Conference PaperPDF Available

OERScout: Autonomous Clustering of Open Educational Resources using Keyword-Document Matrix

Authors:
  • Commonwealth of Learning

Abstract and Figures

The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement has gained momentum in the past few years. With this new drive towards making knowledge open and accessible, a large number of OER repositories have been established and made available online throughout the globe. However, despite the fact that these repositories hold a large number of high quality material, the use and re-use of OER has not taken off as anticipated due to various geographic, socio and technological limitations. One such technological limitation is the present day inability to effectively search and locate OER materials which are specific and relevant to a particular academic domain. As a first step towards a possible solution to this issue, this paper discusses the design and development of a clustering algorithm which accurately clusters text based OER materials by building a Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM) using autonomously identified domain specific keywords. This algorithm is the first phase of a larger technology framework named "OERScout" which is a new methodology for effectively searching and locating desirable OER for academic use.
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1
Abeywardena, I. S., Tham, C.Y., Chan, C.S., & Balaji. V. (2012). OERScout: Autonomous Clustering of
Open Educational Resources using Keyword-Document Matrix. Proceedings of the 26th Asian
Association of Open Universities Conference, 17-18 October 2012, Chiba, Japan.
OERScout: Autonomous Clustering of Open Educational Resources using
Keyword-Document Matrix
Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena
a
, Choy Yoong Tham
b
, Chee Seng Chan
c
and Venkataraman Balaji
d
ab
School of Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, 54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah,
Penang, 10050, Malaysia. e-mail:
a
ishansa@wou.edu.my ,
b
cytham@wou.edu.my
c
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. e-mail: cs.chan@um.edu.my
d
Commonwealth of Learning (COL), 1055 West Hastings Street, Suite 1200, Vancouver, BC
V6E 2E9, Canada. e-mail: vbalaji@col.org
Sub-theme:
Open Educational Resources (OER) and ODL
Abstract
The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement has gained momentum in the past few years. With this
new drive towards making knowledge open and accessible, a large number of OER repositories have
been established and made available online throughout the globe. However, despite the fact that these
repositories hold a large number of high quality material, the use and re-use of OER has not taken off as
anticipated due to various geographic, socio and technological limitations. One such technological
limitation is the present day inability to effectively search and locate OER materials which are specific
and relevant to a particular academic domain. As a first step towards a possible solution to this issue,
this paper discusses the design and development of a clustering algorithm which accurately clusters text
based OER materials by building a Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM) using autonomously identified
domain specific keywords. This algorithm is the first phase of a larger technology framework named
“OERScout” which is a new methodology for effectively searching and locating desirable OER for
academic use.
Keywords: OERScout, Open Educational Resources, OER, OER searching and location, Text mining
algorithms, Document clustering, Autonomous keyword identification
2
1 Introduction
With the new drive towards accessible and open information, Open Educational Resources
(OER) have taken centre stage after being first adopted in a UNESCO forum in 2002. OER can
be defined as web-based materials, offered freely and openly for use and re-use in teaching,
learning and research” (Joyce, 2007) which are heavily dependent on technology and the
internet to be accessible by the masses. According to Farber (2009) “Just as the Linux operating
system and other open source software has become a pervasive computer technology around the
world, so too might OER materials become the basis for training the global masses which
clearly outlines the significance of OER as a global movement. The move towards OER has also
helped reduce significantly the costs of production, reproduction and distribution of course
material (Caswell, Henson, Jenson & Wiley, 2008) especially as initiatives such as MIT
OpenCourseWare (OCW), Rice University Connexions and the Commonwealth of Learning
(COL) funded Wikieducator project are sharing high quality educational resources under the
Creative Commons (CC) license which enables institutions and individuals globally to adapt and
re-use material without developing them from scratch. This is especially important for countries
in the Global South such as India which has 411 million potential students, out of which only
234 million enter school at all, less than 20% reach high school and less than 10% graduate
(Kumar, 2009).
Over the recent past, many global OER initiatives have been established by organisations such as
UNESCO, COL and the United Nations (UN) to name a few. Many of these initiatives are based
on established web based technology platforms and have accumulated large volumes of quality
resources which are shared with the masses. However, the use of diverse and disparate
technology platforms in these projects entails the inability to effectively trawl and located OER
using generic search methodologies. This is affirmed by Abeywardena, Raviraja and Tham
(2012) who state that there is no generic methodology available at present to enable search
mechanisms to autonomously gauge the desirability of an OER which is a function of (i) the
level of openness; (ii) the level of access; and (iii) the relevance; of an OER for ones needs.
Thus, the necessity for a methodology which could effectively trawl and search the numerous
disconnected and disparate OER repositories with the aim of locating desirable materials has
taken center stage as the problems with open content is not the lack of available resources on the
Internet but the inability to locate suitable resources for academic use (Unwin, 2005).
OERScout is a technology framework which aims to accurately cluster text based OER by
building a Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM) using autonomously mined domain specific
keywords. Using the KDM, the system accurately generates lists of specific and relevant OER
from the distributed repositories to suit a given search query. In this context, specific denotes the
suitability of an OER for a particular teaching need. For example, an OER on physics from the
final year syllabus of a physics degree would not be suitable for a high school physics class.
Relevant denotes the match between the content of the OER and the content needed for a
particular teaching need. For example, physical chemistry is not relevant for a teaching need in
organic chemistry. This paper, which is organised under the headings methodology, pilot tests,
discussion and conclusion; discusses how OERScout benefits the Open Distance Learning (ODL)
community, who are arguably the largest group of OER creators and consumers (Abeywardena,
2012), by providing a centralised system for effectively searching and locating specific and
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relevant OER materials from the disconnected and disparate repositories scattered across the
globe.
2 Methodology
The OERScout text mining algorithm is designed to “read” text based OER and “learn” which
academic domain(s) and sub-domain(s) they belonged to. To achieve this, a bag-of-words
approach is used due to its effectiveness when used with unstructured data (Feldman & Sanger,
2006). The algorithm extracts all the individual words from a particular document by removing
noise such as formatting and punctuations to form the corpus. The corpus is then Tokenised into
the List of Terms using the stop words found in the Onix Text Retrieval Toolkit
1
. The extraction
of the content describing terms from the List of Terms for the formation of the Term Document
Matrix (TDM) is done using the Term Frequency–Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF)
weighting scheme. The weight of each term (TF-IDF) was calculated using the following
formula (Feldman & Sanger, 2006):
(
TF
TFTF
TF
-
--
-ࡵࡰࡲሻ
= ࢀࡲ
x ࡵࡰࡲ
ܶܨ
denotes the frequency of a term t in a single document. ܫܦܨ
denotes the frequency of a term
t in all the documents in the collection [ܫܦܨ
= Log (N/ܶܨ
ሻ] where N is the number of
documents in the collection. The probability of a term t being able to accurately describe the
content of a particular OER as a keyword decreases with the number of times it occurs in other
related and non-related materials. For example the term “introduction” would be found in many
OER which discuss a variety of subject matter. As such the TF-IDF of the term “introduction”
would be low compared to a term such as “operating systems” or “statistical methods” which are
more likely to be keywords. As the TF-IDF weighting scheme takes the inverse document
frequency into consideration, it was found to be suitable for extracting the keywords from an
OER.
The Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM), which is a subset of the TDM, is created for the
OERScout system by matching the autonomously identified keywords against the documents.
The formation of the KDM is done by (i) normalising the TF-IDF values for the terms in the
TDM; and (ii) applying the Pareto principle (80:20) where the top 20% of the TF-IDF values are
considered to be keywords describing 80% of the OER (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Creation of the KDM
1
lextek.com/manuals/onix/stopwords1.html
4
The OERScout algorithm is implemented using the Microsoft Visual Basic.NET 2010 (VB.NET
2010) programming language. The corpus, List of Terms, TDM and KDM are implemented using
the Microsoft SQLServer 2008 database platform. The OER resources are fed into the system
using sitemaps based on extensible markup language (xml) which contain the uniform resource
locators (URLs) of the resources.
3 Pilot Tests
Two pilot tests were conducted to test the functionality of the system. As the first test case, the
Rice University’s OER repository Connexions
2
was used due to (i) the large number of diverse
OER materials available; (ii) the relatively high popularity and usage rates; and (iii) the
availability of the OER materials in text format. An xml sitemap containing 1238 URLs
belonging to the domains of arts, business, humanities, mathematics and statistics; science and
technology; and social sciences was created as the initial input. The system was run with the
initial input and was allowed to autonomously create the KDM. The average time taken for
OERScout to extract terms from an OER and update the KDM was found to be approximately
two minutes as the OER were in HTML format. After the completion of the pilot test, the system
had created 1013 clusters in the KDM with an average density of 1.23 resources per cluster. It
was also noted that 1238 resources had contributed 141901 new terms. An example of the KDM
is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Example of the cluster map generated using the KDM
The second test was conducted on the Directory of Open Educational Resources (DOER)
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of the
COL. DOER is a fledgling portal OER repository (McGreal, 2010) which provides an easily
navigable central catalogue of OER scattered across the globe. At present the OER available
through DOER are manually classified into 20 main categories and 1158 sub-categories.
2
http://www.cnx.org
3
http://doer.col.org/
5
However, despite covering most of the major subject categories, this particular ontology would
need to expand by a large degree due to the unlimited variety of OER available in a kaleidoscope
of subject areas. This expansion, in turn, becomes a tedious and laborious task which needs to be
accomplished manually on an ongoing basis. As a possible solution to this issue, a mechanism
was needed for autonomously identifying the subject area(s) covered in a particular OER, in the
form of keywords, in order for it to be accurately catalogued. Given this requirement DOER was
used as the training dataset for the second pilot test of OERScout. This training process was
critical to the functioning of the algorithm as it had to learn a large array of academic domains
and sub-domains before being able to accurately cluster resources according to the domain. After
completion of the second test, the system had processed 2598 resources of file types HTML,
PDF, TEXT and MS Word from a multitude of OER repositories. On average, each resource
required approximately 15-90 minutes to be read and learnt by the system due to the size and the
format of the documents. The creation of the KDM required approximately 12-24 hours each
time.
3 Discussion
Generic search methodologies such as Google, Yahoo! and Bing are the most widely used search
mechanisms for locating OER (Abeywardena & Dhanarajan, 2012). Even though this method is
the most commonly used, it is not the most effective as discussed by Pirkkalainen and Pawlowski
(2010) who argue that searching this way might be a long and painful process as most of the
results are not usable for educational purposes”. Despite semantic web based alternatives such
as Agrotags (Balaji et al., 2010) which build ontologies of domain specific keywords to be used
for classification of OER belonging to a particular body of knowledge, the creation of such
ontologies for all the domains discussed within the diverse collection of OER would be next to
impossible. As such, the OERScout system was developed to use clustering techniques instead of
semantic web techniques to enable OER to be clustered based on autonomously identified
keywords.
Figure 3 Google “Advanced Search” results for OER on Chemistry (24
th
May 2012)
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Figure 3 shows an advanced search conducted on Google
4
for the term “chemistry” specifically
searching for resources which are free to use, share or modify, even commercially. This example
confirms the statements made in literature as the first three results are from Wikipedia
5
which is
an encyclopedia of user created learning objects rather than a repository of pedagogically sound
educational material. Furthermore, the fifth result is a non-OER source. According to Vaughan
(2004) users will only consider the top ten ranked results for a particular search as the most
relevant. Vaughan further suggests that the users will ignore the results below the top 30 ranks.
As such, generic search methodologies such as Google are currently inapt at locating specific
and relevant OER for a particular teaching need.
Figure 4 shows a search result for the term “chemistry” on OERScout conducted on the KDM
created during the second pilot test. Contrary to the static list of search results produced by
typical search engines, OERScout provides an autonomously identified dynamic list of Suggested
Topics which are related to “chemistry”. The user is then able to click on any of the suggested
topics to access specific and relevant OER, identified in the KDM, from all the repositories
indexed by OERScout. Furthermore, based on the selection by the user, the system will provide a
list of Related Topics which will enable the user to drill down further to identify the most
suitable OER for his/her teaching needs. As such, it can be seen that OERScout is a centralised
system which is much more dynamic and effective in locating specific and relevant OER from
the disconnected and disparate repositories. This becomes one of the major benefits to ODL
practitioners as the system spares the user from conducting countless keyword searches in the
OER repositories in order to identify suitable material for use. It also allows content creators to
quickly isolate the OER suitable for their needs without reading through all the search results
returned by a typical search mechanism such as Google.
Figure 4 OERScout search result for OER in Chemistry
4
http://www.google.com.my
5
http://www.wikipedia.org
7
This first version of OERScout is unable to cluster non-text based materials such as audio, video
and animations which is a major drawback considering the fact that more and more OER are now
being developed in multimedia formats. However, it was noted from the pilot tests that the
system will accurately cluster multimedia based material using the text based descriptions
provided. Another limitation is its inability to cluster resources written in languages other than
English. Despite this current limitation, the OERScout algorithm has a level of abstraction which
allows it to be customised to suit other languages in the future.
4 Conclusion
Open Educational Resources (OER) is a phenomenon which is rapidly gaining acceptance and
credibility in the academic community as a potent tool for teaching and learning. With more and
more OER repositories mushrooming across the globe and with the expansion of existing
repositories due to increased contributions, the task of searching and locating specific and
relevant OER has become a daunting one. This is further heightened due to the disconnectedness
and disparity among the various OER repositories which are based on a number of technological
platforms. Another hurdle to the searching and location of OER is the inability of current
mainstream search technologies to effectively locate OER material for academic use. As such,
each OER repository has to be searched using its own native search methodologies in order to
locate the necessary OER. This again has had a discouraging effect on the OER practitioner as
the number of repositories available is substantial and growing.
OERScout is a text mining algorithm used for clustering OER using autonomously mined
domain specific keywords. It was developed with a view of providing OER creators and users a
centralised system which will enable effective searching and location of specific and relevant
OER for academic use. The benefits of OERScout to the content creators include (i) elimination
of the need for manually defining content domains for categorisation in the form of metadata; (ii)
elimination of the need for publicising the availability of a repository and the need for building
custom search mechanisms for them; and (iii) more visibility and reach of material to a wider
audience. The system benefits OER users by (i) providing a central location for finding resources
scattered across the globe hidden in high volume repositories; and (ii) locating only the most
specific and relevant resources. The ultimate benefit of OERScout is that both content creators
and users now only need to concentrate on the actual content and not the searching and location
of specific and relevant OER.
The next version of OERScout will enable ODL practitioners to effectively locate the most
desirable OER for academic use based on parametric measures of (i) openness calculated using
the Creative Commons license; (ii) accessibility calculated using the accessibility of the file
format; and (iii) relevance calculated using the KDM.
Acknowledgements
This research project is funded as part of a doctoral research through the Grant (# 102791)
generously made by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada through
an umbrella study on Openness and Quality in Asian Distance Education.
This research paper is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) to Tsuneo
Yamada at the Open University of Japan (JSPS, Grant No. 23240110).
8
Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena acknowledges the support provided by the Faculty of Computer
Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
where he is currently pursuing his doctoral research in Computer Science and the School of
Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, 54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050,
Penang, Malaysia where he is currently employed.
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Thesis
Full-text available
The open educational resources (OER) movement has gained considerable momentum in the past few years. According to the Paris OER Declaration, OER can be defined as “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”. With this drive towards making knowledge open and accessible, a large number of OER repositories have been established and made available online throughout the world. However, the limitation of existing search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, and Bing to effectively search for useful OER that are useful or fit for teaching purposes is a major factor contributing to the slow uptake of the movement. As a major step to solve this issue, the researcher has designed, developed and tested OERScout, a technology framework based on text mining solutions. Utilizing the concept of faceted search, the system allows academics to search heterogeneous OER repositories for useful resources from a central location. Furthermore, the desirability framework has been conceptualized to parametrically measure the usefulness of an OER with respect to openness, accessibility and relevance attributes. The objectives of the project are: (i) to identify user difficulties in searching OER for academic purposes; (ii) to identify the limitations of existing OER search methodologies with respect to locating fit-for-purpose resources from heterogeneous repositories; (iii) to conceptualize a framework for parametrically measuring the suitability of OER for academic use; and (iv) to design a technology framework to facilitate the accurate centralized search of OER from heterogeneous repositories. The major contributions of this research work are twofold: The first contribution is a conceptual framework which can be used by search engines to parametrically measure the usefulness of an OER, taking into consideration the openness, accessibility and relevance attributes. The advantage of this framework is that, using the well-established four R’s and ALMS frameworks, it can restructure search results to prioritize the resources which are the easiest to reuse, redistribute, revise and remix. As a result, academics practicing the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of delivery can locate resources which can be readily used in their teaching and learning. The second contribution is a search mechanism which uses text mining techniques and a faceted search interface to provide a centralized OER search tool to locate useful resources from the heterogeneous repositories for academic purposes. One of the key advantages of this search mechanism is its ability to autonomously identify and annotate OER with domain specific keywords. As a result, this search mechanism provides a central search tool which can effectively search for OER from any repository regardless of the technology platforms or metadata standards used. Another major advantage is the utilization of the conceptual framework which can parametrically measure the usefulness of an OER in terms of fit-for-purpose. As a result, academics are able to easily locate high quality OER from around the world which best fit their academic needs.
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