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Antimicrobials of plant origin against TB and other infections and economics of plant drugs — Introspection.

Indian journal of traditional knowledge (Impact Factor: 0.41). 08/2012; 11(2):225-233.

ABSTRACT

An overview on work published on antimicrobial activity of plants indicated that very limited work is reported on antimicrobial activities against multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, especially the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But considerable work has been done with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Active principles from the tea tree oil plant, as well as the berberine found in many plants were reported to be effective against MRSA. For the control of many MDR pathogenic bacteria including M. tuberculosis, a systematic screening of plants would be the step towards drug-development from plants that would be economically viable too in the medicinal plant trade. In developing and developed countries phytodrugs with several commercial formulations are amply available, those are economical enough. A discussion on the economics of trade on medicinal plants is done that clarifies that raw products for healthcare are almost universally popular. It is discussed that crude plant extracts as antimicrobials are preferable, since resistance in pathogens would not be easy, for an array of compounds; and drug development for MDR-TB is need of the day.

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Available from: Rabindra N Padhy, May 14, 2014
    • "Obviously, host-toxicity testing of non-edible/poisonous plant-products remains an essential corollary in CAM too, for the scientific validation and safety. Paradigmatically in India, people from the marginalized section, slum-ghettos and aborigines, as well as the sophisticated, well-heeled, elite mass use concoctions of crude phyto-drugs from Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems, habitually[7,27]. Similar medicinal systems too are in the cultural practices of people of other countries; eventually, phyto-toxicity studies with well known and lesser known plants against mammalian systems have been recorded frequently[28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Antibacterial efficacy of the water-fern Azolla caroliniana Willd., symbiotic with the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae against seven multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria were evaluated; antioxidant and organoleptic properties of the fern were also assessed. Most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria used in this study were highly resistant to 17 antibiotics of aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone groups, as recorded from Kirby-Bauer method. The methanolic extract of A. caroliniana generated 20 mm as the maximum size of zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, as recored from the agar-well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration value, 1.89 mg/ml was due to the methanolic extract against S. aureus and Proteus mirabilis, while the value, 4.27 mg/ml was against Enterococcus sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum bactericidal concentration value, 4.27 mg/ml was of the methanolic extract against S. aureus and P. mirabilis, while the value, 21.67 mg/ml was recorded against Citrobacter sp., E. aerogenes, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Fifty percent inhibition concentration values of free radical scavenging activities of the fern with free radical generating chemicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, as well as, 2, 2-azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide of the methanolic extract were 8, 10, 10, and 78.8 µg/ml, respectively. In four solvent-extracts with methanol, ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane, several common phytochemicals and phenols were present, while alkaloids and saponins were absent. Processed Azolla was tasteless but not unpalatable. A. caroliniana could be used as an antibacterial as well as an antioxidant agent in complementary and alternate medicine.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences
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    • "The same is true in vivo when the phytocompounds are accessorized with regular chemotherapy, since phytochemicals in crude extracts remain as unbreakable barriers to microbial pathogens. It would seem that accumulated ethnomedicinal reports of different countries are idealistic without any scientific verification, but should form the basis of further work on drug targeting against MDR pathogens, as has been stated in detail elsewhere (Dubey et al., 2012b). Taking recourse to plants for new chemicals, from well-known and lesser-known weeds as antimicrobials would be a prudent alternative, not least because the Streptomyces source of antibiotics is exhausted, but also because a large amount of pure phytochemicals has been serving the health domain holistically. "
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific basis for the use of the common shrub-weed plant Lantana camara L. was investigated by testing leaf extracts for antibacterial activity. Dried leaf powders were extracted using a hot-solvent extraction method with eight polar to non-polar solvents in succession. Crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against three multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE); and five MDR extended-spectrum �-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MRSA strain was resistant to 16 of 18 antibiotics, while Streptococcus pyogenes and VRE were resistant to 15 of 18 antibiotics. Similarly, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 14 of 16 antibiotics. It was found that plant extracts with petroleum ether and water had the least antibacterial activity. Leaf extracts with dichloromethane and methanol registered the highest antibacterial activity on all bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of two active leaf extracts, obtained with dichloromethane and methanol were determined. Phytochemical analysis of dichloromethane leaf extracts confirmed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids, but reducing sugars were also absent; and, in the methanolic leaf extract, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and steroids were present, but glycosides, reducing sugars and tannins were absent. These findings point to the potential of the plant as a probable source of bioactive compounds and provide a scientific basis for its folklore/ethnomedicinal uses for infectious diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Herbal Medicine
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    • "The emergence of vancomycin resistant strain (VRSA-vancomycin resistant S. aureus) is of further concern. Today, the management of the camaraderie of MDR strains of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens has become increasingly difficult because of the 毬-lactamase production in Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Neisseria, Salmonella, Haemophilus and a few more pathogens [9] , and pandrug resistance to different classes of antibiotics in Gram-negative ones [12] . Meek appreciation of failures in control of MDR strains would be inhuman, which generates the impetus on a systematic global search for new drugs from natural resources like plants [13] [14] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of 20 non-edible and/or poisonous plants used by an aborigine tribe (Kandha) of Kalahandi district for infectious diseases.Methods Over a period of 5 months from two hospitals, 10 pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Chromobacterium violeceum (C. violeceum), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) and Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) were isolated to pure axenic cultures from clinical samples. Water and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks were concentrated before monitoring antimicrobial activity by agar-well diffusion method.ResultsAll bacterial strains isolated were multidrug resistant. Ethanolic extract of most plants had effective antimicrobial activity against all the isolated multidrug resistant bacteria. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) and Pterocarpus santalinus (P. santalinus) had antibacterial effect on all used bacteria. Water extract of several plants too had effective antimicrobial activity for all bacteria used. Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp., C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa, the most potential urinary tract infection causing organisms by plant extracts of all major plant used herein is recorded. MDR C. violaceum isolated from skin lesions was found to be resistant to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxyclav and was found sensitive to 13 plant extracts.Conclusion Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp., C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa; enteropathogenic bacteria, E. coli, S. typhi, Klebsiella s p. and V. cholerae were found to be well controlled by all plant extracts used.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
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