ArticlePDF Available

Challenges and Constraints of Marketing and Export of Indian Spices in India

Authors:
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
739
Challenges and Constraints of Marketing and Export of Indian Spices in
India
Rohatash. K. Bhardwaj
B. K. Sikka
Ashutosh Singh
M. L. Sharma
N. K. Singh
dr_rohitaash@yahoo.co.in,
bksikka@gmail.com
ashutosh_singh@yahoo.com
mlsharma_cabm@yahoo.co.in
nirdesh75@gmail.com
College of Agribusiness Management, Pantnagar
Rahul Arya
drrahularyavet@gmail.com
Symbiosis Institute of Distance Learning, Pune
1. Introduction
Spices are the currency of developing countries. India, Egypt, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Turkey and
Brazil are the primary producers of spices. Since spices are always in demand in the industrialized world, the
export of these basic agricultural commodities by developing countries can be relied upon to earn valuable
foreign exchange. The major importers are the US, Europe, Japan, East Asian and Middle East countries. India,
blessed with vivid agro-climatic zones, exports spices to 120 countries. Her biggest trading partners are the US,
Europe and Japan. India has the status of mere a commodity exporter in these markets, except for spice oils and
oleoresins. The processors/packers in these countries and a few multinational companies buy Indian products
and sell them under their brands at a price 4 to 5 times more than they cost. Indian brands have yet to find
markets beyond middle-class and ethnic populations. Reduction in exportable surplus on account of increasing
domestic demand, dependence on nature, pest and disease problems, low technology infrastructure and arbitrary
imposition of standards and stringent food laws by importing countries are the major challenge with the spice
industry in India. Quality improvement, value addition and compliance with stipulations under WTO
agreements are required for better market access. It is essential to chanellize exports, to use effective processing
and packaging techniques, to develop recognized international brand and to focus on niche markets.
2. Indian Spices
The history and culture of Indian spices is probably as old as human civilization itself. The Vedas, the Bible and
the Quran are all replete with references - direct or indirect - to Indian spices. The earliest literary record in India
on spices is the Rig Veda (around 6000 BC), and the other three Vedas - Yajur, Sama and Atharva. Spices
constitute an important group of agricultural commodities, which are virtually indispensable in the culinary art.
They can be primarily defined as farm products used in various forms viz; fresh, ripe, dried, broken, powdered
etc. which contributes aroma, taste, flavour, colour and pungency to food, rather than a lone food seasoning
factor. Spices may be bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds, stigmas and styles or the entire
plant tops. They are well known as appetizers or preservatives and many of them have rich medicinal properties
and are used in pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetic products, religious rituals etc.
The Spices Board, India is the apex body for the export promotion of Indian spices. Established in 1987, the
Board is the catalyst of these dramatic transitions. The Board has been with the Indian Spice industry every step
of the way. It plays a far-reaching and influential role as a developmental, regulatory and promotional agency
for Indian Spices. Within the past one decade the international trade in spices has grown by leaps and bounds.
An estimated 500,000 tonnes of spices and herbs valued at 1500 million US dollars are now imported globally
every year. An impressive 46% of this supply comes from India. India's exports of spice extracts have shown
spectacular growth attaining over 50 percent of the global market within a short span of few years. Spices
exports from India have registered substantial growth during the last one-decade. It has increased from 109636
tonnes valued US$ 135 million in 1990-91 to 235611 tonnes valued US$ 472 million in 1999-2000. During the
year 2002-03, the spices export quantity has touched an all-time high of 264107 tonnes. However, during 2003-
04 the export has declined to 246566 MT valued US $ 415 million. The decline was mainly due to decline in
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
740
export of Mint Products and also because of low volume of pepper exports coupled with low unit value
realization. Still India commands a formidable position in the World Spice Trade with 46% share in Volume and
27% in Value.
3. Problem Statement
The traditional marketing of spices from the state is much of the domestic nature. There is prevalence of a large
number of intermediaries. The export of spices like chillies, ginger and turmeric is negligible. AEDU wants to
generate a database for the use of the growers, entrepreneurs and exporters of these spices from Uttaranchal. It
wants to get an insight of the problem faced by the growers and help farmers by providing alternatives as to
what to produce for better price realization. AEDU wants to encourage more private players for exports of these
spices from Uttaranchal and in setting up spice processing units by finding alternatives for value addition and
processing. AEDU also wants to use this study for further policymaking regarding Spice Exports. A study of the
local markets might reveal that what the villagers purchase can as well be produced locally. The opportunities
must be fully explored. At the same time, it must be remembered that it is neither feasible nor desirable to
produce all goods in all places. Marketing problems are more frequently faced by growers and exporters mainly
due to failure in establishing market linkages rather than lack of market opportunities. The present study has
been undertaken with following specific objective:
To study the production and marketing of ginger, chilly and turmeric from Uttaranchal.
To identify the problems faced by the growers and the export potential of these spices.
4. Research Methodology
Descriptive research has been undertaken to study the present status of spices production and marketing coupled
with analysis of backward and forward linkages in spices trade and to explore the possible channels of spices
marketing and exporting that could replace the existing channels and prove to be more successful. Both primary
and secondary data was required for fulfilling the objectives of the study. Secondary data related to production
was taken from District Horticulture Office, APEDA, government departments, and data related to arrival and
prices has been taken from various mandis in Uttarakhand and Delhi. Books, journals, magazines and internet
are also used as a data source. Primary data and information is collected through personal interviews of farmers,
Traders, government officials, Hoteliers, transporters, Restaurant owners and Primary processors. Three districts
of Uttarakhand, namely Haldwani, Ramnagar and Dehradun were studied as these districts have to favorable
agro-climatic conditions for spice cultivation and are in close proximity to the markets. In addition to this,
mandis and processing units in Uattarakhand and Delhi and various government departments are also studied.
Spice growers of Haldwani district, food processors of Kumaun region, hoteliers and restaurant owners in
Haldwani and Nainital, and functionaries of Dehradun, Haldwani and Azadpur mandi constituted the universe of
the study.
Judgemental and Snowball sampling technique was applied for selecting sample form universe. The sample
size was decided based on availability and constraints.
No. of exporters surveyed : 10
No. of commission agents surveyed : 10
No. of growers surveyed : 20
Farmers = 16 Traders = 5 Government officials (DHO) = 3
Hoteliers = 14 Restaurant owners = 8 Transporters = 4 Processors = 3
Structured questionnaire was used as a research tool for conducting the interviews and interactions with spice
growers, processors, exporters, transporters and Govt. officials in Uttarakhand. Based on the Information
collected with the help of questionnaire having both open and closed ended questions by interacting with
farmers, exporters and other functionaries involved in marketing of spices in Uttarakhand. The data collected
were first tabulated then analyzed and inferences drawn and interpreted on the basis of simple statistical tools
(average, percentage, and graphical presentation).
5. Results and Discussions
Market Overview
The current estimate of world imports is 5, 25,000 tonnes valued at US $ 1,500 million, with an annual growth
rate of 4 per cent. This is against a world production of 8.5 million tonnes valued at US $ 25 billion. The
difference between world production and import is the domestic consumption of producing countries. According
to UNCTAD-International Trade Centre estimates, in terms of volume, pepper contributes 34% of total global
spices trade followed by chillies 22%, seed spices 17%, tree spices 14%, turmeric 5%, ginger 4%, cardamom
3% and vanilla 1%. As far as the product mix is concerned, the bulk of spices are exported in ‘whole’ or
‘ungrounded’ form, while only 15-20 per cent of spices are sold in ground form, as mixtures of ground spices
and as essential oils and oleoresins.
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
741
Average Prices in the International Market
Turmeric
The table 1 reflects the average situation of demand and prices in international market for varieties of turmeric
from India over the period 2004-05 in various importing markets. Indian varieties fetch a good price at U.S.A.
and Germany. The turmeric powder from India was sold to Kuwait at a good price during September. Indian
varieties are traded to Germany and Holland mainly during June - July.
Table 1 Average Demand in International Market for Turmeric
(In US Dollars per Metric Ton C&F unless otherwise Indicated)
Countries India / Madras fing India / Allepy fing India / Raja Powder
Germany
760 spt/675 june-july no quotation no quotations 790 spot/700 june-july
Holland 625-650 june-july no quotations no quotations 645-935 june-july
Japan 650 spot 1000 spot 790 shipment no quotations
U.K. 600 june-july no quotations no quotations no quotations
U.S.A. 1215 spot 1545 spot ,1500 spot
no quotations no quotations
Bahrain 660-690 shipment no quotations no quotations 550 shipment
Emirates no quotations no quotations no quotations no quotations
S. Arabia 440 shipment no quotations no quotations no quotations
Kuwait: no quotations no quotations no quotations 900 September
Source The Market News Service for Spices, The International Trade Centre
Ginger
The tables 2 and table 3 reflects the average demand of non- Indian ginger varieties by various importing
markets as compared to Indian ginger variety over the period 2004-05. The Indian variety for ginger, the India
Cochin earned a good price in the international market as compared to other marketed varieties viz., Nigeria
split, China whole 1 or China sliced. The Indian variety fetched a good price at U.S.A. and Bahrain. The U.K.
and Germany traded for the Indian variety in June-July.
Table 2 Average Demand in International Market for Ginger Varieties
(In US Dollars per Metric Ton C&F unless otherwise Indicated)
China Whole 1 China Sliced
Germany 1175 spot no quotations
Holland 1200 spot/june 950 spot/june
Hong Kong 860 FOB june no quotations
Japan 1000 shipment 1200 shipment
U.K. 900 june-july 700 june-july
U.S.A. 1080 spot 990 spot
S. Arabia 725 june no quotations
Emirates 600 free average quality, bleached
no quotations
Source The Market News Service for Spices, The International Trade Centre
Table 3 Average Demand in International Market for Ginger Varieties
(In US Dollars per Metric Ton C&F unless otherwise Indicated)
India Cochin Nigeria Split
Germany 1050 spot/850 june-july 890 spot/765 june-july
Holland 1200 spot 850 june-july
Japan 1100 spot/950 shipment no quotations
U.K. 1000 june-july 1000 spot/900 june-july
U.S.A. 1345 spot 1300 spot
Bahrain 1230 grade 1 nc/1150 free average quality, new crop
Emirates 850 unbleached/900 special, may no quotations
S. Arabia 900 unbleached, may no quotations
Source The Market News Service for Spices, The International Trade Centre
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
742
Ginger was also traded in international market as essential oil at average US$ 80 /kg MEP (table 4).
Table 4 Average Demand in International Market for Essential Oils
(US$/kg in MEP cif, unless otherwise stated)
Aniseed China 7.10 spot/6.20 shipment
Bay oil West Indies 64.00 spot
Caraway Egypt 90.00 shipment FOB
Cardamom Guatemala 275 spot/265 shipment
Cassia China 11.00 shipment
Cinnamon leaf Sri Lanka 7.55 spot/6.10 shipment
Cinnamon bark Sri Lanka 250 spot
Clove leaf Madagascar spot 6.50/6.20 shipment
Indonesia spot 6.00/shipment
Coriander Russia 20.00 spot
Cumin: Iran 71.00 spot/64.00 shipment
Egypt 71.00 spot/64.00 shipment
Garlic: Mexico 28.00 spot
China 28.00 spot/23.00 shipment
Ginger China 23.00 spot/21.00 shipment
India 80.00 shipment
Nutmeg Indonesia 39.50 spot/38.00 shipment
Grenada no quotations
Peppermint China 7.00 spot/6.20 shipment
Brazil 3.80 spot
India 6.75 spot/6.50
Pimento leaf Jamaica 58.00 spot
Spearmint China 60% 12.20 spot/11.00 shipment, 80% 14.5 shipment
Source The Market News Service for Spices, The International Trade Centre
Chillies
The India S4, India sannam, India long varieties have shown good demand in international market over the
period 2004-05. The chillies were exported as stem less, with stem, dandicuts or in powder form.
Table 5 Average Demand in International Market for Chillies
(In US Dollars per Metric Ton C&F unless otherwise Indicated)
France India S4 stem less 1000, with stem 950, powder 850,
Malawi bird's eye 3500, all june, Zimbabwe bird’s eye no quotations
Germany India S4 stem less 1175 june, powder 925 june
Holland India S4 stem less 850 june-july, with stem 750 june-july, powder depending on
quality:500-1000 june-july, dundicuts no quotations
Malawi bird's eye no quotations
Zimbabwe bird's eye no quotations
Japan China tien. S. 2000
India sannam 1000 shipment
U.K. India S4 stem less 1000, with stem 900, powder 950
Malawi bird's eye 3800; all may-june,
Zimbabwe bird's eye no quotations
U.S.A. India S4 stem less 1255 spot/1325 october
South Africa/fukien 3970 spot
Chinese sml 1655 spot
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
743
Bahrain India long with stem 815, dundicut 1210, powder 1020-1240 all june
Kuwait Pakistan whole 1500
India powder 1000 june
Emirates India long with stem 840 june, dundicut, long stem less, powder no quotations
Pakistan dundicut 1450 june
S. Arabia India long with stem 1150, dundicut stem less 1200 june
Source: The market news service for spices, The International Trade Centre
The India S4 variety has good demand in international market both with and without stem and in powder
form. Malawi bird’s eye and Zimbabwe bird’s eye poses good competition to Indian varieties. India S4 variety
fetched a price of US$ 1175 at Germany during June ‘2004 (table 5). Powered form of chillies earned good
price in Kuwait.
India’s Position in Spice Production and Exports
India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices, with a 46 per cent share by volume and 23 per
cent share by value, in the world market. The Indian spice export basket consists of around 50 spices in whole
form and more than 80 products in value added form. However, a few spices and value added forms constitute a
major segment of the country’s total export earnings. India accounts for 25-30 per cent of world’s pepper
production, 35 per cent of ginger and about 90 per cent of turmeric production. Among the Indian Federal states,
Kerala tops in pepper (96 per cent), Cardamom (53 per cent), Ginger (25 per cent) production in the country.
Andhra Pradesh leads in Chilly and Turmeric production in the country with 49 per cent and 57 per cent. In
coriander, cumin and fenugreek production in the country, Rajasthan emerges as the largest producer with 63
per cent, 56 per cent and 87 per cent of domestic production. Within the duration of 1997-98 to 2001-02, India's
spice exports increased marginally by 1.20 per cent in terms of volume but export earnings in rupee terms
registered an impressive 45.72 per cent growth reflecting marked value addition. In US $, the growth in earnings
was 13.40 percent (table 6).
Table 6 India's Exports of Spices (1997-98 to 2000-01) (Rs in Crores)
Item 1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
Pepper 496.35 634.91 884.88 326.33
Cardamom (Small) 12.66 25.25 32.01 56.55
Cardamom (Large) 12.64 12.69 16.96 27.69
Chilly 15.89 25.28 250.65 195.23
Ginger 72.62 40.58 30.60 22.95
Turmeric 83.06 122.91 121.68 91.06
Coriander 64.34 45.47 34.96 27.42
Cumin 81.35 59.80 34.28 91.06
Celery 7.99 95.72 10.59 17.00
Fennel 35.81 15.41 14.41 17.78
Fenugreek 9.87 19.20 20.95 17.88
Other seed (1) 9.34 8.22 10.26 8.96
Garlic 7.97 5.97 13.26 10.40
Other Spices (2) 55.66 76.34 88.50 144.90
Curry Powder 29.72 35.97 34.60 39.97
Mint Oil 96.93 12.37 103.10 126.45
Spice Oil and Oleoresins
23.15 300.86 323.30 364.05
Grand Total 1115.35
1426.95
2025.08 1612.07
Value in US$ million 394.45 428.77 468.12 352.13
Source www.indiaonestop.com
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
744
However, the fortunes of individual items vary from year to year because of the changing global supply and
demand position and other external factors. As obvious from table 6 India's export of chilly increased from Rs.
15.89 crores to Rs. 195.23 crores, within the duration of 1997-98 to 2001-02 though the volume of export grew
by only around 20% (table 7). The export of turmeric fluctuated within the period. The ginger exported from
India gradually decreased from 28,268 tonnes in 1997-98 to 6,580 in 2000-01 (table 7).
Table 7 Volume wise India’s Export of Spices (1997-98 to 2000-01) (In Tonnes)
Spices 1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
35,907
35,121
42,806
19,250
Cardamom (Small)
370
476
646
1,100
Cardamom (Large)
1,648
1,288
1,211
1,645
Chilly
51,779
68,019
64,776
61,000
Ginger
28,268
8,683
8,773
6,580
Turmeric
28,875
37,298
35,556
34,500
Coriander
23,734 21,044 13,973 11,700
Cumin
16,281
10,595
6,145
13,800
Celery
3,317
4,038
3,497
5,250
Fennel
12,368
5,296
2,953
4,000
Fenugreek
6,006
10,221
10,901
9,050
Other seeds (1)
4,056
2,178
2,349
2,425
Garlic
3,975
3,978
8,542
11,000
Other Spices (2)
14,918
20,384
22,012
35,000
Curry Powder
5,132
5,213
5,814
6,200
Mint Oil
3,018
4,279
2,820
3,875
Spice Oil & Oleoresins
2,419
2,752
3,368
3,625
Grand Total
242,071
240,863
236,142
230,000
Source www.indiaonestop.com
In 2001-02, India's export of chillies was around Rs. 252 crores which rose to an estimated Rs. 355 crores in
2003-04. Within the duration 2001-02 to 2003-04, India's export of turmeric decreased by 8.68 per cent in terms
of volume but export earnings in rupee terms registered a growth rate of 41 per cent. This reflects a marked
value addition (table 8). Similarly value addition is reflected by the enhanced export earnings for ginger by 1.26
percent in terms of rupee even though the export volume decreased within 2001-02 to 2003-04 (table 8).
Table 8 Item-wise Export of Spices from India
2001
-
02
2002
-
03
2003
-
04 (E)
Spices
Qty
Value
Qty
Value
Qty
Value
(MT)
(
Rs.
Lakhs)
(Mln
US $)
(MT)
(
Rs.
Lakhs)
(Mln
US $)
(MT)
(Rs.
Lakhs)
(Mln
US
$)
22877.36 20368.79 42.81 21608.58 17887.98 36.99 16700.00
14350.50
31.27
Cardamom (Small)
1030.91
6167.80
12.96
681.83
4707.42
9.73
690.00
3301.00
7.19
Cardamom (Large)
1576.84
2391.66
5.03
1449.53
2057.08
4.25
800.00
1107.00
2.41
Chillies
69997.50
25244.02
53.06
81021.50
31514.68
65.16
81500.00
35511.25
77.39
Ginger
6464.20
2311.47
4.86
8461.43
2396.59
4.96
5000.00
2340.50
5.10
Turmeric
37777.58
9073.71
19.07
32402.30
10337.99
21.37
34500.00
12751.88
27.79
Coriander
15924.80
4833.87
10.16
18064.95
5564.64
11.51
21000.00
7103.75
15.48
Cumin
17247.70
14818.03
31.14
10422.07
9326.33
19.28
6700.00
4983.75
10.86
Celery
4251.01
1236.59
2.60
3959.95
1225.43
2.53
4400.00
1389.00
3.03
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
745
Fennel
4374.41
1695.82
3.56
4159.63
1783.75
3.69
5200.00
2143.00
4.67
Fenugreek
6582.11
1617.14
3.40
13192.82
2551.06
5.27
7500.00
1660.75
3.62
Other Seed Spices (1)
9978.51
2790.79
5.87
14919.85
3617.36
7.48
10000.00
2324.75
5.07
Garlic
1105.59
409.78
0.85
1538.77
698.68
1.44
3500.00
1321.13
2.88
Nutmeg & Mace
1346.05
1990.19
4.18
1380.56
2847.36
5.89
1450.00
2731.53
5.95
Vanilla
27.30
1750.61
3.68
25.17
2225.72
4.60
26.32
3606.35
7.86
Other Miscellaneous
Spices (2) 20529.48 6516.57 13.70 23897.69 7383.12 15.27 24000.00
7663.00 16.70
Curry Powder
/ Mixture 6305.41 5052.61 10.62 8491.90 6893.67 14.25 7600.00 6508.13 14.18
Mint Products (3)
11295.45
48474.34
101.88
13589.16
56557.94
116.94
11250.00
42505.00
92.63
Spice Oils &
Oleoresins 4510.42 37311.10 78.42 4838.81 39094.23 80.83 4750.00 37206.25
81.08
Total
243202.63
194054.88
407.85
264106.50
208671.02
431.45
246566.32
190508.50
415.15
Source www.indianspices.com
Note (1) include mustard, aniseed, bishops weed (ajwanseed), dill seed, poppy seed etc. (2) include tamarind, asafoetida,
cambodge, cassia, saffron spices (nes) etc. (3) include mint oils, menthol & menthol crystal
Spices in Uttaranchal
A significant portion of Uttaranchal is under forest cover (almost 65%). There is, thus, excellent potential for the
development of forest resources based Industries in the State, while taking due care to maintain the ecological
balance and compliance with laws relating to forest conservation and environmental protection. In addition,
there is ample scope to develop industries based on forest and agro-wastes such as lantana, pine-needles, plant
and vegetative fibers such as Rambans, etc. Uttaranchal has been included in difficult area category by the
Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MFPI), Government of India and hence units being set up in Uttaranchal
will be eligible for higher incentives under the schemes of MFPI. The State Government is also providing
matching subsidy for projects under various schemes of Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export
Development Authority (APEDA), National Horticulture Board (NHB), Ministry of Food Processing Industry
(MFPI) and the Natural Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB) subject to a maximum limit of Rs. 20 lakhs. The
agronomic and topographic conditions available in Uttaranchal make it a good resource for valuable spices viz.,
ginger, chillies and turmeric. The spices are grown at in the small land holding of the hilly state since many
decades for their therapeutic reasons. With time the dependence on cultivation of spices like turmeric, chillies
and ginger proved a viable source of income for the growers. The fragmented and distantly located field and the
topography and distance from cities though posses great hurdles in arranging for an effective marketing
arrangement. The major mandies for turmeric, chilly and ginger are Haldwani, Ramnagar and Dehradun. The
volume of green chillies traded in year 2003-04 was 5,585 quintals, 664 quintals and 11,332 quintals
respectively from Haldwani, Ramnagar and Dehradun mandies. The dry chillies traded from Haldwani,
Ramnagar and Dehradun mandies was 51 quintals, 1711 quintals and 522 quintals respectively in volume terms
(table 4.9, table 4.10 and table 4.11). Ramnagar is considered as an important mandi for chillies especially the
dry lakhari variety. The green and dry chillies were traded at Haldwani mandi at an average rate of Rs. 521 per
quintal and Rs. 2610 per quintal respectively during the period July ’2004 till January ’2005 (table 9).
Table 9 Volume and Average Rates of Ginger, Chilly and Turmeric Traded in Haldwani Mandi
Duration 2003-2004 July 2004- 31st Jan 2005
Commodity
Quantity
(Quintal)
Rates
Rs / Qtl Out of State Trade (Qtl)
Quantity
(Quintal)
Rates
Rs / Qtl
Out of
State
Trade (Qtl)
Ginger 2616 not available 50% 1517 1426 50%
Chilly Green 5585 not available negligible 4223 521 negligible
Chilly Dry 51 not available negligible 25 2610 negligible
Turmeric 34 not available negligible 4 not available negligible
Source Primary Data Collected from Commission Agents of Haldwani Mandi and Mandi Office Records
The rates at Ramnagar mandi was Rs.700-1400 per quintal for green chillies and Rs. 1500-4500 per quintal for
dry chillies during the period July ’2004 till March’2005 (table 10).
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
746
Table 10 Volume and Average Rates of Ginger, Chilly and Turmeric Traded in Ramnagar Mandi
Duration 2003-2004 July 2004- March 2005
Commodity
Quantity
(Quintal)
Rates
Rs / Qtl
Out of
State
Trade (Qtl)
Quantity
(Quintal)
Rates
Rs / Qtl
Out of
State
Trade (Qtl)
Ginger 6969 1200-1500 negligible 4724 2100-4200 negligible
Chilly Green 664 600-1100 negligible 710 700-1400 negligible
Chilly Dry 1711 1700-3600 negligible 972 1500-4500 negligible
Turmeric 276 1100-2800 negligible 292 1800-2000 negligible
Source Primary Data Collected from Commission Agents of Ramnagar Mandi and Mandi Office Records
Table 11 Volume and Average Rates of Ginger, Chilly and Turmeric Traded in Dehradun Mandi
Duration 2003-2004
Commodity Quantity in
Quintal Rates Rs / Qtl Out of State
Trade (Qtl)
Ginger 18726 1602 50%
Chilly Green 11332 438 negligible
Chilly Dry 522 4200 negligible
Turmeric 535 2514 negligible
Source Primary Data Collected from Commission Agents of Dehradun Mandi and Mandi Office Records
Turmeric traded in year 2003-04 from Haldwani, Ramnagar and Dehradun mandies was 34 quintals, 276
quintals and 535 quintals respectively in terms of volume (table 4.9, table 10 and table 11). No out of state trade
is reported at mandi offices for turmeric. The ginger was traded at an average rate of Rs.1426 per quintal at
Haldwani mandi during the period July ’2004 till January ’2005 (table 9). The rates at Ramnagar mandi was
Rs.2100-4200 per quintal during the period July ’2004 till March’2005(table 10). The volume of ginger traded
in year 2003-04 was 2,616 quintals, 6,969 quintals and 18,726 quintals respectively from Haldwani, Ramnagar
and Dehradun mandies. Out of this 50% of the traded volume is traded outside Uttaranchal at Haldwani and
Dehradun mandi. Only the volume traded to Delhi is usually exported to some extent. Thus, the volume of the
spices exported from Uttaranchal could not be estimated correctly.
Problems Identified
General Problems
Low Productivity
Low productivity in the Spice sector is one of the serious problems facing the Indian Spice
industry. Result is low competitiveness in the international markets.
Poor Product Quality
Poor product quality at farm level is another problem hindering reasonable price realization by
the producer. Insufficient infra-structure facilities for cleaning, scientific methods of
processing, storage and packing
Insufficiency of Legal Provisions
Our present legal provisions relating to many elements that constitute SPS measures are
insufficient. India does not have a National Standard covering all the requirements of the
agreement under SPS measures. The regulations under AGMARK are only optional and not
mandatory and are not even comprehensive. Similarly, the provisions existing under the PFA
are also not comprehensive and provide loopholes for import of cheap spices from other
countries of origin. Under both the legislations, there is absolutely no reference to pesticide
residues. Out of the 164 molecules registered in the country, 26 are produced under ‘deemed
registration regime’ and the situation has continued over years. This system of registration
would certainly have an adverse impact on the spices export from the country in the long run.
The major non-tariff trade barrier that seriously affects Indian export of spices is the presence
of pesticide residues, expressed as Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). USFDA has prescribed
MRLs for several spices.
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
747
Some Indigenous Varieties are disappearing
The rapid disappearance of some indigenous varieties of spices due to mixing of planting
material results in loss of genetic purity. Examples are varieties contributing to the production
of Cochin ginger (viz. Kuruppampady, Ellackal), Alleppey finger turmeric (viz. Elanji), and
Byadagi chilli, etc.
Poor Post-harvest Handling
Post-harvest operations involve drying, curing and primary packing. This reduces problems of
contamination. Scientific post-harvest handling has yet to come to the agricultural operations
in Uttaranchal. Our natural comparative advantages in production are being whittled away due
to the poor quality of the produce.
Insufficient Mechanization of Spice Production and Processing
Lack of desired level of value-addition at the primary processing level results in lesser returns
to the farmers and farm laborers.
Competition
India is facing stiff competition from other producing countries that supply spices in whole
form. Most of these countries have no domestic market for the spices they are producing,
forcing them to sell their produce even at cost price (examples cardamom from Guatemala,
pepper from Vietnam, cloves from Indonesia).
Rejection of Export Materials
Farmers of spices like cardamom, chilly and ginger are heavily dependent on chemicals for
pest and disease control and fertilizers. Indiscriminate use of chemicals results in pesticide
residues beyond tolerable limits, leading to rejection of many consignments of spices from
India. Trade restrictions on contaminated food or feeds have the greatest effect on countries
like India, which currently have limited, or no available means of monitoring aflatoxin levels.
The toxins are particularly carcinogenic in humans and eating contaminated food often results
in liver cancer, amongst other diseases. Aflatoxins also act an immuno-suppressant so that
affected individuals become susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Besides endangering
human health, aflatoxin contamination seriously affects the export potential of high-value
commodity crops, such as edible nuts and spices like turmeric and chillies, which could
provide an important source of income for farmers.
Agricultural Extension is not Market-oriented
Extension is not focused on the needs of the market, especially the export market. The
available market information service is limited to a few areas and to a few sections and often
fails to recognize indigenous methods and factors to get a competitive edge in export of
spices.
Problems of the Growers of Uttaranchal
Inadequate Price for Producers
This is a recurring complaint of the Indian spice farmer. The price situation is directly linked
to the supply position of each year. There are crops like chilly, where huge stocks are
maintained in cold storages. The price which ruled the previous year often influences farmers
to go in for large scale cultivation, irrespective of stocks available and neglecting the
possibility of alternate crops. This results in severe price crash. This situation repeats itself and
the vicious cycle continues. Added to this is the pressure of imports. India, on an average
(1998-99 to 2000-2001) imports 59,000 tonnes of spices, valued at Rs 280 crores per annum.
Though imported stocks are mainly for value addition and export, a part is meant for stock and
sale in the domestic market. Imports do, to a certain extent, suppress the domestic price,
affecting the prospects of Indian spice farmers. The alternative is to improve production of the
items that are imported and make them available at international prices. This is possible with
production support programmes.
Pest and Disease Problems and Dependence on Nature
These are factors reducing the acquired comparative advantage. This is one of the major
reasons for the erratic production of individual spices, earning the country the label of
‘inconsistent supplier of spices’.
Poor availability of Inputs
This is restrictive factor especially planting material. Also there exist a non-availability of
suitable fertilizers and plant protection chemicals, suitable irrigation, facilities for on-farm
processing and storage, and adequate credit.
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
748
Crop Insurance is Absent
Unprecedented natural calamities often push these small and marginal growers into a crisis
situation. Small landholdings and less technical know-how add to the problem.
Problems of the Exporters
Inadequate Surplus for Exports
Of the 31.50 lakhs tonnes of spices produced annually, (excluding mustard), India could
hardly export 7.5–8 per cent. There have been severe shortages of exportable varieties of
spices in certain years. The major reason is burgeoning domestic demand. Demand for spices
from the upwardly mobile middle-class is on the increase. Changing eating habits and the
population explosion are also factors. This huge domestic demand leaves behind little surplus
for export and so exports are happening by accident rather than design.
Insufficient Quantities of Quality Spices
The major causes of inferior quality in spices are:
Lack of awareness among farmers of the latest technologies in production and post-
harvest operations.
Facilities at the grading and packing centers are also rudimentary and the merchants
in this sector do not possess modern equipment for cleaning and grading or for
storage of spices.
Proper drying of spices within 8-12 per cent of moisture is not done after harvesting,
resulting in microbial contamination.
Drying of spices on non-hygienic surfaces creating further contamination from
microbes such as fungi, germs and bacteria including harmful ones like Salmonella,
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens, yeast and
mould, E-coli, Coliform.
Lack of real time knowledge of area sown, especially with annual crops.
6. Conclusions
Spices of India are being attracted by the consumer's, both in the domestic as well as in the international market.
Several kinds of spices are grown in India since time immemorial, it is because of this he country is known to
the world as "The Home of Spices". India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of the spices in the
world. The demand for spices and its products are ever increasing both in the internal and external markets.
India has a worldwide reputation as the only country which produces almost all kinds of spices and it is through
these spices exports the country earns the much needed foreign exchange over a long period of time., Despite
the tremendous importance of spices, it is rather unfortunate that the sector has not achieved the required level
development because of the problems in the marketing, supply chain, exports, pre and post-harvesting activities.
Most spice farmers are poor small scale farmers who produce spices as a cash crop next to commodities such as
maize and bananas. For farmers to feel committed to spice production they foremost need a guaranteed and
competitive price for their produce, enabling them to support their families. If this is not the case they might be
inclined to side sell produce to other buyers or even shift to the production of higher value crops, such as cocoa
or coffee. Also exporters overseas are struggling. On the one hand they have to deal with hundreds of small
scale farmers (usually through intermediate traders) who want a good price for their produce. On the other hand,
exporters need to deliver products that comply with quality requirements and increasingly with social and
environmental standards of volatile markets. This requires costly quality management systems and training of
farmers.
Producing spices for high quality markets such as in Europe, UAE and the US creates opportunities (price
margins are usually higher) as well as constraints (higher requirements on quality). Producers and exporters
need assistance to overcome these constraints. The pressures of globalization and liberalization are creating
exclusive supply chains between preferred business partners. Smallholder agriculture is poorly prepared for
these changes. A targeted effort is needed to include poorer households in value chains: organizational
development, technical upgrading, management skills and access to financing are all required.
7. References
1. www.vigyanprasar.com
2. www.indianspices.com
3. www.etagriculture.com/nov_dec2002/cover.html
4. www.p-maps.org/mns/example_reports/sw2302
5. www.indiaonestop.com/markets/spices/spices.htm
6. www.itdg.org/docs/technical_information_service/turmeric.pdf
7. www.primaryinfo.com/turmeric.htm
International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011
749
8. http://finance.indiamart.com/markets/commodity/turmeric.html
9. http://www.wholehealthmd.com/refshelf/foods_view.html
10. www.indiancommodity.com/spices/spchilli.htm
11. R. K. Bhardwaj, N. K. Singh, Saurabh Singh and Ashutosh Singh. (2009).Greening the supply chain
for marine food products: Emerging issues and Policies. Souvenir & Abstracts. National Symposium
on “Organic livestock farming-Global issues, Trends & Challenges.”W.B.University of Animal &
Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, Feb.26-28.p-38.
12. R. K. Bhardwaj, M. Patel, R. Arya and S. K. Singh. (2008). Integrated farming-practices and potentials
for food safety. Proceedings of International Symposium on “Food Safety, Quality Assurance and
Global Trade: Concerns and Strategies” College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B.P.U.A & T,
Pantnagar. (INDIA) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. (USA), Nov .7-9,
p.169.
... Due to the relative importance of the spices produced by the minor export crops for food and medical industries, QMC has been recognized as an important capability. In fact, Bhardwaj et al. (2011) highlight that poor product quality management is one of the severe issues that generates low competitiveness in Indian spices. Hence, the following hypothesis ensues: ...
... Hence, this explains the identification of government as one of the key elements in enhancing the competitiveness of small firms (Ismail et al., 2010). This study has also confirmed the literature on the importance of QMC and MC as the more important capabilities in the agribusiness sector to improve the competitiveness of the minor export crop farms as evident from the R 2 values obtained (Benedetto and Song, 2003;Bhardwaj et al., 2011;Forsman, 2000;Simpson et al., 2004). Overall, the findings suggest that the government can support the minor export crop farm owners to gain CAd in terms of price, delivery dependability, exploiting market opportunities and time to market. ...
... On top of the agenda is the importance of creating awareness amongst the farm owners on the importance enhancing their competitive position by developing their QMC and MC through engaging in the various government programmes developed for them (Ismail et al., 2010;Kumar and Rai, 2007). Such a policy intervention ought to be viewed as critical as it could equalize the perceived CAd between new and more established farms (Bhardwaj et al., 2011). Without an active participation, the farm owners will continue with their century-old practices in which any transformation initiative will not bear fruits. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resource-based view (RBV) is based on the economic rent concept which explains sources of competitive advantage (CAd) at firm level. The RBV lacks a causality chain between resources and CAd which calls for further examination along with dynamic capabilities possessed by firms. This study aims to determine the relationship between institutional capital (IC), dynamic capabilities and CAd of agribusiness firms, more specifically the minor export crop farms, at the same time contending that the relationship between IC and CAd is mediated by the specific capabilities. The scope of the study comprises entities which have experience in commercial cultivation of minor export crops. 456 farm owners were selected from the highest growing districts of the selected crops (cinnamon, clove and pepper) using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Self-administrated structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The regression-based path analysis was used to measure the direct and mediation relationship amongst the latent variables. The results of the study suggest that IC has a significant influence on both the quality management capability and marketing capability. This connection contributes valuable insights to the empirical support on the importance of specific capabilities on sustainable CAd. Managerial implications are highlighted along with future research directions.
... Gorton [44] insist that a product quality management strategy will be more successful where customers are willing to pay a premier for high quality. With regards to agribusiness, [45] highlight that poor product quality management is one of the severe issues that generates low competitiveness of Indian spices. ...
... Obtaining knowledge of customers, competitors, and pricing strategies plays important transformation role in order to enhance competitive advantage through getting better returns from farms' resources. The findings also corroborate prior works on quality performance and competitive advantage of the firm [45,13,55,65,66,43]. Specifically, [44] insist that a product quality management capability will be more successful where customers are willing to pay a premier for high quality which indicates the price competitive advantage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resource based view (RBV) consists of a rich body of related theoretical tools to analyse sources of competitive advantage at firm level and it is based on the economic rent concept which explains that a firm as a collection of unique resources and capabilities. Although the RBV theorises the relationship between resources and competitive advantage, it is still questionable that the RBV lacks a causality chain between resources and competitive advantage. This study questions the direct relationship between a firm’s specific resources and competitive advantage contending that this relationship is mediated through firm’s specific capabilities Study. An empirical investigation was conducted with sample consisted of farmers engaged in the commercial cultivation of minor export crops in Sri Lanka. Structural equation modelling analysis was employed to test the indirect relationships. The results exemplify that the hypothesized indirect effect of capabilities on competitive advantage and different capabilities have a different effect on competitive advantage. Managerial implications are highlighted with the interesting further research areas.
... Looking at the analysis, a better understanding of the status and extent of competitive advantage of agricultural products, particularly minor export crops which are growing in importance, will provide the necessary economic framework to Sri Lanka to compete at domestic and global markets. This is amplified by the importance of minor export crops as agricultural commodities used in the production of spices Bhawaraj et al. [50]. Spices are always in demand by the industrialised world. ...
... Further, the project concerned only with cinnamon competitiveness and there is no proper programme carried out to enhance the competitiveness of other minor crops. [50] emphasize that increasing productivity, ensuring legal provisions, introducing scientific post-harvest handling, setting adequate prices and providing crop insurance have become the targeted efforts to enhance performance of spice producers in India. ...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of agricultural export crops in Sri Lanka has changed over the last decade. The export shares of large scale traditional plantation crops like tea and rubber have declined, instead the contributions of small scale non-traditional minor export crops such as cinnamon, pepper, and clove have increased. A better understanding of competitive advantage of minor export crops provides the necessary framework to enhance their competitiveness in domestic and global markets. This study aims to describe the competitive structure and dynamics of minor export crops sector in Sri Lanka. In order to compare the performance of export growth with similar countries, the Revealed Competitive Advantage index and global market share analysis are computed using data extracted from the International Trade Centre. The findings reveal that global market share and the RCA value of cinnamon, clove, and pepper in Sri Lanka has gradually declined. The minor export crops occupy an important position in global market only if competitive advantage of such crops in Sri Lanka is enhanced. One important implication arising from this study is the need to identify factors associated with competitive advantage of minor export crops. This study has provided the impetus for future studies to determine the factors and measures of competitive advantage not only for the minor export crops but also for the agricultural sector in general.
... In 2015-16, Indian cumin exported to European Union was rejected due to presence of insecticides and fungicides residues above the prescribed EU-MRLs (EU Pesticides database, RASFF Portal, 2019; https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=searchRe sultList). This indicates that pesticide residues have become a serious issue in export of spices, cumin in particular, from India and became a trade barrier (Bhardwaj et al., 2011). Hence, to fulfill this regulatory requirements, it is important to have a validated matrix specific multiresidue method for screening and quantitation of large number of pesticide residues in cumin and coriander. ...
Article
The manuscript reports comprehensive multi-residue determination of 215 pesticides in two commercially important Indian spices, Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) by GC-MS/MS analysis. The proposed method involved liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, d-SPE clean-up and final reconstitution of extract in ethyl acetate. d-SPE clean-up with PSA and C18 minimized the matrix effects by 40 and 16%, respectively. Reconstitution of final extract reduced the non-volatile matrix co-extractives by 36-40%. The method was validated as per SANTE/12682/2019 and recoveries at 10, 25 and 50 μg kg⁻¹ were within 70-120% with RSD ≤ 20%. A fit for purpose method LOQ of 10 μgkg⁻¹ was achieved for 85% of analytes. The method was successfully applied for comprehensive screening of cumin and coriander market samples. The calculated TMDI for acute and chronic exposure assessment were less than calculated MPI in respective matrices and therefore did not cause any adverse effect to consumers.
... Low productivity in the spice sector is one of the serious problems facing the Indian spice industry, resulting in low competitiveness in the international markets. The rapid disappearance of some indigenous varieties of spices due to mixing of planting material results in loss of genetic purity; examples are varieties contributing to the production of Cochin ginger (namely Kuruppampady, Ellackal), Alleppey finger turmeric (namely Elanji), and Byadagichilli [65]. Major challenges facing seed spices production in India are low productivity, lack of high-yielding varieties. ...
Chapter
India is historically known as the “The home of spices,” and spices, particularly Black pepper, played an important role in reshaping the Indian history. The spice trade reshuffled the powers among colonial European nations. India is one of the mega diversity nations, with The Western Ghats and The Himalayas as the major biodiversity centers. India is also culturally rich with innumerable tribal communities across the subcontinent, whose lifestyle is intertwined with local biodiversity and rich ethnobotanic knowledge. India is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices and condiments with historic track record. India, with diverse agroclimatic regions, and with varied topography and biogeography, offers tropical, subtropical, and temperate conditions to cultivate almost all spice species. In this article, we summarized and critically analyzed the diversity of spices and condiments with a focus on its ethnobotanical value, cultivation, conservation of wild relatives, and the demand in domestic market and for export. We shortly discussed the important chemical constituents responsible for the spices value and the R&D institutions involved in spices research. Additionally, we also discussed the cultivation method of caper bud – a new cultivable spice in India.
... resort to 15-20 sprays of highly toxic organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids resulting in a heavy load of residues in the cardamom capsules (Shetty et al. 2008). Pesticide residues in spices, being a global concern, have affected the exports heavily in the past few years (Bhardwaj et al. 2011). The rampant and indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides has resulted in the development of resistance in crop pests besides the hazard of pesticide residues on the capsules, which demands the use of newer and safer pesticides with low dose requirement and different modes of action. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dissipation behaviour of the chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid (Tatamida 17.8 % SL), in fresh and cured cardamom capsules was studied following application at doses 20 and 40 g a.i. ha−1 in a cardamom plantation of Indian Cardamom Hills (ICH), Idukki, Kerala, India. A single-laboratory ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the estimation of imidacloprid and its six metabolites (5-hydroxy, olefin, guanidine, urea, 6-chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine) in fresh and cured cardamom. At the lower dose, the initial deposits of total imidacloprid residues were 1.91 and 7.23 μg g−1, respectively, in fresh and cured cardamom. At the higher dose, the initial residues were 3.94 and 14.72 μg g−1, respectively, in fresh and cured capsules. The residues dissipated below the quantitation level of 0.01 μg g−1 after 21 and 28 days at lower dose and after 28 days for both at higher dose. The half-lives of imidacloprid in fresh and cured cardamom were 4.02 and 3.63 days, respectively, at lower dose and 3.61 days for both at higher dose. The waiting periods of imidacloprid on fresh and cured cardamom at lower and higher doses were 21.40, 27.10, 23.85 and 30.70 days, respectively. The mean processing factor of imidacloprid was 3.96 at 20 g a.i. ha−1. Amongst metabolites of imidacloprid, urea had maximum residues in fresh and cured cardamom followed by 5-hydroxy and guanidine. Other metabolites such as 6-chloronicotinic acid, olefin and nitrosimine were not detected either in fresh or cured cardamom.
Chapter
Since times immemorial, spices play an imperative part in the lifestyle of local inhabitants throughout the world. Spices have provided frequent role all the way through history, including as coloring and flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and medicine. Spices are also familiar for ample range of therapeutic potentials, like antiseptics, antibiotics, anti-oxygenic utilized by human race throughout the world. Many spices, such as Cardamom, Pepper, Turmeric, Clove, Coriander, Mustard, Ginger, Onion, Garlic, etc. are used in daily food preparations. All of these daily used spices have medicinal properties, such as purgative, laxative, expectorant, carminative, diuretic, etc. However, since last few decades, modern agricultural practices have resulted in decline in production of large varieties of spice crops. Apart from underutilization, few spice crops have been overexploited without employing any conservation strategies. Various environmental factors like local cultivation practices and genetic erosion have threatened diversity of spice crops. In this chapter, we first describe the importance of spice crops and the backdrops of underutilizations. We then explore the utility of biotechnological tools for improving production and cultivation of spice crops.
Article
Higher matrix interference makes the multi-residue pesticide analysis in spices more challenging. A simple, sensitive, and robust large-scale multi-residue method was developed for the rapid analysis of 243 pesticides in cardamom matrix by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Prehydration of cardamom in 1:4 sample:water for 30 min improved the homogeneity and extractability. QuEChERS extraction followed by cleanup with 25 mg primary secondary amine, 100 mg C18, and 10 mg graphitized carbon black to 1 ml supernatant was used for sample preparation. Reconstitution of final extract in ethyl acetate reduced matrix co-extract up to 60%. The method was validated according to the SANTE/11,945/2015 guidelines. The limit of quantification was ≤0.01 mg kg(-1), and the recovery was within 70.0-120.0%, with ≤20% RSD for the majority of pesticides. The method was used for screening market samples, and the detected residues were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.
Article
Full-text available
The dissipation behaviour of a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid in fresh and cured cardamom capsules following application at 10 and 20 g a. i. ha−1 in the cardamom plantation of Indian Cardamom Hills (ICH), Idukki, Kerala, India, is reported. A UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of residue in cardamom was developed and validated. The recovery experiments at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg g−1 revealed average recoveries of 94.9 to 98.1 and 88.4 to 90.10% for fresh and cured cardamom, respectively. The LOD and LOQ in both fresh and cured cardamom were found to be 0.005 and 0.01 μg g−1, respectively. At lower dose, the initial deposits on fresh and cured cardamom were 0.70 ± 0.05 and 1.73± 0.08 μg g−1 respectively. At double the dose of application, the corresponding deposits were 1.62 ± 0.09 and 3.52± 0.18 μg g−1 respectively. The residues dissipated below quantitation level of 0.01 μg g−1 after 14 and 21 days (lower dose) and 21 and 28 days (higher dose), respectively. The half life of acetamiprid on fresh and cured cardamom was 3.79 and 3.85 days at single dose and 3.39 and 3.59 days at double the dose, respectively. The waiting periods on fresh and dry cardamom at lower and higher doses were 11.65 and 17.35 days, and 14.86 and 20.40 days, respectively. The mean processing factor evaluated at lower dose was 2.77.
Greening the supply chain for marine food products: Emerging issues and Policies. Souvenir & Abstracts. National Symposium on “Organic livestock farming-Global issues
  • R K Bhardwaj
  • N K Singh
  • Saurabh Singh
  • Ashutosh Singh
R. K. Bhardwaj, N. K. Singh, Saurabh Singh and Ashutosh Singh. (2009).Greening the supply chain for marine food products: Emerging issues and Policies. Souvenir & Abstracts. National Symposium on “Organic livestock farming-Global issues, Trends & Challenges.”W.B.University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, Feb.26-28.p-38.
Integrated farming-practices and potentials for food safety
  • R K Bhardwaj
  • M Patel
  • R Arya
  • S K Singh
R. K. Bhardwaj, M. Patel, R. Arya and S. K. Singh. (2008). Integrated farming-practices and potentials for food safety. Proceedings of International Symposium on "Food Safety, Quality Assurance and Global Trade: Concerns and Strategies" College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B.P.U.A & T, Pantnagar. (INDIA) and College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. (USA), Nov.7-9, p.169.
Greening the supply chain for marine food products: Emerging issues and Policies. Souvenir & Abstracts. National Symposium on "Organic livestock farming-Global issues, Trends & Challenges
References 1. www.vigyanprasar.com 2. www.indianspices.com 3. www.etagriculture.com/nov_dec2002/cover.html 4. www.p-maps.org/mns/example_reports/sw2302 5. www.indiaonestop.com/markets/spices/spices.htm 6. www.itdg.org/docs/technical_information_service/turmeric.pdf 7. www.primaryinfo.com/turmeric.htm 8. http://finance.indiamart.com/markets/commodity/turmeric.html 9. http://www.wholehealthmd.com/refshelf/foods_view.html 10. www.indiancommodity.com/spices/spchilli.htm 11. R. K. Bhardwaj, N. K. Singh, Saurabh Singh and Ashutosh Singh. (2009).Greening the supply chain for marine food products: Emerging issues and Policies. Souvenir & Abstracts. National Symposium on "Organic livestock farming-Global issues, Trends & Challenges."W.B.University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, Feb.26-28.p-38.