www.cnx.org
36
(b) MediaWiki
MediaWiki is an Open Source wiki platform which is used as the base for popular
wiki based content repositories such as Wikipedia
and WikiEducator
. The
fundamental concept behind wiki is to allow users to communally collaborate on a
single platform to create, peer-review and re-use content. Until recently, users had to
use Wiki markup, which is a special markup language similar to HTML, to create or
edit content on MediaWiki based repositories. However, MediaWiki has now
introduced a what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) editor which allows content
to be created and edited more easily. Although there are many wiki technologies
available as proprietary as well as Open Source applications, MediaWiki is a robust
technology platform which can be easily setup at an institution either internally or
externally. Backed by a comprehensive records keeping mechanism, the platform
automatically creates versions and archives of the content for better quality control.
Figure 28 MediaWiki Editor Interface
More details on MediaWiki can be found at
http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://wikieducator.org/Main_Page
37
(c) Content Management Systems (CMS)
A content management system (CMS) is an online or offline system which allows
users to easily create, modify, update and manage the content of a database driven
dynamically created content page with minimum or no use of programming code.
CMS can be broadly categorised into two cohorts; (i) Enterprise content
management systems (ECMS) which are large scale management tools (e.g.
Microsoft SharePoint Server
) for organisational data, document and knowledge
management. These systems are mostly proprietary systems managed by specialist
vendors; and (ii) Web content management systems (WCMS) which facilitates the
management of dynamic web based content of websites, blogs and wikis. There are
many free and open source (FOSS) WCMS available such as Joomla!
, Mambo
,
Drupal
and Wordpress
. WCMS can be easily setup on an intranet or the internet.
Once setup, these systems allow content creators to collaboratively create
interactive content for public/private use through intuitive content editors similar to a
WYSIWYG word processor interface (see sections 2.3.1(a) and 2.3.1(b)).
Figure 29 Joomla! New Article Editor View
More details on WCMS can be found at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_content_management_system
http://sharepoint.microsoft.com/en-us/Pages/default.aspx
http://www.joomla.org/
http://www.mamboserver.com/
http://drupal.org/
http://wordpress.com/
38
2.3.8 Authoring and Delivery
(a) eXe
eXe, which stands for eLearning XHTML editor, is a freely available cross-platform
Open Source software application developed as a result of a number of educational
initiatives in New Zealand. eXe acts as a platform for educators to create HTML
based content quickly and easily without any technical knowledge in HTML
programming. The intuitive what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) interface
allows content such as web pages, video material, images and animations to be
seamlessly incorporated into the content being developed. The finished content can
be previewed and directly uploaded to a learning management system (LMS) in IMS
Content Package format, SCORM 1.2 format or IMS Common Cartridge format. eXe
also allows for the content to be uploaded onto a website as simple HTML pages or
placed on a local device, mobile device or network device facilitating offline local
access. Being a cross-platform application, eXe is supported on Windows, MacOS
and Linux. It is also available as a ready-to-run application which can be installed on
a USB stick.
Figure 30 eXe Editor Interface
Source: http://exelearning.org/attachment/wiki/Screenshots/authoringAesopsAgainInGermanMac.jpg
39
Among the many benefits of eXe one of the
more prominent is its ability to setup content in a
pedagogically sound format. The Outline Pane
allows content creators to exercise proper
instructional design by structuring the content in
a manner suitable for distance or online learning.
Another important feature found in eXe is the
iDevice Pane (instructional device) which is a
collection of structural elements that describe
learning content. Examples of these include,
objectives, pre-knowledge, case studies, free
text. Learning content is created by selecting
iDevices from the iDevice menu and entering your learning content.
Even though there are many proprietary
software applications such as Adobe
Dreamweaver (see section 2.3.1(i)) which
allows users to create sophisticated web pages,
these applications require a fair amount of
understanding of HTML programming. However,
eXe is purpose built for educators and content
creators who are sound in instructional design
but may not be very familiar with HTML
programming. By writing the appropriate HTML
code on its own, eXe allows content creators to
concentrate more on the pedagogical aspect of
the content rather than the formatting. Refer Appendix B for case study on how to
use RELOAD and eXe in a practical scenario.
More details on eXe can be found at http://exelearning.org/wiki and
http://wikieducator.org/Online_manual .
Helena. (2006), example of Outline pane. Retrieved from http://wikieducator.org/File:Exe-outline-pane.png on 11 May 2012.
Jim Tittsler. (2007), example of idevice pane. Retrieved from http://wikieducator.org/File:Exe-idevice-pane.png on 11 May
2012.
Figure 31 Outline Pane31
Figure 32 iDevice Pane32
40
(b) RELOAD
RELOAD, which stands for Reusable eLearning Object Authoring & Delivery is a
JISC (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/) funded initiative which primarily concentrates on (i)
facilitating the creation, sharing and reuse of learning objects and services; and (ii)
enhancing the range of pedagogical approaches realisable through the use of lesson
plans. RELOAD achieves these aims through a suite of software tools for authoring
and delivery of standard-compliant learning objects incorporating comprehensive
user guides and exemplar resources.
Figure 33 Classic RELOAD Editor Interface
The suite of tools include (i) Classic RELOAD Editor which is a Java Swing-based
application that provides support for IMS Metadata, IEEE LOM, IMS Content
Packaging 1.1.4, SCORM 1.2, and SCORM 2004 and is supported on Windows,
MacOS X and Linux; (ii) The Eclipse-based RELOAD Editor, built on the Eclipse
Rich Client Platform, which supports IMS MD (versions 1.1, 1.2.1 and 1.2.4), IEEE
LOM, IMS CP (versions 1.1.1, 1.1.2 and 1.1.4) as well as SCORM 1.2 and SCORM
Source: http://www.reload.ac.uk/supp/reload_scrshot.gif
41
2004 (3rd edition) specifications; (iii) Learning Design Editor which support for IMS
Learning Design version 1.0; (iv) SCORM 1.2 Player which is a cross-platform
desktop application that lets content creators play or preview SCORM 1.2
packages; and (v) Learning Design Player which is a cross-platform desktop
application that lets content creators play or preview LD Units of Learning.
Figure 34 SCORM 1.2 Player
The standalone tools of this suite can be used collectively to create content by
compiling resources, structuring and organising resources; defining metadata and
previewing the content. As such, the complete suite of RELOAD tools allows
educators and content creators to create pedagogically sound learning material
which are compliant with standards such as SCORM and IEEE LOM. This allows the
material to be delivered via learning management systems (LMS) as well as viewed
on desktop using the SCORM players. The complete suite of tools is released as
Open Source software by RELOAD allowing them to be further customised to the
needs and wants of a particular institution. Refer Appendix B for case study on how
to use RELOAD and eXe in a practical scenario.
Source: http://www.reload.ac.uk/new/scormplayer.html
42
More details on RELOAD can be found at http://www.reload.ac.uk/
3. OER and Copyright
With opening up of content to a global audience come the challenges of managing
copyright and intellectual property rights (IPR). According to Fitzgerald (2006) “while
the new digital technologies possess an enormous capacity to disseminate
knowledge, copyright law will play a key role in determining the legality of any such
act”. Currently there are several completely open content licensing (OCL) schemes
such as the Creative Commons
and the GNU Free Documentation Licensing
among others (Hylén, 2005). These schemes introduce certainty and clarity in terms
of obtaining permission to use the work of others. There is also institution or group
specific licensing such as the BC Commons (Stacey, 2006) which limits the usage of
resources published under it. As the use, re-use and sharing of OER are largely
dependent on the licensing scheme under which they are published, the location of
relevant OER which allow free sharing and reuse has become imperative.
What is copyright?
The term copyright refers to laws that govern the use of the creative works of an
author or creator.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are a mechanism for encouraging people to create
innovative works, processes, designs or brands by granting them a limited monopoly
on their creations. IPR enable creators to take ownership of their works and possibly
to earn money, fame or other rewards from their creations.
Copyright is a type of intellectual property that protects original expression. Copyright
does not protect effort or ideas, but rather the expression of those ideas. A work
must be in some tangible form (e.g. written, recorded, drawn, painted, sculpted, built)
in order to qualify for copyright.
http://www.creativecommons.org
http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.html
“What is copyright?” is an adaptation of “What is copyright?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
43
The works of writers, artists and musicians are usually governed by copyright,
whether this is explicitly stated or not.
In most countries, copyright is automatic; creators do not need to register or even
mark their work with the © symbol to be granted copyright.
What rights are associated with copyright?
Under copyright, exclusive rights are granted to the author or creator of an original
work (such as literary, scientific and artistic works), including the right to access, use,
print, copy, display, distribute, perform, modify or sell the work.
Copyright is also associated with moral rights related to author’s integrity.
Moral rights include the author’s right to be recognised as the author, the right to the
integrity of the work and the right not to have the work adapted, modified or distorted
in a way that would lessen the author’s reputation.
Moral rights may be waived or transferred in some jurisdictions and what they
comprise varies by jurisdiction. Moral rights can also be transferred through
inheritance.
What is a licence?
The exclusive rights granted to a copyright holder can all be licensed, but they vary
depending on local law.
Only the copyright holder/owner can grant permission (known as a licence) to
others to use, print, copy, display, distribute, perform, modify or sell the work.
Even when a work is licensed, the copyright and moral rights of the work all remain
with the copyright holder. An individual may obtain a licence from the copyright
holder to copy the work, but the terms of the licence will vary with the nature of the
What rights are associated with copyright?” is an adaptation of “What rights are associated with copyright?” (OER
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“What is a licence?” is an adaptation of “What is a licence?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
44
work and what the individual seeking the licence (i.e. the licensee) wishes to do with
it.
These licences may be complex, because the exclusive rights granted by copyright
to the copyright owner can be split in terms of jurisdiction/territory, or with respect to
language. Also, the sequence of uses may be fixed, and the number of copies to be
made and their subsequent adaptation and/or use may also be specified.
Through licences or other contracts, the copyright owner may transfer or assign
his/her entire interest in all or some of the rights in the copyrighted work.
What is the public domain?
In many countries, the term public domain actually has two meanings.
The first meaning refers to public knowledge or making something publicly available.
The second meaning is a legal term that refers to the collection of works that are not
copyrighted. This is the meaning that we use in this toolkit. This includes works with
copyright terms that have expired, works that were dedicated originally to the public
domain, and works that are not eligible for copyright. These works are no rights
reserved people may use them freely for any purpose without requesting
permission.
What is fair practice?
International copyright treaties and national copyright legislation include provisions
for using portions of copyrighted content under certain conditions without seeking
permission.
Many countries have copyright exceptions and limitations that allow for the use of
copyrighted content under certain circumstances e.g. for teaching purposes in a
classroom. This is often called fair practice, fair dealing or fair use depending on
“What is the public domain?” is an adaptation of “What is the public domain?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING
TOOLKIT http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African
Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
License (CC BY 3.0)
“What is fair practice?” is an adaptation of “What is fair practice?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
45
the country. However, in most countries the concept of fair practice is somewhat
vague and indefinite.
In South Africa, although not specified in copyright legislation, fair dealing allows the
reproduction of 10% of (or one chapter from) a book, or one article of a journal, to be
copied by a person for the purposes of research or private study.
What are open licences?
Traditionally, copyright ranged from full copyright where all rights are reserved, to
the public domain (pd) or no rights reserved.
Over the past decade, there has been a movement towards creating more freely
accessible materials and documents. This is due to advances in digital technologies
and the internet where works can be made accessible to a much larger group of
people on different continents.
Open licences were created to make it easier for a creator to share works freely with
the public.
An open licence is any licence that applies to copyrighted content that allows any
person to reuse that content without asking for prior permission. Open licences apply
a some rights reserved status to a work, and so they fall between copyright © and
public domain (pd).
Open licences are public licences and allow anyone worldwide to use a copyrighted
work without necessarily having to pay a fee or royalty or ask permission as long as
they adhere to the conditions specified in the licence. It is only if a person desires to
use a work in a way other than that specified in the licence that permission needs to
be sought from the copyright holder.
The Creative Commons
“What are open licences?” is an adaptation of “What are open licences?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by South African Institute for
Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“The Creative Commons” is an adaptation of “About” (http://creativecommons.org/about) © creativecommons.org, used under
a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY 3.0)
46
The infrastructure the Creative Commons provide consists of a set of copyright
licenses and tools that create a balance inside the traditional “all rights reserved”
setting that copyright law creates. The tools give everyone from individual creators to
large companies and institutions a simple, standardised way to keep their copyright
while allowing certain uses of their work a “some rights reserved” approach to
copyright which makes their creative, educational, and scientific content instantly
more compatible with the full potential of the internet.
The Creative Commons copyright licenses and tools forge a balance inside the
traditional “all rights reserved” setting that copyright law creates. The tools give
everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple,
standardised way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. This
combination of tools and users is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of
content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the
boundaries of copyright law.
Three “Layers” Of Licenses
The Creative Commons public copyright
licenses incorporate a unique and innovative
“three-layer” design. Each license begins as a
traditional legal tool, in the kind of language and
text formats that most lawyers know and love.
They call this the Legal Code layer of each
license.
But since most creators, educators, and
scientists are not in fact lawyers, they also
make the licenses available in a format that
normal people can read the Commons Deed (also known as the “human readable”
version of the license). The Commons Deed is a handy reference for licensors and
licensees, summarising and expressing some of the most important terms and
conditions. Think of the Commons Deed as a user-friendly interface to the Legal
“Three ‘Layers’ Of Licenses” is an adaptation of “Three ‘Layers Of Licenses (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) ©
creativecommons.org, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
47
Code beneath, although the Deed itself is not a license, and its contents are not part
of the Legal Code itself.
The final layer of the license design recognises that software, from search engines to
office productivity to music editing, plays an enormous role in the creation, copying,
discovery and distribution of works. In order to make it easy for the Web to know
when a work is available under a Creative Commons license, they provide a
“machine readable” version of the license a summary of the key freedoms and
obligations written into a format that software systems, search engines and other
kinds of technology can understand. The Creative Commons developed a
standardised way to describe licenses that software can understand called CC
Rights Expression Language (CC REL) to accomplish this.
Searching for open content is an important function enabled by our approach. You
can use Google to search for Creative Commons content, look for pictures at Flickr,
albums at Jamendo, and general media at spinxpress. The Wikimedia Commons,
the multimedia repository of Wikipedia, is a core user of our licenses as well.
Taken together, these three layers of licenses ensure that the spectrum of rights isn’t
just a legal concept. It’s something that the creators of works can understand, their
users can understand, and even the Web itself can understand.
The Licenses
Attribution
CC BY
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even
commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most
accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and
use of licensed materials. View License Deed | View Legal Code
Attribution-ShareAlike
CC BY-SA
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial
“The Licenses” is an adaptation of “The Licenses” (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) © creativecommons.org, used
under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY 3.0)
48
purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the
identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source
software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any
derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and
is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from
Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects. View License Deed | View Legal Code
Attribution-NoDerivs
CC BY-ND
This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it
is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. View License Deed |
View Legal Code
Attribution-NonCommercial
CC BY-NC
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially,
and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial,
they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms. View License
Deed | View Legal Code
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
CC BY-NC-SA
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as
long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.
View License Deed | View Legal Code
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
CC BY-NC-ND
This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, only allowing others to
download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they
can’t change them in any way or use them commercially. View License Deed | View
Legal Code
49
What are ported and unported licenses?
When looking at a particular CC-licensed document or work, you may find that it
refers to ported or unported licenses. This refers to the underlying legal code.
The verb port applies to the adaptation of data to suit a particular technological or
policy jurisdiction/territory/environment.
Unported licenses are licenses that are not associated with any specific jurisdiction
(e.g. country). They do not mention any particular jurisdiction’s law.
The unported versions are written according to international copyright treaties and
are, therefore, in theory, compatible under all copyright legislation in various
countries. Due to subtle differences in both legal systems and how various countries
interpret the various international treaties on copyright, the unported version may
include or exclude clauses that are either not legally binding, or are legally
meaningless, in any specific jurisdiction and thus, some aspects of the license may
not align perfectly to a particular jurisdiction’s laws.
Creative Commons partners with lawyers around the world to localise or port its
licences to different copyright legislations around the world.
The porting process involves both linguistically translating the licenses and legally
adapting them to particular jurisdictions. These licenses are designed to have the
same effect anywhere in the world, while at the same time following the legal
conventions of particular jurisdictions, so that they can be more easily understood
and used by the local community. Thus, usage of these jurisdiction-specific licenses
has started replacing unported licenses in some instances.
In deciding whether to use a ported or unported license, consider your primary
audience. Are they located within one country?
“What are ported and unported licenses?” is an adaptation of “What are ported and unported licenses?” (OER COPYRIGHT
AND LICENSING TOOLKIT http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.htm) © 2012 by
South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY 3.0)
50
Regardless of whether you select a ported or unported license, all of the Creative
Commons licenses are public licenses, which mean anyone worldwide may use the
work as long as they follow the conditions of the license. The legal code differs, but
the only difference in the human-readable version of the license is the presence of
the country name and flag.
More details on how to attribute work properly can be found at
http://wiki.creativecommons.org/FAQ#How_do_I_properly_attribute_a_Creative_Co
mmons_licensed_work.3F
The OER Copyright and Licensing Toolkit can be found at
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm
4. Conclusion
The use of OER in teaching and learning is fast gaining credibility and is becoming
accepted academic practice. The substantial amount of public and private funding
which has been made available to the whole OER movement has resulted in the
creation of a high volume of quality resources made available openly and freely
across the globe. However, the re-use aspect of OER is yet to pick up momentum
due to a number of inhibiting factors. One of the major inhibitors is the lack of
accessible technologies and the lack of technical capacities among the academic
communities to effectively and meaningfully re-purpose OER material for their
teaching and learning needs.
In order to promote the wider re-use of OER, strong advocacy by organisations such
as the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and UNESCO; standardisation efforts by
organisations such as the Creative Commons; and the advanced research being
conducted on search mechanisms and metadata standards should be given
prominence in the new OER landscape. It is also important to encourage the
creation of new technology platforms or updating existing technology platforms such
as Wordpress or Eclipse facilitating content re-use. To achieve the goal, the Free
51
and Open Source (FOSS) movement should be developed and promoted parallel to
the OER movement.
5. Recommendations
Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources in an Open Distance
Learning Institution
Arguably, at present, the largest group of OER creators and consumers consist of
ODL practitioners. However, the uptake of the wider adoption of OER in teaching
and learning is slow from the perspective of an ODL institution due to the lack of
understanding of how to implement the use and re-use of OER across the various
interconnected departments. This has become especially challenging with respect to
re-use as the institution needs to implement policies and procedures holistically
adopting a top-down approach encapsulating the key stakeholders which include (i)
management; (ii) academics; (iii) educational technologists (ET); (iv) library and
learning support services (LLS); and (v) information technology support services
(ITS). In this approach, the academics are at the core of the implementation exercise
supported by the various other stakeholders as shown in Figure 35.
52
Figure 35 Key stakeholders in an ODL institution with respect to re-use of OER
The strategic implementation of re-use in ODL institutions can be segmented into
four distinct stages which are (i) capacity building; (ii) creation of an institutional
repository; (iii) quality assurance; and (iv) recognition and rewards. As shown in
Figure 36, each of these stages consists of a number of activities which are
performed by the various stakeholders.
Figure 36 The four stages of strategically implementing re-use of OER
The first stage of an institutional plan for strategically implementing the re-use of
OER consists of capacity building for the academics, ET, LLS as well as ITS. Each
of these key stakeholders should be acclimatised to the concept of OER, the types of
OER available with respect to the medium, the openness and accessibility of OER;
the use and re-use of OER with respect to copyright and the technological tools
available for the re-use and adaptation of OER. More extensive training should be
provided to LLS with respect to the copyright and intellectual property rights
associated with the re-use of OER; and to ITS with respect to the technology tools
53
used to adapt OER. This new understanding of the OER landscape will in turn
underpin the next stages of the implementation plan.
The second stage of the exercise consists of the creation of an institutional
repository for both OER as well as technology tools used to adapt OER. It would be
the responsibility of the LLS to scout the various OER repositories available, extract
resources relevant for the teaching and learning taking place at the institution,
catalogue them using metadata which will facilitate more efficient search and
retrieval, categorise them according to the medium and store them in an institutional
repository which is accessible by all the key stakeholders. Similarly, the ITS will be
responsible for locating, cataloguing, categorising and storing technology tools, user
manuals and support materials to be used by the key stakeholders for re-using OER.
This stage will enable the academics and the ET to easily and effectively locate OER
for their teaching and course development purposes.
The third stage of the exercise concentrates on the quality assurance aspect of the
institutional repository and involves the academics, ET, LLS as well as ITS. The
academics will be responsible for evaluating the suitability of the OER material in the
repository with respect to the technical soundness of the content. The ET will be
responsible for evaluating the pedagogical aspect of the resources. The LLS will be
identifying the level of openness of the content with respect to intellectual property
rights and the ITS will be evaluating the level of access with respect to the
technology tools required for re-use. The OER in the repository should then be
annotated with the notes generated by each stakeholder. This, in turn, will act as a
filtering process which will identify the most suitable OER for re-use within the
context of the institution.
The fourth stage of the strategic implementation plan involves the management and
policy makers of the institution. Even though stages one to three have established a
stable working foundation for re-use of OER on an institutional level, the academics
must be encouraged to adopt the re-use of OER in their teaching and research
activities. In order to facilitate this, an institutional policy on “Share Alike” of OER
needs to be established whereby the adapted OER are placed back in the
institutional repository for re-use by others. Also this will act as an indicator of the
contributions made by each academic towards the institutional directive of re-using
54
OER in its teaching and learning activities. Furthermore, the extent of re-use of OER
in teaching and research activities can be considered as one of the key performance
indicators (KPI) of the academics giving raise to the possibility of remuneration and
rewards. This institutional policy will then promote the wider re-use of OER which will
result in significant gains for the institution.
The aforementioned four stage implementation plan provides a strategic approach
for the re-use and adaptation of OER in an ODL institution. However, it must be
noted that there will be practical limitations which will be encountered during the
implementation of this plan. It must also be noted that each of the stages need to be
re-visited periodically to ensure the integrity of the whole institutional directive
towards the re-use of OER.
6. Acknowledgements
Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena acknowledges the support provided by Wawasan
Open University where he is currently employed. He further acknowledges the
support provided by the following individuals throughout the duration of the
consultancy.
Tan Sri Dato Emeritus Prof. Gajaraj Dhanarajan, Chairman, Board of Governors,
Wawasan Open University
Dr. Venkataraman Balaji, Director, Technology & Knowledge Management,
Commonwealth of Learning
Sir John Daniel, President & CEO, Commonwealth of Learning
Prof. Asha S. Kanwar, President Elect, Commonwealth of Learning
Prof. Dato Wong Tat Meng, Vice Chancellor, Wawasan Open University
Prof. Dato Ho Sinn Chye, Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic), Wawasan Open
University
Prof. Tham Choy Yoong, Dean, School of Science and Technology, Wawasan
Open University
All other colleagues at the Commonwealth of Learning
55
7. References and Attributions
References
Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R., & Tham, C.Y. (2012). Conceptual Framework for
Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-
index. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 104-
121.
Fitzgerald, B. (2006). Open Content Licensing (OCL) for Open Educational
Resources. Proceedings of the OECD Expert Meeting on Open Educational
Resources, Sweden.
Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four Rs of openness and
ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The
Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44.
Hylén, J. (2005) Open educational resources: Opportunities and challenges. OECD-
CERI.
Stacey, P. (2006). Open For Innovation Strategically using “open” concepts and
methods for sustainable development and use of online learning resources in higher
education. Retrieved July 12, 2010 from
http://ares.licef.teluq.uqam.ca/Portals/10/I2LOR06/11_Open%20for%20Innovation.p
df
Vaughan, L. (2004). New measurements for search engine evaluation proposed and
tested. Information Processing and Management 40, 677691.
Web References
Adobe Flash. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash on 30 April
2012.
Adobe Photoshop. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop on
30 April 2012.
Adobe Premiere Pro. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Premiere_Pro on 30 April 2012.
AnonyGnome.(2010). GIMP 2.6 being used to manipulate a digital photo. Retrieved
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gimpscreen.png on 2 April 2012.
About Inkscape. Retrieved from http://inkscape.org/ on 2 April 2012.
An introduction to LaTeX. Retrieved from http://www.latex-project.org/intro.html on
21 March 2012.
56
Audacity Running on Windows. Retrieved from
http://audacity.sourceforge.net/about/images/audacity-windows.png on 21 March
2012.
Draw. Retrieved from http://www.openoffice.org/product/draw.html on 2 April 2012.
Foxit Advanced PDF Editor. Retrieved from
http://www.foxitsoftware.com/products/editor/ on 2 April 2012.
GIMP. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GIMP on 2 April 2012.
GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program. Retrieved from http://www.gimp.org/
on 2 April 2012.
GNU PSPP. Retrieved from http://www.gnu.org/software/pspp/ on 2 April 2012.
Google Docs. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Docs on 2 April
2012.
Helena. (2006). example of Outline pane. Retrieved from
http://wikieducator.org/File:Exe-outline-pane.png on 11 May 2012.
Inkscape. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkscape on 2 April 2012.
jacobolus. (2006). SVG version of LaTeX output, from the source file at the LaTeX
article. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LaTeX_Output.svg on
2 April 2012.
JimTittsler. (2007). example of idevice pane. Retrieved from
http://wikieducator.org/File:Exe-idevice-pane.png on 11 May 2012.
LaTeX. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaTeX on 2 April 2012.
Lee, A. (2009). Orange Open Movie Team and contributors (Elephants Dream).
Retrieved from
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Virtualdub_1.9.0.png on 21
March 2012.
PDFedit. Retrieved from http://pdfedit.cz/en/index.html on 2 April 2012.
SketchUp. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_SketchUp on 2 April
2012.
Software. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/aboutus/overview on 30 April 2012.
TeX. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeX#Editors on 2 April 2012.
What is VirtualDub? Retrieved from http://virtualdub.org/ on 2 April 2012.
What is PDFescape? Retrieved from http://www.pdfescape.com/what/ on 2 April
2012.
57
Writer. Retrieved from http://www.openoffice.org/product/writer.html on 2 April 2012.
Attributions
“Categorisation of Software Available for Re-use of OER” is an adaptation of
Proprietary, Free and Open Source Software: How are they different?
(http://cnx.org/content/m43536/latest/) © 2012 by Ishan Abeywardena, used under a
Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-
BY 3.0)
What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?” is an adaptation of “What are Open
Educational Resources (OER)?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“Re-use and Adaptation of OER” is an adaptation of “Conceptual Framework for
Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-
Index (http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1177/2142) © 2012 by Ishan
Sudeera Abeywardena, Choy Yoong Tham and S. Raviraja used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
Audacity” is an adaptation of “Digital Audio Recording and its Applications in the
Foreign Language Classroom (http://cnx.org/content/m18046/latest/) © 2008 by
Catherine Schwenkler, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative
Commons Attribution License (CC BY 2.0)
Microsoft Excel” is an adaptation of “Introduction to MS EXCEL 2007 What is
Excel?
(https://vula.uct.ac.za/web/learnonline/manuals/CET%20MS%20Excel%202007%20
Training%20Manual%20v1.1.pdf) © 2009 by Centre for Educational Technology,
University of Cape Town, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license:
Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 2.5)
“PSPP” is an adaptation of “PSPP: a free and open source alternative to SPSS
Part 1 (Introduction) (http://www.ishantalks.com/learning-resources/98-pspp-a-free-
and-open-source-alternative-to-spss-part-1-introduction) © 2011 by Ishan
Abeywardena, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative
Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0)
“The Creative Commons” is an adaptation of “About”
(http://creativecommons.org/about) © creativecommons.org, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
The Licenses is an adaptation of The Licenses
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) © creativecommons.org, used under a
58
Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
(CC BY 3.0)
“Three ‘Layers Of Licenses” is an adaptation of “Three ‘Layers Of Licenses”
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) © creativecommons.org, used under a
Creative Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
(CC BY 3.0)
“What is copyright?” is an adaptation of “What is copyright?” (OER COPYRIGHT
AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“What rights are associated with copyright?” is an adaptation of “What rights are
associated with copyright?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“What is a licence?” is an adaptation of “What is a licence?” (OER COPYRIGHT
AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“What is the public domain?” is an adaptation of “What is the public domain?” (OER
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
“What is fair practice?” is an adaptation of “What is fair practice?” (OER
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
59
What are open licences?” is an adaptation of “What are open licences?” (OER
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
What are ported and unported licenses?” is an adaptation of “What are ported and
unported licenses?” (OER COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING TOOLKIT
http://www.saide.org.za/resources/newsletters/Vol_18_no.2_2012/Content/Toolkits.h
tm) © 2012 by South African Institute for Distance Education, used under a Creative
Commons Attribution license: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY
3.0)
60
Appendix A
Editing PDF using Open Office Draw
In order to manipulate PDF documents/fill in PDF forms in Draw, follow the steps
below:
1. Download and install OpenOffice from http://www.openoffice.org/
2. Open the application Draw in your OpenOffice suite.
3. In order to edit .pdf in Draw you need to install a PDF import extension.
Download this extension from
http://extensions.services.openoffice.org/project/pdfimport . Its free.
4. Navigate to Tools > Extension Manager of the Draw application.
5. Click on add and point to the file you downloaded in step 3.
6. Follow the installation process. Once complete, you can edit .pdf inside Draw.
7. Open a .pdf file in Draw using File > Open. This will allow you to edit it.
8. Save the project as .odg when you have finished editing your .pdf
9. Navigate to File > Export as PDF to convert the document back to a .pdf
61
Appendix B
Content Reuse through Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs)
In recent years, content creation has taken a more granular approach venturing into
the realm of Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs) which are small chunks of
information which can be strung together to build a particular piece of content such
as a lesson, course or curriculum.
Building Content Bottom-Up: the Reusable Learning Objects
One of the major benefits of using RLOs is the ability to use a variety of technologies
to compile them into larger pieces of content based on their reusability,
interoperability, durability and accessibility. The following diagram illustrates how
existing pieces of content which are in the form of RLOs are compiled into
distributable content using RELOAD technologies.
Balaji. V. (2008). AGROCURI. Personal Communications.
62
Process of customisation of RLOs for creating an electronic course
Furthermore, desktop technologies such as eXe can be used not only to reuse the
content but to create the content as well. The next few diagrams demonstrate how
eXe has been used to create and re-use content in a practical scenario.
Guntuku, D.K.& Balaji. V. (2006). Rapid Customization of Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs): A new paradigm for Content
Generation and Localization for Open Distance Agricultural Education and Extension. Proceedings of the Fourth Pan
Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning, Jamaica (http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/viewpaper.php?id=300)
63
64
Reuse of content using eXe
Balaji. V. (2008). AGROCURI. Personal Communications.
... From this perspective, it highlights the importance of collaborative models in the development of ownership over OER [11]. The traditional top-down frameworks [12] lead to frustration and lack of ownership in OER adoption. The collaborative and development-oriented nature of teams in the educational environment leads to an increase in ownership, transparency and the distribution of responsibilities among the main stakeholders, teachers, resulting in higher success rates in adoption. ...
Article
The widespread focus on ownership in the field of OER refers to the ownership of copyright, and the way to open sharing and publishing, as an intrinsic and defining characteristic. Based on a Grounded Theory study, along with Biographical Methods and Digital Ethnography, the article proposes moving from the perspective of OER as open content sharing, to a broader conceptualization that encompasses emotional ownership, ownership in of curriculum change, and teachers’ agency in the development of the curriculum as key factors for OER adoption.
... Open education relies on two fundamental ideas: (i) free and open access to knowledge; and (ii) adapting and re-using existent pieces of knowledge which are in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license which allows free reuse or adaptation by others (Abeywardena, 2012). ...
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In this paper, we examine how open education is adopted in the Middle East region in the context of a European-funded project for capacity building in Higher Education. Basing our study on Hofstede’s model, we examine how culture, in particularly collectivism and power distance influence the adoption of open education. In addition, we look at the relationship between internationalization of tertiary education and open education. Based on in-depth interviews, focus group, and participatory action research with experts in the fields from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine, our findings suggest that beyond the technical aspect and the development of content, adoption of open education in the Middle East region is influenced by cultural aspects, which needs to be taken into consideration. As an emerging sub-culture, open education has the potential to transform and change some cultural barriers related to both power distance and collectivist cultures.
... Open education relies on two fundamental ideas: (i) free and open access to knowledge; and (ii) adapting and re-using existent pieces of knowledge which are in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license which allows free reuse or adaptation by others (Abeywardena, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine how open education is adopted in the Middle East region in the context of a European-funded project for capacity building in Higher Education. Basing our study on Hofstede’s model, we examine how culture, in particularly collectivism and power distance influence the adoption of open education. In addition, we look at the relationship between internationalisation of tertiary education and open education. Based on in-depth interviews, focus group, and participatory action research with experts in the fields from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine, our findings suggest that beyond the technical aspect and the development of content, adoption of open education in the Middle East region is influenced by cultural aspects, which needs to be taken into consideration. As an emerging sub-culture, open education has the potential to transform and change some cultural barriers related to both power distance and collectivist cultures.
... Furthermore, there are several key players involved in the decision-making process (Allen and Seaman, 2014). To this extent, Abeywardena (2012) proposes a top-down approach which encapsulates the key stakeholders in a hierarchy. In this model, the academic staff are tasked with the implementation of OER in the institution, following the directive from the management, with support from the educational technology unit, library and IT support. ...
Article
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Purpose - There is immense potential in open educational resources (OER) for encouraging systemic change within academic institutions towards increasing access and equity in education. This paper proposes an empirical framework and a checklist for mainstreaming OER in an academic institution. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical framework and the mainstreaming checklist is formulated based on an extensive review of literature and case studies strengthened by the author’s personal experience as an academic, researcher, practitioner, policymaker and international development expert in the field of OER. Findings - The proposed empirical framework and OER mainstreaming checklist identifies several processes to be completed by key stakeholders for successful mainstreaming of OER in an academic institution. Practical implications – The proposed framework assumes that the institution, which is undergoing mainstreaming of OER, follows the principles of outcomes based education (OBE); and that it has an established mechanism for measuring the mastery of learning outcomes and the role of OER in accreditation. Originality/value - One key feature of the framework is its horizontal approach where stakeholders take a team-based approach to completing the required tasks for mainstreaming OER. This, in turn, increases ownership of the mainstreaming process leading to higher success rates and sustainability. Secondly, the mainstreaming checklist breaks down each process into several achievable tasks and assigns them to the relevant team. Thirdly, the framework supports continuous quality improvement (CQI) which encourages institutions to periodically revisit the processes to make necessary course corrections and enhancements. Keywords – open educational resources, oer mainstreaming, oer from commitment to action, oer mainstreaming framework, oer mainstreaming checklist.
... One of the two fundamental concepts related to OER is "the ability to freely adapt and re-use existing pieces of knowledge" (Abeywardena 2012). In Allen and Seaman (2014), potential barriers and concerns of teachers for not using OER are reported. ...
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The OER movement has challenged the traditional value chain by employing new methods to deliver high-quality educational content. Open Educational Resources (OER) provide a strategic opportunity to improve the quality of education as well as to facilitate knowledge sharing, and capacity building. OER not only play a crucial role in nonformal and informal learning but they are actual resources/tools that can help enrich any classroom environment and push student thinking and comprehension. One of the fundamental concepts of OER is “the ability to freely adapt and reuse existing pieces of knowledge”, and therefore be a way to create more economic and personalized learning. To facilitate combining, remixing, or adaptation of OER, a key condition is to improve the metadata interoperability between different collections of open material siloed, i.e., the OER data should be readable for both people and humans. The Linked Data design issues and semantic technologies enable the creation and reuse of data models, concepts, and properties that are then connected, consulted, and combined on the Web, as if they were simply part of a global database. This work shows the evolution of Open Educational Movement and the potential of use of linked data approach to improve the discoverability, reusability, and integration of these materials available in the Web and support the inclusion of OER in courses, from a general context of synergy: Linked Data for describe, discovery, and retrieve OER and Human Beings power to provide context. The authors focus on a type of openness: open of contents as regards alteration, i.e., freedom to reuse the educational material, to combine it with other academic materials, to adapt, and to share it further under an open license.
... When educational materials can be electronically copied, reused, adapted and transferred around the world at almost no cost, we have a greater ethical obligation than ever before to increase the reach of opportunity of education for all. One of the two fundamental concepts related to OER is "the ability to freely adapt and reuse existing pieces of knowledge" [24]. ...
... In this context, it makes sense to reuse the thousands of Open Educational Resources that are available on the Web: materials from OCW (lessons, quizzes, syllabus, readings), multimedia or presentations contained in different OER repositories. OER reusability means that the content is relevant to the specific needs of a user, which is technologically accessible and that it is sufficiently open for use, re-use [Abeywardena, 2012], re-mix, adapt and re-distribute. Before OER can be reused, the openness of content can be measured in terms of the rights a user of the content is granted. ...
Article
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The OER movement has tended to define “openness” in terms of access to use and reuse educational materials, and to address the geographical and financial barriers among students, teachers and self-learners with open access to high quality digital educational resources. MOOCs are the continuation of this trend of openness, innovation, and use of technology to provide learning opportunities for large numbers of learners. In the last years, the amount of Open Educational Resources on the Web has increased dramatically, especially thanks to initiatives like OpenCourseWare and other Open Educational Resources movements. The potential of this vast amount of resources is enormous. In this paper an architecture based on Semantic Web technologies and the Linked Data guidelines to support the inclusion of open materials in massive online courses is presented. Linked Data is considered as one of the most effective alternatives for creating global shared information spaces, it has become an interesting approach for discovering and enriching open educational resources data, as well as achieving semantic interoperability and re-use between multiple Open Educational Resources repositories. The notion of Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing, sharing and interconnecting data in RDF format. Educational repositories managers are, in fact, realizing the potential of using Linked Data for describing, discovering, linking and publishing educational data on the Web. This work shows a data architecture based on semantic web technologies that support the discovery and inclusion of open educational materials in massive online courses in engineering education. The authors focus on a type of openness: open of contents as regards re-use and re-mix, i.e. freedom to reuse the material, to combine it with other materials, to adapt and to share it further under an open license.
... They outline key issues and make suggestions for integrating OER into higher education. A further interesting study on the reuse and adaptation of OERs [19] has the objective of exploring the current technology landscape with respect to both proprietary and free and opensource software (FOSS) technologies; it identifies techniques, existing and in development, for reuse of OER. Some of the quality assurance opportunities and challenges for OER are considered in [20], which covers internal institutional quality assurance mechanisms and the quality controls required on learning materials. ...
Article
Full-text available
Open Educational Resources (OER) provide a strategic opportunity to improve the quality of education as well as facilitate policy dialog, knowledge sharing, and capacity building. One of the fundamental concepts of OER is “the ability to freely adapt and reuse existing pieces of knowledge.” Reuse of educational resources by both individuals and organizations may have significant creative and economic benefit for the educational environment. This Special Issue editorial introduces six interesting experiences, representative of the use of OER in engineering education in important areas such as the production of open content at various scales, reuse of contents, institutional open Web site initiatives, and technological applications to support the exploitation of OER, all at different degrees of maturity. Since some readers will be unfamiliar with prior work on OER, this Special Issue also outlines the hot topics in OER and the critical factors for success when joining the Open Educational Movement. Finally, the editorial provides a set of recommendations and examples offered by the Special Issue editors from their over 6 years of experience leading a research group in semantic Web technologies applied to Open Education. A key requirement, in their opinion, is to improve the metadata interoperability between various collections of open material, so as to facilitate the discoverability and subsequent combining, remixing, or adapting OER; that is, OER data should be easily accessible to any user.
Chapter
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Since their appearance about two decades ago, open educational resources (OER) have become a part of a rapidly growing movement as more nations and institutions adopt the view that educational research and content belong to all people, regardless of their location or financial situation, and that content should be open and accessible to all. This movement can profoundly impact educational practices and practitioners, not only by making educational resources available and accessible but also by ensuring continuous improvement of the quality of these resources by providing a legal framework for preserving users’ rights, thus enabling users to become creators, rather than mere consumers of content. To reach this goal, it is necessary to establish creative and innovative pedagogical thinking and practices. Although OER are not a panacea for all educational problems, they can play an important, even essential role, in improving access and quality in higher education. Since 2016, the Cadi Ayyad University (UCA), Morocco, has been utilizing OER and adopting open educational practices (OEP) in the educational system. In this chapter, we discuss the concept of OER as a comprehensive solution to widening access to education and use of OER to overcome problems of massification within UCA. Then, we present OER-based initiatives launched and developed by UCA in this context.KeywordsOpen educational resourcesOpen educationPedagogical innovationOpen educational resources adoptionHigher educationCadi Ayyad University
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Given higher education in Morocco suffers from the increasing number of students in institutions with open access policy, the issue of language and communication, the heterogeneous academic level of students, the inability to adapt schedules for students, the evolution of new technologies, etc., innovative pedagogy has become a necessity to address these challenges. Additionally, new modes of adaptive learning need to be designed to develop innovative training programs. Many authors agree that “innovation in pedagogy concerns everything that is not part of formal education” (Lison et al. 2014). In 2016, the Ministry of National Education, Vocational Training, Higher Education and Scientific Research in collaboration with GIP FUN MOOC, and the French Embassy signed an agreement to establish a platform MUN “Morocco Digital University”. The purpose of the agreement is to encourage Moroccan Universities to develop Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs), and other forms of online courses and to reinforce partnership with French Universities in e-learning. MOOCs were developed in 2008, and after four years of operation, the New York Times considered 2012 “The year of the MOOC”. Since then, new features of MOOCs have motivated decision makers in higher education from across the world to create a number of online courses in their institutions. However, the weakness of MOOCs as a pedagogical innovation is the high dropout rate. Despite being massive courses, of thousands of enrollees, 50% quit after one week, 10% finish the course after completing all the modules, and only 4% obtain a certificate (Perna et al, Life Cycle of a Million MOOC Users. MOOC Research Initiative. Arlington, Texas, 2013). Given MOOCs are large-scale learning platforms that have failed to meet learners’ individual needs, considering this innovative pedagogy effective enough is conditional on adapting instruction to enhance student learning, learner’s characteristics, for example, knowledge or personal interests. In fact, why not implement adaptive learning techniques to further customize MOOCs? The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it aims to uncover the feasibility of adaptive learning on MOOCs in higher education in Morocco. Second, this investigation seeks to address the effects of adaptive learning on student learning outcomes, student engagement, and drop-out rates.
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Open educational resources (OER) are a global phenomenon that is fast gaining credibility in many academic circles as a possible solution for bridging the knowledge divide. With increased funding and advocacy from governmental and nongovernmental organisations paired with generous philanthropy, many OER repositories, which host a vast array of re-sources, have mushroomed over the years. As the inkling towards an open approach to education grows, many academics are contributing to these OER repositories, making them expand exponentially in volume. However, despite the volume of available OER, the uptake of the use and reuse of OER still remains slow. One of the major limitations inhibiting the wider adoption of OER is the inability of current search mechanisms to effectively locate OER that are most suitable for use and reuse within a given scenario. This is mainly due to the lack of a parametric measure that could be used by search technologies to autonomous-ly identify desirable resources. As a possible solution to this limitation, this concept paper introduces a parametric measure of desirability of OER named the D-index, which can aid search mechanisms in better identifying resources suitable for use and reuse.
Article
This paper describes how "open" concepts and methods from the academy, open source software, and community can be used as an overarching strategy for sustainable development and use of online learning resources in higher education. Using the real case study of BCcampus open methods are shown in use for funding development of online learning, licensing resources to be openly shared and reused, providing an open repository of resources, supporting open sharing of best practice through online community, and professional development.
Article
A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By ‘open’ it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, ‘open’ is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and demonstrate how these describe different levels of openness. We discuss how the licensing and technical aspects of open educational resources affect the relative openness of an open educational resource. Implications for those creating open educational resources are discussed.
Article
The Internet and associated digital technologies provide us with an enormous potential to access and build information and knowledge networks. Information and knowledge can be communicated in an instant across the globe, cheaply and with good quality, by even the most basic Internet user. In short, recent developments in digital technology have opened up a vast new landscape for knowledge management. However copyright law which takes definition from international conventions and is similar in most countries provides that you cannot reproduce or communicate copyright material (literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, films and sound recordings) without the permission of the copyright owner subject to exceptions for fair use/dealing, private use and educational use. Private use and educational use exceptions are usually subject to the payment of a statutory levy, royalty or licence fee. Therefore while the technology has the capacity, the legal restrictions on the reuse of copyright material, hampers its negotiability in the digital environment. Copyright owners are not obliged to give permission to allow others to reuse their material even with payment of fair compensation unless they are compelled to do so by the law. There are some compulsory licences – for example I can make a recording of any song pursuant to a compulsory licence - but they are not widespread. Going through the process of obtaining permission to reuse copyright material can also be very time consuming and expensive.
Orange Open Movie Team and contributors (Elephants Dream) Retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
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SVG version of LaTeX output, from the source file at the LaTeX article
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