ArticlePDF Available

How students learn in a service learning course: A quasi-experimental field study of generative learning

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Sessa and London’s (2005, 2006) continuous learning model was used to generate hy- potheses suggesting that service-learning courses trigger student engagement in gen- erative learning processes moderated by the students’ prior experience and that en- gagement in generative learning behaviors impact learning outcomes. 127 students in eight courses participated in a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design with a pre-test and two post-tests. Results partially support hypotheses. Implications for theory development, future research, and service learning pedagogy are discussed.
Content may be subject to copyright.
!"#$%&'(#!%"
()**+,+-. /01. 2034+5-363+-. /5)201. 67+. 8)5*1.
7/4+. 39:*+9+06+1. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+-.
6). 39:5)4+. -621+06. *+/5030,. /6. 67+. /;/1+93;=.
:+5-)0/*=. /01. ;343;. *+4+*->. $+-+/5;7. -2::)5630,.
67+. 39:/;6. )?. -+543;+. *+/5030,. )0. *+/5030,.
)26;)9+-.3-.@25,+)030,>.A)8+4+5=.1+-:36+.+/5*B.
*30C-.6).*+/5030,.67+)5B=.*366*+.5+-+/5;7.7/-. @++0.
1)0+.6).1+6+5930+. 7)8.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-.
*+/1.6).*+/5030,.)26;)9+->.
D+543;+. *+/5030,. 3-. /. :+1/,),3;/*. 6))*. 67/6.
;)9@30+-./;/1+93;.;2553;2*29.8367.9+/030,?2*.
-+543;+. 30. 67+. ;)992036B>. D;7)*/5-. *))C. 6). /.
4/53+6B. )?. *+/5030,. /01. 1+4+*):9+06. 67+)53-6-.
DV LQÀXHQWLDO LQ GHYHORSLQJ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ IRU
-+543;+. *+/5030,>. E)5. +F/9:*+=. /;;)5130,. 6).
&+8+BG-. +12;/63)0/*. :73*)-):7B=. +F:+53+0;+. 3-.
0+;+--/5B. ?)5. *+/5030,=. /01. *+/5030,. 3-. ?)5. 67+.
:25:)-+. )?. -)9+. +01. @+B)01. 36-+*?>. #7+-+. 68)=.
+F:+53+0;+. /01. *+/5030,. /5+. ;)00+;6+1. 6). +/;7.
RWKHU E\ UHÀHFWLRQ $VVRFLDWLQJ ZLWK GLIIHUHQW
)67+5-.*+/1-.0)6.)0*B.6).*+/5030,.@26./*-).6).7/430,.
/. @5)/1+5. 43+8. /01. @5+/C30,. 1)80. 1343-3)0-.
@+68++0.:+):*+>..()0-+H2+06*B=. 1+9);5/;B. /01.
;)992036B.*3?+./5+.-B0)0B9)2->I()0+.J.A/553-=.
KLLMN.&+8+B=.KLOPN.Q3*+-.J.RB*+5=.KLLST>.U)*@G-.
IKLPST. +F:+53+063/*. *+/5030,. ;B;*+. -2,,+-6-. 67/6.
67+. *+/50+5. 92-6. 9/C+. 67+. *30C. @+68++0. 67+.
67+)5B. /01. /;63)0. @B. /;634+. +F:+539+06/63)0=.
GRLQJ UHÀHFWLQJ UHODWLQJ LW EDFN WR WKH WKHRU\
+F:+539+0630,=. /01. ;)0630230,. 67+. ;B;*+. I()0+.
J.A/553-=.KLLM=.V536;7/51. J.W736+7+/1=.XYYST>.
V3/,+6G-. 67+)5B. )?. 306+**+;62/*. 1+4+*):9+06.
-6/6+-. 67/6. ;73*15+0G-. 306+5/;63)0. 8367. 67+35.
8)5*1./;634/6+-.67+35.306+**3,+0;+./01.7+*:-.67+9.
65/0-?)59.67/6.306+**3,+0;+.306).73,7+5<)51+5./01.
9)5+./@-65/;6.6730C30,. IV536;7/51. J.W736+7+/1=.
A)8.D621+06-.Z+/50.30./.D+543;+<Z+/5030,.()25-+[.
$4XDVL([SHULPHQWDO)LHOG6WXG\RI*HQHUDWLYH/HDUQLQJ
Valerie'I.'Sessa,'Dana'K.'Natale
Montclair'State'University
Manuel'London
State'University'of'New'York,'Stony'Brook
Courtney'A.'Hopkins
Massachusetts'General'Hospital,'Department'of'Psychiatry
ABSTRACT
D+--/./01.Z)01)0G-.IXYY\=.XYYMT.;)06302)2-.*+/5030,.9)1+*.8/-.2-+1.6).,+0+5/6+.7B<
:)67+-+-.-2,,+-630,.67/6.-+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+-.653,,+5.-621+06.+0,/,+9+06.30. ,+0<
+5/634+. *+/5030,. :5);+--+-. 9)1+5/6+1. @B. 67+. -621+06-G. :53)5. +F:+53+0;+. /01. 67/6. +0<
,/,+9+06.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.@+7/43)5-.39:/;6.*+/5030,.)26;)9+->.KX].-621+06-.30.
+3,76.;)25-+-.:/563;3:/6+1.30./.H2/-3<+F:+539+06/*=.0)0<+H234/*+06.;)065)*.,5)2:.1+-3,0.
8367./.:5+<6+-6./01.68).:)-6<6+-6->. $+-2*6-. :/563/**B. -2::)56. 7B:)67+-+->. !9:*3;/63)0-.
?)5.67+)5B.1+4+*):9+06=.?2625+.5+-+/5;7=./01.-+543;+.*+/5030,.:+1/,),B./5+.13-;2--+1>
Volume'1,'Number'2
1
XYYST>
Theoretical' Overview:' Continuous' Learning'
Model
W73*+. :5+43)2-. 5+-+/5;7. 7/-. ?);2-+1. )0.
87/6. 67+. )26;)9+-. )?. -+543;+<*+/5030,. /5+=. *+--.
67+)5B./01.5+-+/5;7.7/-.@++0.:/31.6).1+6+5930+.
7)8. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+-. *+/1. 6). *+/5030,.
)26;)9+-=. /*67)2,7. 67+5+. 7/4+. @++0. /. 029@+5.
)?.;/**-.?)5.-2;7.67+)5B. I-++.^530,*+.J.A/6;7+5=.
XYYYT>. #7+. :25:)-+. )?. 673-. -621B. 3-. 6). 1+-;53@+.
/01.2-+./.*+/5030,.9)1+*.67/6.9/B.@+,30.6).7+*:.
2-.201+5-6/01._7)8`>
D+--/. /01. Z)01)0G-. IXYY\=. XYYMT. 67+)5B=.
15/80. ?5)9. *3430,. -B-6+9-. 67+)5B. I-++. (/:5/=.
KLL]=.XYYX./01.Z/-a*)=.XYYXT=.-2,,+-6-.67/6.67+5+.
/5+. 675++. C301-. )?. *+/5030,. :5);+--+-[. /1/:634+=.
,+0+5/634+=. /01. 65/0-?)59/634+>. !0. 673-. 67+)5B=.
OHDUQLQJLVGH¿QHGDVDSURFHVVRI³«GHHSHQLQJ
/01. @5)/1+030,. )?. /. -B-6+9G-. ;/:/@3*363+-. 30.
I5+T-652;62530,. 6). 9++6. ;7/0,30,. ;)01363)0-=.
/1130,. 0+8. -C3**-. /01. C0)8*+1,+=. /01. I5+T.
;5+/630,. 306). /. 9)5+. /01. 9)5+. -):73-63;/6+1.
V\VWHPWKURXJKUHÀHFWLRQRQLWVRZQDFWLRQVDQG
;)0-+H2+0;+-`..IZ)01)0.J.D+--/=.XYYM=.D+--/.J.
/RQGRQ  $GDSWLYH OHDUQLQJ H[HPSOL¿HG
30.67+.@+7/43)53-6. 65/1363)0. )?. *+/5030,. 67+)53+-=.
);;25-. 87+0. 30134312/*-. :3;C. 2:. 30?)59/63)0.
?5)9.67+35.+0435)09+06.)0.7)8. 67+B. -7)2*1. /;6.
/01. ;7/0,+. 67+35. @+7/43)5. /;;)5130,*B. 8367)26.
0+;+--/53*B. @+30,. /8/5+. 67/6. 67+B. /5+. 1)30,. -)>.
*HQHUDWLYHOHDUQLQJH[HPSOL¿HGLQWKHFRJQLWLYH
)53+06/63)0. )?. *+/5030,. 67+)53+-=. 3-. :25:)-+?2**B.
/1130,. /01. 2-30,. 0+8. @+7/43)5-=. C0)8*+1,+=.
/01. -C3**->. #5/0-?)59/634+. *+/5030,=. @/-+1. )0.
67+. ;)0-652;6343-6. 65/1363)0. )?. *+/5030,. 67+)53+-=.
);;25-. 87+0. 30134312/*-. 201+5,). /. 15/9/63;.
/01. ?201/9+06/*. ;7/0,+. 30. 67+. 8/B. 67+B. -++.
67+9-+*4+-. /01. 67+. 8)5*1. 30. 873;7. 67+B. *34+.
0H]LURZ   $W WKH LQGLYLGXDO OHYHO
*+/5030,.:5);+--+-.*+/1.6).;7/0,+-.30.67+.0+25)<
:/66+50-.)?.67+.@5/30.I$/6+B=.XYYKT>.#7+-+.;7/0,+-.
9/03?+-6. 67+9-+*4+-. 30. ;7/0,+-. 30. ;),0363)0=.
@+7/43)5=./01./??+;6>
Z+/5030,.:5);+--+-./5+.653,,+5+1.@B.:5+--25+-=.
1+9/01-=.;7/**+0,+-=./01.)::)5620363+-.67/6./??+;6.
30134312/*-.-).67/6.67+B.;/00)6.;)06302+.87/6.67+B.
/5+.1)30,.30.67+.-/9+.8/B./01.@+.-2;;+--?2*.@26.
30-6+/1./5+.-6392*/6+1.6).*+/50>.D2;7.-6392*/63)0.
;/0. )5. 9/B. 5+-2*6. 30. 675++. :)--3@*+. 6B:+-. )?.
*+/5030,>. !0. -)9+. ;/-+-=. 30134312/*-. 5+-:)01. 6).
;2+-.30.67+35.+0435)09+06.@B.9/C30,./.;7/0,+>.!?.
67+.;7/0,+._8)5C-`=.67+B.;)06302+.8367.36N.30.673-.
;/-+=. /1/:634+. *+/5030,. 7/-. );;255+1>. #7+5+. /5+.
RWKHUWLPHVZKHQLQGLYLGXDOV¿QGWKDWWKH\PXVW
/;H235+./.0+8.@+7/43)5=.;)9:+6+0;B=.C0)8*+1,+=.
-C3**. )5. 8/B. )?. ?++*30,>. #7+-+. :+5-)0-. +0,/,+.
30. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. @B. :25:)-+?2**B. -++C30,.
/01. 65B30,. )26. 0+8. -C3**-=. 0+8. 30?)59/63)0=.
)5. +4+0. 0+8. 8/B-. )?. 306+5/;630,. 8367. )67+5->.
E30/**B=.30134312/*-.9/B.5+-:)01.6)./.-362/63)0.@B.
+F:+53+0;30,./.13-)53+06/63)0./01.5+<)53+06/63)0.30.
/.0+8.135+;63)0>.#7+-+.:+5-)0-.7/4+.+F:+53+0;+1.
65/0-?)59/63)0/*.*+/5030,>
A)8+4+5=.8+.*34+.30./.;)9:*+F.+0435)09+06.
67/6.@)9@/51-.2-.8367.;)06302)2-.30?)59/63)0>.W+.
0++1.6).:3;C./01.;7))-+.87/6.8+.83**.0)63;+.)26.
RIWKLVFRQWLQXRXVÀRZRUZHZLOOEHRYHUORDGHG
8367. 30?)59/63)0>. $+/130+--. 6). *+/50. 3-. 67+.
:5);+--.@B.873;7.30134312/*-.;)9+.6).5+;),03a+.
87+0.653,,+5-.?)5.*+/5030,./5+.);;25530,./01.67/6.
67+B.0++1.6).;7/0,+./;;)5130,*B[.67+B.92-6.*+/50.
-)9+6730,.30.)51+5.6)./;;)9:*3-7.67+35.6/-C./01.
67+0./;62/**B.9/C+. /.1+;3-3)0.6).6/C+. -)9+.-)56.
)?./;63)0>.!0.673-.;/-+=.8+./5+.306+5+-6+1.*+--.30.
SK\VLFDO FRJQLWLYH RU HPRWLRQDO GH¿FLWV VHH
A306)0=. XYY\T. @26. 5/67+5. 30. 67+. 5+;),0363)0. @B.
30134312/*-.67/6.;7/0,+.3-.0++1+1.I-++.V5);7/-C/=.
&3(*+9+06+=.J. ")5;5)--=. KLLXT>. W7+0. 67+5+. 3-.
0). 653,,+5. ?)5. *+/5030,. /01. . 30134312/*-. 7/4+. /.
*)8.5+/130+--.6).*+/50=.*366*+.*+/5030,.)?./0B.-)56.
83**.);;25>.W7+0.67+5+.3-./. 653,,+5. ?)5.*+/5030,=.
30134312/*-. 87). 7/4+. *)8. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50.
83**.5+-:)01.@B./1/:630,>.W7+0.67+5+.3-./.73,7.
5+/130+--.6).*+/50=.67+B. 83**. @+.+/-3*B.653,,+5+1=.
+367+5.@B./.C0)80.)5.+F:+;6+1.653,,+5.:5+-+06.30.
67+. +0435)09+06=. -)9+6730,. 67/6. ;/6;7+-. 67+35.
306+5+-6=. )5. +4+0. -)9+6730,. 20+F:+;6+1>. A3,7.
5+/130+--.6).*+/50.;/0.*+/1.6).,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
2
!0.;/-+-.87+5+.67+5+.3-.@)67./.653,,+5.?)5.*+/5030,.
/01. /. 73,7. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50=. 30134312/*-. 9/B.
5+-:)01. 8367. ,+0+5/634+. )5. 65/0-?)59/63)0/*.
*+/5030,>. E)5. +F/9:*+=. -621+06-. 87). 7/1. 0)6.
+F:+53+0;+1. )67+5-G. -);3/*. 0++1-. /01. 7/1. 0)6.
4)*206++5+1. :5+43)2-*B. 9/B. @+;)9+. +0,/,+1.
30. 67+. *+/5030,. :5);+--. 43/. -+543;+. *+/5030,=.
306+,5/630,.31+/-=.:/560+530,.8367.)67+5-=./01=.30.
67+.:5);+--=.*+/5030,.6).@+.,+0+5/634+>.D)9+.9/B.
@+.65/0-?)59+1.@B. 67+. +F:+53+0;+=.*+/5030,.0+8.
+9)63)0/*.5+-:)0-+-./01./.1+:67.)?.+0,/,+9+06.
/01.306+5+-6.67/6.*+/1-.67+9.6)./.0+8.;/5++5.;/**30,.
I+>,>=. ;7/0,30,. ?5)9. @2-30+--. 6). -);3/*. 8+*?/5+.
/01.-);3/*.+065+:5+0+25-73:T>.D++.#/@*+.K>
Volume'1,'Number'2
3
Table'1
!06+5/;63)0.)?.#53,,+5-.6).Z+/50./01.$+/130+--.6).Z+/50.)0.Z+/5030,.V5);+--+-
Low$readiness$to$learn High$readiness$to$learn
Low$or$no$learning$triggers No learning Generative learning possible
High$learning$triggers Adaptive learning Generative and/or Transforma-
tive learning
W+. 0++1. 6). -65+--. 7+5+. 67/6. 6+/;7+5-=. 9+0<
6)5-=.)5./143-)5-.6).-621+06-.;/00)6.*+/50.?)5.67+.
-621+06-N. 67+B. ;/0. )0*B. -6392*/6+. -621+06-. 6).
*+/50=. :5)431+. 5+-)25;+-. ?)5. *+/5030,=. /01. -2:<
:)56.*+/5030,>.#+/;7+5-=.?)5.+F/9:*+=.;/0.39:)-+.
653,,+5-=. 7+*:. -621+06-. @+. 5+/1B. 6). *+/50=. ,34+.
?++1@/;C=./01. +0;)25/,+. *+/5030,. 30. 67+. 135+;<
63)0.6+/;7+5-.8/06N. 7)8+4+5=.67+B. ;/00)6.9/C+.
*+/5030,. );;25=. C0)8. ?)5. ;+56/30. 87/6. 83**. @+.
*+/50+1.I3?./0B6730,T=.)5.+4+0.9/C+.-621+06-.2-+.
87/6.67+B.*+/50>.D621+06-.92-6.@+.5+/1B.6).*+/50.
@+?)5+.67+B./5+.):+0.6).67+.-2@b+;6.9/66+5.30.67+.
;)25-+>
..
Generative'Learning
!0. 673-. -621B=. 8+. /5+. :/563;2*/5*B. 306+5+-6+1.
30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,=.67+. 39:/;6. )?./.-+543;+<
*+/5030,.;)25-+.)0.-6392*/630,.36=./01.)26;)9+-.
/-./.5+-2*6.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.A+5+.8+.1+<
-;53@+.67+.:5);+--.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.30.9)5+.
1+:67>.
Q+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 3-. -+*?<1+6+5930+1. /01.
@+7/43)5. 3-. 67+. ;)0-+H2+0;+. )?. 729/0. ;7)3;+.
Ic/-*)8=. KL]Y=. /01. $),+5-=.KLMLT>.Q+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,. 3-. :25:)-+?2**B. /1130,. /01. 2-30,. 0+8.
@+7/43)5-=.C0)8*+1,+=./01.-C3**-.ID+0,+=.KLLY=.
D+--/. J. Z)01)0=. XYY\T>. Z+/50+5-. /5+. +0,/,+1.
30.*+/5030,./01.6/C+./0./;634+.5)*+.30.67+.:5);+--.
$VWLQ6ZDQHU:KHWWHQ,Q
+0,/,30,.30.,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,=.-621+06-.306+5<
:5+6.30;)930,.30?)59/63)0./01.,34+.9+/030,.6).
WKDW LQIRUPDWLRQ VHH $XVXEHO  %UXQHU
KLMY=. Q/,0d=. KL]PT. #7+. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,.
:5);+--. 3-. @/-+1. )0. 306+50/*. 9+06/*. :5);+--+-.
I30;*2130,. 30-3,76=. 30?)59/63)0. :5);+--30,=.
9+9)5B=./01.:+5;+:63)0T./01.67+35.I5+T-652;625<
30,>.
$ODEHO IRU OHDUQLQJ EDVHGRQWKLVPRGHOLV
/015/,),B. IU0)8*+-=. KL]\T>. #73-. ;)0;+:6. 3-.
EDVHGRQWKHIROORZLQJDVVXPSWLRQV$SHU<
-)0G-..%25.-+*?<;)0;+:6.3-.)0+.)?.@+30,.5+-:)0<
-3@*+.?)5.)25.)80.1+;3-3)0-./01.*34+->.W+.1).0)6.
*3C+. )67+5. :+):*+G-. 83**-. 39:)-+1. 2:)0. 2->. IXT.
V+):*+. /5+. *3?+e6/-Ce:5)@*+9<;+06+5+1>. IOT. W+.
@+;)9+.5+/1B.6).*+/50. 67)-+. 6730,-. 8+.0++1.6).
C0)8./01./5+./@*+.6).1).30.)51+5.6).;):+.+??+;<
634+*B.8367.67+35.5+/*<*3?+>.IST.#7+5+?)5+=.8+.0++1.
6).C0)8.87B.8+.0++1.6).*+/50.-)9+6730,.@+?)5+.
201+56/C30,. 6). *+/50. 36>. I\T. W+. /*5+/1B. 7/4+. /.
*/5,+.4)*29+./01.H2/*36B. )?. +F:+53+0;+>.W73*+.
8+.;/0.:5)431+. 53;7. +F:+53+0;+./01.*+/50.?5)9.
+/;7. )67+5=. )0. 67+. 1)80-31+=. 8+. 7/4+. 9+06/*.
7/@36-=. @3/-+-=. /01. :5+-2::)-363)0-. 67/6. ,231+=.
DQGVRPHWLPHVOLPLWOHDUQLQJ$OWKRXJKZH
;/0.5+-:)01.6).+F6+50/*.9)634/63)0=.67+.9)-6.:)<
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
4
6+06.9)634/6)5-.)?.*+/5030,./5+.306+50/*>
Q+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 3-. :25:)-+?2*N. -621+06-.
;)065)*.87/6.67+B.*+/50.,+0+5/634+*B./;5)--.67+35.
6+025+.30.;)**+,+.30./.4/53+6B.)?.13??+5+06.8/B->.
^+7/43)5-. 67/6. 3013;/6+. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30<
;*21+.67+.?)**)830,[..8/6;730,./01.9)1+*30,.)67<
+5-.I^/0125/=. KLPMT=.+0,/,30,./;634+*B./01.:25<
:)-+?2**B. 30. 67+. ;*/--5))9f/553430,. :5+:/5+1=.
:/563;3:/630,. 30. 13-;2--3)0-=. /-C30,. H2+-63)0-=.
65B30,. 6). 63+. *+/5030,-. ?5)9. )67+5. ;)25-+-. 306).
67+35.;255+06.8)5Cf/01.+0,/,30,.?/;2*6B.30.13-<
FXVVLRQV GXULQJ RI¿FH KRXUV 6WXGHQWV DFWLYHO\
65B.)26.0+8.@+7/43)5-=.0+8.8/B-.)?.6730C30,=./01.
0+8.8/B-.)?.?++*30,>.
%25.7B:)67+-+-.)26*30+1.@+*)8.1+*30+/6+.7)8.
:/563;3:/630,.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+.653,,+5-.
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,=. 7)8. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50. 39<
:/;6-.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,=./01.7)8.)26;)9+-.5+<
-2*6.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
Hypotheses
/HDUQLQJWULJJHUV$VHUYLFHOHDUQLQJFRXUVH
LVDWULJJHUIRUOHDUQLQJ$VHUYLFHOHDUQLQJFRXUVH
3-. /. ;)206+5<0)59/634+. :+1/,),B. I(*/B6)0. J.
$VK+RZDUG6HYHUDOFRPSRQHQWV
)?. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;2553;2*29. -3,0/*. 6). -62<
1+06-.67/6.673-.0).)5130/5B. ;*/--=.?5)9.5+;+3430,.
/.-B**/@2-.67/6.3013;/6+-. 67/6.67+B./5+.6).+0,/,+.
30./.-+543;+.:5)b+;6=.6).-3,030,.2:.?)5.67+.:5)b+;6=.
6)./66+0130,.67+. -+543;+. :5)b+;6=. 6). 2-30,. )@-+5<
4/63)0-./01.+F:+53+0;+.30.67+.:5)b+;6.30./--3,0<
9+06-=. 6). 67+. 13??+5+06. /--3,09+06-. /01. /--+--<
9+06->.#7+B.;/00)6.+0,/,+.30.67+35.2-2/*._;)25-+.
*+/5030,.@+7/43)5-`.I+>,>=.*3-6+030,.6).*+;625+-./01.
6/C30,.0)6+-=.5+/130,.;7/:6+5-./01.:/:+5-=.1)30,.
*3@5/5B.5+-+/5;7./01.853630,.:/:+5-=.9/B@+.1)30,.
/.,5)2:.:5)b+;6T>.#7+B.92-6.1).-)9+6730,.13??+5<
+06.30.)51+5.6).@+.-2;;+--?2*>.#73-.-6392*/6+-.67+.
-621+06.6).+0,/,+.30.*+/5030,>
$FWLYHDQGFROODERUDWLYHOHDUQLQJZDVLGHQWL<
¿HGDVD³KLJK LPSDFWDFWLYLW\´E\WKH1DWLRQDO
D254+B. )?. D621+06. R0,/,+9+06. I(/9:2-. ()9<
:/;6=.XYYPT>.W7+0.-621+06-./5+.,34+0./.;7)3;+.30.
67+35.-+543;+<*+/5030,.:5)b+;6./01.87+0.67+B.-++.
67+.-+543;+./-.9+/030,?2*=.67+B./5+.9)5+.*3C+*B.6).
@+.9)5+.+0,/,+1.30.67+.;*/--5))9.I^3**3,=.XYY]T>.
!0./11363)0=.5+-+/5;7.1+9)0-65/6+-.67/6./;634363+-.
/--);3/6+1.8367.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-=.-2;7./-.
UHÀHFWLRQH[HUFLVHVDUHFRJQLWLYHO\ FKDOOHQJLQJ
/-.-621+06-./5+.+F:+;6+1.6).6730C.1++:*B./@)26./0.
LVVXHGHFRQVWUXFWDSUREOHPDQG¿QGDOWHUQDWLYH
-)*263)0-=. )5. @+. ;)0?5)06+1. 8367. -362/63)0-. 67/6.
;/2-+.13--)0/0;+./01.67+.0++1.?)5.5+-)*263)0.@+<
68++0.:5+43)2-*B. 7+*1. 67)2,76-. /01. @+*3+?-. /01.
+431+0;+.6).67+. ;)065/5B.I^3**3,=.XYY]T>.#73-. 5+<
-+/5;7.-2,,+-6-.67/6.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-./5+.
1+-3,0+1.6).-6392*/6+. ,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.@B.5+<
H23530,.-621+06-.6).+0,/,+.30./;634+./01.:25:)-+<
?2*.*+/5030,./;634363+-[
 AB:)67+-3-.K[.D621+06-. 30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+. 1+9)0-65/6+. 9)5+. ,+0+5/634+. *+/50<
30,. 67/0. -621+06-. 30. /. 0)0<-+543;+. *+/5030,.
;)25-+>
$+/130+--.6).*+/50>.Z+/5030,.3-./.?20;63)0.)?.
@)67.-362/63)0/*.I3>+>=.653,,+5-.6).*+/50T. /01.3013<
4312/*. ;)01363)0->. %0+. 30134312/*. ;)01363)0. )?.
306+5+-6.7+5+. 3-.67/6.-621+06-.0++1.6).@+.5+/1B.6).
*+/50. @+?)5+. 67+B. /5+. 83**30,. 6). +0,/,+. 30. ,+0<
+5/634+. *+/5030,>. !0134312/*. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50.
93,76.30;*21+.-2;7.?/;6)5-./-.:53)5.:/563;3:/63)0.
30. *+/5030,. ;/**+1. ?)5=. *+/5030,. /0F3+6B=. :+5;+:<
63)0.)?.)0+-+*?. /-.306+**3,+06=.:+5;+:63)0. )?.)0+<
-+*?. /-. :)--+--30,. H2/*363+-. 0++1+1. ?)5. *+/5030,.
/01.1+4+*):9+06=.@+*3+?-./@)26.7)8.-)201.)0+G-.
9+06/*.?20;63)0.3-=./01.@+*3+?.30.)0+G-.;/:/;36B.6).
?20;63)0.+??+;634+*B.30.13??+5+06.1)9/30-.)?.*3?+f
JHQHUDOVHOIHI¿FDF\6HVVD/RQGRQ,Q
673-.-621B=.8+./5+.:/563;2*/5*B.306+5+-6+1.30.:53)5.
:/563;3:/63)0.30. ,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.:5);+--+-./-.
DQLQGLYLGXDOFRQGLWLRQWKDWLQÀXHQFHVUHDGLQHVV
6).*+/50>.
D621+06-. 8367. :53)5. +F:+53+0;+. 30. -+543;+<
*+/5030,./5+.9)5+.*3C+*B.6).C0)8.87/6.3-.+F:+;6+1.
)?.67+9.?5)9./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+./01.672-.
83**.@+.?/93*3/5.8367.67+.:+1/,),B./01.8367.67+.
6B:+-.)?.*+/5030,.67/6.67+B./5+.+F:+;6+1.6).+0,/,+.
30.30.-2;7. ;)25-+->.W+. +F:+;6. 67+-+. -621+06-. 6).
Volume'1,'Number'2
5
7/4+./.73,7+5.5+/130+--.6).*+/50.87+0._653,,+5+1.
@B`.67+.:/563;3:/63)0.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+>.
!0./11363)0=.D+--/./01.Z)01)0.IXYY\=.XYYMT.:5+<
13;6.67/6.5+/130+--.6).*+/50.9)1+5/6+-.67+.5+*/63)0<
-73:.@+68++0.653,,+5-.?)5.*+/5030,. /01. *+/5030,>.
!0.;/-+-.87+5+.67+5+.3-.@)67./.653,,+5.?)5.*+/5030,.
I30.673-.30-6/0;+=.:/563;3:/630,.30./.-+543;+.*+/50<
30,.;)25-+T./01. /. 73,7. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50. I:53)5.
+F:+53+0;+.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+T=.-621+06-.
5+-:)01.@B.+0,/,30,.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.#73-.
67+)5B.*+/1-.6).67+.?)**)830,.7B:)67+-+-.5+,/51<
30,.67+.39:/;6.)?.5+/130+--.6).*+/50.30.6+59-.)?.
:53)5.:/563;3:/63)0.30.-+543;+.*+/5030,.)0.;255+06.
2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,[
 AB:)67+-3-.X/[.D621+06-G.:53)5.-+543;+<*+/50<
30,.+F:+53+0;+.3-.:)-3634+*B.5+*/6+1.6).;255+06.
2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
.
 AB:)67+-3-.X@[.D621+06-G.:53)5.-+543;+<*+/50<
30,. +F:+53+0;+. 9)1+5/6+-. 67+. 5+*/63)0-73:.
@+68++0. :/563;3:/630,. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+./01.;255+06.2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
$GGLWLRQDOO\ VWXGHQWV ZKR KDYH HQJDJHG LQ
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. :5);+--+-. 30. 67+. :/-6=. 87).
7/4+. 8/6;7+1. /01. 9)1+*+1. )67+5-=. :/563;3:/6+1.
30. ;*/--5))9. 13-;2--3)0-=. 5+,2*/5*B. /-C+1. H2+-<
63)0-=. 653+1. 6). 63+. *+/5030,-. ?5)9. )67+5. ;)25-+-.
306). 67+35. ;255+06. 8)5C=. +0,/,+1. ?/;2*6B. 30. 13-<
;2--3)0-. )5. )67+5. 8/B-. )?. /;634+*B. /1130,. /01.
65B30,.)26.0+8.@+7/43)5-=.0+8.8/B-.)?.6730C30,=.
/01.0+8.8/B-.)?. ?++*30,. 9/B.@+.9)5+.5+/1B.6).
*+/50. 30. 673-. 8/B. /,/30=. 5+,/51*+--. )?. 67+. :5+-<
+0;+. )?. +F6+50/*. 653,,+5-. 6). *+/50>. . #72-=. 87+0.
67+5+.3-./.73,7.5+/130+--.6).*+/50=.-621+06-.83**.@+.
+/-3*B.653,,+5+1=.+367+5.@B. /. C0)80. )5. +F:+;6+1.
653,,+5. :5+-+06. 30. 67+. +0435)09+06=. -)9+6730,.
67/6.;/6;7+-.67+35.306+5+-6=.)5.+4+0.-)9+6730,.20<
+F:+;6+1>.#73-.5+/130+--.;/0./*-).*+/1.6).,+0+5/<
634+.*+/5030,.:5);+--+->.W+.+F:+;6.-621+06-.87).
7/4+. :5+43)2-*B. +0,/,+1. 30. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,.
:5);+--+-.83**.@+. +4+0.9)5+.*3C+*B. 6).+0,/,+.30.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.:5);+--+-.12530,.67+. -+543;+.
*+/5030,.;)25-+.67/0.67)-+.87).7/4+.0)6.+0,/,+1.
30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.:5);+--+-.@+?)5+>.#7/6.3-[
 AB:)67+-3-.O/[.D621+06-G.:53)5.2-+.)?.,+0+5/<
634+. *+/5030,. 3-. :)-3634+*B. 5+*/6+1. 6). ;255+06.
2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
 AB:)67+-3-.O@[.V53)5.2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/50<
30,.9)1+5/6+-.67+.5+*/63)0-73:.@+68++0.:/5<
63;3:/63)0. 30. /. -+543;+<. *+/5030,. ;)25-+. /01.
;255+06.2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
!9:/;6. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. :5);+--+-. )0.
*+/5030,.)26;)9+->.#7+.675++.:25:)-+-.?)5.*3@+5/*.
+12;/63)0. /5+. +07/0;30,. 30134312/*. /;/1+93;=.
;343;=./01.8+**<@+30,.)26;)9+-.IA/58/51=.XYY]T>.
$FDGHPLFRXWFRPHVLQFOXGHWKHLQYHVWPHQW WKDW
-621+06-. /5+. :*/;30,. )0. 67+35. ;)25-+8)5C. /01.
-;7))*30,>. (343;. )26;)9+-. /5+. -621+06-G. 304+-6<
9+06.30.67+.;)992036B./01.30;*21+./663621+-.6)<
8/51-.;343;.304)*4+9+06./01.67+./;62/*.304)*4+<
9+06.30./;63)0-.1+-3,0+1.6).31+063?B./01./115+--.
3--2+-. )?. :2@*3;. ;)0;+50. I30;*2130,. ;)992036B.
304)*4+9+06=. +*+;6)5/*. 304)*4+9+06=. /01. :)*363<
;/*.4)3;+.304)*4+9+06T>.W+**<@+30,.)26;)9+-./5+.
;)9:*+F. ;)0-652;6-. ID8/0+5=. XYY\T. /01. 30. 673-.
;/-+=.8+./5+.:/563;2*/5*B.306+5+-6+1.30._67+.@*2+-`.
/01.-/63-?/;63)0.8367.*3?+>.W+.+F:+;6.2-+.)?.,+0<
+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+. 6).
7/4+. /. 5+*/63)0-73:. 8367. /**. 675++. )?. 67+-+. :25<
:)-+-. /01. *+/1. 6). /. 4/53+6B. )?. /;/1+93;=. ;343;=.
/01. :+5-)0/*. )26;)9+->. #7+5+. 3-. /. *)0,. 65/13<
63)0.)?.5+-+/5;7.*30C30,.-621+06.2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,=. /-. 9+/-25+1. @B. -621+06. +0,/,+9+06=.
WR SRVLWLYH DFDGHPLF RXWFRPHV LQFOXGLQJ *3$
DQGDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVVFKRRO$VWLQ
U+9@+5.J.Z+20,=.XYY\=.'**/7.J.W3*-)0=.XYY]T>.
!0. /11363)0=. /-. -+543;+<*+/5030,. :5)b+;6-. /5+. 0)6.
)0*B.67+. @/-3-. )?. *+/5030,. @26. /*-). @/-+1. 30.67+.
FRPPXQLW\ ZH ZRXOG H[SHFW WR ¿QG SRVLWLYH
5+*/63)0-73:-. @+68++0. 2-+. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/50<
30,.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+./01.?2625+.;343;.
+0,/,+9+06./01./663621+-.I^3**3,=.$))6=.J.g+--+=.
XYY\=. #+5C*/=. %GZ+/5B=.W3*-)0=. J. &3/a=. XYY]T>.
#7+-+.31+/-.*+/1.6).67+.?)**)830,.7B:)67+-+-[
.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
6
 AB:)67+-3-. S/[. W36730. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+=.-621+06-.87).1+9)0-65/6+.9)5+.,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,.7/4+.73,7+5./;/1+93;.:+5?)5<
9/0;+>
 AB:)67+-3-. S@[. W36730. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+=.-621+06-.87).1+9)0-65/6+.9)5+.,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,.7/4+.9)5+.:)-3634+./663621+-.
6)8/51-.;)**+,+e/;/1+93;->
 AB:)67+-3-. S;[. W36730. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+=.-621+06-.87).1+9)0-65/6+.9)5+.,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,.7/4+.9)5+.:)-3634+./663621+-.
6)8/51-.67+.;)992036B./01./5+.9)5+. *3C+*B.
6).;)06302+.8)5C.30.67+.;)992036B>
E30/**B=. 8+. +F:+;6. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30.
/. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+. 6). @+. /--);3/6+1. 8367.
8+**<@+30,.30.-621+06-=./*67)2,7.8+.:5+-+06.673-.
/-./0.+F:*)5/6)5B=.0)0<135+;63)0/*.7B:)67+-3->.!0.
)0+.43+8=.67+5+.3-./.@+*3+?.67/6.+0,/,30,.-621+06-=.
VSHFL¿FDOO\ WKRVH LQ VHUYLFH OHDUQLQJ FRXUVHV
8)2*1. +0;)25/,+. -621+06-. 6). _;)0-31+5. 67+35.
)80. :5343*+,+=. ;7/**+0,+. 67+35. /--29:63)0-. )?.
+0636*+9+06. /01. -+*?<3012*,+0;+=. 7+*:. 67+9. 5+;<
),03a+.67/6. *+/5030,. 7/-. 39:*3;/63)0-. ?)5. /;63)0.
/01. 2-+=. 7+*:. 67+9. 1+4+*):. -C3**-. )?. 5+-3*3+0;B=.
/01. 9/C+. 67+9. /8/5+. )?. 67+35. 5+-:)0-3@3*363+-.
6).67+.*/5,+5.;)992036B>`.W367.67+-+. *+/5030,-=.
-621+06-.8)2*1.@+.9)5+.*3C+*B.6)./;73+4+.,5+/6+5.
:+5-)0/*.8+**<@+30,.I-++.A/58/51=.XYY]T>.!0./1<
1363)0=.,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
FRXUVHPD\OHDGWRIXOOLQYROYHPHQWDQG³ÀRZ´
12530,.67+.*+/5030,. :5);+--.I"/C/925/.J.(-3C<
-a+06937/*B3=.XYYOT=. 873;7.8)2*1.@+./--);3/6+1.
8367. ,5+/6+5. :+5-)0/*. 8+**<@+30,>. !0. )::)-363)0.
6).673-.43+8=.c+a35)8. IKLLKT. /01. V)06+5)66). J.
V+1+5-+0. IKLLOT. 31+063?B. +/5*B. :7/-+-. 12530,.
873;7.+F:+53+0;+-.*+/1.-621+06-.6).H2+-63)0.67+35.
:53)5. /--29:63)0-. /01. @+;)9+. ;5363;/*. )?. 67)-+.
/--29:63)0->. D2;7. 13-)53+06/63)0. 93,76. -2,<
,+-6. 67/6. 67+5+. 9/B. @+. 0+,/634+. 8+**<@+30,. +?<
?+;6-. ?5)9. +0,/,+9+06. 8367. 67+. ;)992036B=. /6.
*+/-6.30.67+.-7)56.6+59>. V3/,+6G-.9)1+*.)?.;),03<
634+.1+4+*):9+06.:5+13;6-.67/6. 13-+H23*3@5329.3-.
/.0+;+--/5B.:5+;25-)5.6).1+4+*):9+06.IV3/,+6.J.
!07+*1+5.KLMLT./01.67/6./-.-621+06-.;)06302+.6).@+.
/;634+*B.+0,/,+1./01.306+063)0/*.30.67+35.*+/5030,.
)4+5.639+=.67+35.8+**<@+30,.83**.39:5)4+>.E30/**B=.
-)9+. +431+0;+. 1)+-. -2,,+-6. 67/6. -621+06-. 30<
4)*4+1.30.-+543;+<*+/5030,.-7)8.9)5+.-65+--.I-++.
D6/2@.J.E30*+B=.XYY]T=.@26.87+67+5.673-.-65+--.3-.
12+. 6). _13-+H23*3@5329`. I873;7. 8)2*1. @+. 3013<
;/6+1.@B./.;2543*30+/5.5+*/63)0-73:.@+68++0.,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,.30./.-+543;+.*+/5030,.;)25-+./01.
8+**<@+30,T. )5. -621+06-. @+30,. )4+5<;)99366+1.
I873;7.8)2*1.@+./--);3/6+.8367./.0+,/634+.5+*/<
63)0-73:.@+68++0.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.30./.-+543;+.
;)25-+./01.8+**<@+30,. 67/6.;)06302+-.)4+5.639+T.
LVGLI¿FXOWWRGHWHUPLQH
 AB:)67+-3-. S1[. W36730. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+=. 67+5+. 3-. /. 5+*/63)0-73:. @+68++0. 2-+.
)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,./01.8+**<@+30,.)?.-62<
1+06->
cR#A%&
#7+.1/6/.2-+1.6).6+-6.7B:)67+-+-.8+5+.15/80.
IURPDODUJHUTXDVLH[SHULPHQWDO¿HOGVWXG\DWD
SXEOLF XQLYHUVLW\ LQ WKH PLG$WODQWLF DUHD 6HH
D+--/=. "/6/*+=. J. A):C30-=. XYYP. ?)5. /. ?2**. 1+<
-;53:63)0.)?.67+.-621B>
Participants
#7+. )53,30/*. :):2*/63)0. ;)0-3-6+1. )?. K]M.
¿UVWVHPHVWHU IUHVKPDQ VWXGHQWV LQ  VHFWLRQV
RI D UHTXLUHG IUHVKPDQ H[SHULHQFH FRXUVH $OO
-621+06-.8+5+.:/56.)?. *+/5030,. ;)9920363+-./01.
6))C./.029@+5.)?.;)25-+-.6),+67+5>.
#7+.+F:+539+06/*.,5)2:.;)0-3-6+1.)?.-621+06-.
?5)9. S. -+;63)0-. 87). 8+5+. :/563;3:/630,. 30. 67+.
R9+5,30,.Z+/1+5-.Z+/5030,.()992036B.IRZZ(T=.
873;7.5+H235+1./. -+543;+<*+/5030,.;)9:)0+06.30.
)0+. )?. 36-. *+/5030,. ;)992036B. ;)25-+->. !0. 673-.
*+/5030,. ;)992036B=. -621+06-. 8+5+. 5+H235+1. 6).
:/563;3:/6+.30./.8++C*B.-+543;+./;63436B.,+/5+1.6)<
8/51-.67+.*+/5030,./01.1+4+*):9+06. )?.;73*15+0.
?5)9.,5/1+.-;7))*.675)2,7.9311*+.-;7))*>.D+543;+.
Volume'1,'Number'2
7
):63)0-. 30;*21+1. 626)530,=. /. ;)9@30+1. 626)530,.
/01. 9+06)530,. :5),5/9=. /. 9+06)530,. :5),5/9=.
)5./0./?6+5.-;7))*./;634363+-.:5),5/9>.#75++.13-<
630;6.+H2/**B.-3a+1.,5)2:-.)?.-621+06-./5+.-+*+;6+1.
?)5. +05)**9+06. 306). 67+. RZZ(>. #7+. V5+-31+063/*.
Z+/1+5-.,5)2:.3-.;)9:)-+1.)?.-:+;3/*./193--3)0.
-621+06-.8367./0.)26-6/0130,.5+;)51.)?.*+/1+5-73:.
87).1).0)6.9++6.67+.2034+5-36BG-.5+,2*/5./193-<
-3)0.;536+53/>.V5+-31+063/*.*+/1+5-./5+./19366+1.6).
67+.2034+5-36B.;)0630,+06.2:)0.+05)**9+06.30.67+.
RZZ(>.#7+.R12;/63)0/*.%::)562036B.E201.V5)<
,5/9. IR%ET. ,5)2:. 3-. ;)9:)-+1. )?. -:+;3/*. /1<
93--3)0.-621+06-.1+9)0-65/630,.73,7.9)634/63)0.
8367. /;/1+93;. /01. +;)0)93;. 0++1. 87). 1). 0)6.
9++6.67+.2034+5-36BG-.5+,2*/5./193--3)0.;536+53/>.
R%E. -621+06-. +05)**+1. 30. 67+. RZZ(. -+*?<-+*+;6.
306).673-.*+/5030,.;)992036B.)5./0)67+5.*+/5030,.
;)992036B. 0)6. 30;*21+1. 30. 673-. -621B>. E30/**B=.
67+.RZZ(.30;*21+-./.,5)2:.)?.5+,2*/5./193--3)0.
-621+06-. 87). -+*?<-+*+;6. 306). 67+. *+/5030,. ;)9<
92036B>.
#7+. 0)0<+H234/*+06. ;)9:/53-)0. ,5)2:. ;)0<
-3-6+1. )?. -621+06-. ?5)9. S. -+;63)0-. 87). :/563;3<
:/6+1.30./.4/53+6B.)?.)67+5.*+/5030,.;)9920363+-=.
0)0+.)?.873;7.30;*21+1./. -+543;+<*+/5030,.;)9<
SRQHQWDVSDUWRI WKHLU OHDUQLQJ FRPPXQLW\$OO
-621+06-.-+*?<-+*+;6+1.6).@+./.:/56.)?.)0+.)?.67+-+.
*+/5030,.;)9920363+->.
#7+5+. 8+5+. PY. -621+06-. 30. 67+. +F:+539+0<
6/*. ,5)2:. IRZZ(T. /01. LM. 30. 67+. 0)0<+H234/*+06.
;)9:/53-)0.,5)2:>.%?.67+./4/3*/@*+.-621+06-=.KO.
VWXGHQWVZHUHDEVHQWIURPFODVVGXULQJWKH¿UVW
-)*3;36/63)0=.?)5./.6)6/*.)?. KMX.-621+06-./4/3*/@*+.
?)5.:/563;3:/63)0.I]\.RZZ(./01.P].0)0<RZZ(T>.
"30+. -621+06-. 5+?2-+1. :/563;3:/63)0=. ]. )?. 873;7.
8+5+.RZZ(./01. X. 0)0<RZZ(=.*+/430,./.-/9:*+.
)?.K\O.:/563;3:/06-.IMP.RZZ(./01.P\.0)0<RZZ(T>.
%?. 67+-+=. KOX. -621+06-. IMO. +F:+539+06/*. /01.
ML.;)9:/53-)0T. :/563;3:/6+1. 30. 67+. +0635+. -621B>.
E34+. )?. 67+-+. -621+06-. 8+5+. 5+9)4+1. ?5)9. 67+.
-/9:*+.@+;/2-+.67+B.8+5+. +05)**+1. 30./0.RZZ(.
;*/--.@26.131. 0)6.:/563;3:/6+.30.67+. -+543;+.;)9<
SRQHQWOHDYLQJD¿QDOVDPSOHRISDUWLFLSDQWV
IPO.?+9/*+-./01.SS.9/*+-T>.%?.67+-+=.\M>]h.8+5+.
8736+=.0)0<A3-:/03;=.X\h.8+5+.A3-:/03;=.KS>Xh.
ZHUHEODFNQRQ+LVSDQLFDQGZHUH$VLDQ
3DFL¿F,VODQGHU)LIW\WZRSHUFHQWRIWKHVWXGHQWV
*34+.)0.;/9:2->.
#7356B.-621+06-.?5)9. 67+.30363/*.KX].-621+06-.
:/563;3:/6+1.30./.?)**)8<2:>.#7356++0.8+5+.)53,3<
0/**B.30.67+.;)9:/53-)0.,5)2:./01.K].8+5+.)53,3<
0/**B. 30. 67+. +F:+539+06/*. ,5)2:>. %?. 67+-+=. XO.
8+5+. ?+9/*+. /01. ]. 8+5+. 9/*+>. E3?6B<-+4+0. :+5<
;+06.8+5+.8736+=.KYh.8+5+.@*/;C=.0)0<A3-:/03;=.
ZHUH+LVSDQLFDQGZHUH$VLDQ3DFL¿F
!-*/01+5>
Procedures
$ TXDVLH[SHULPHQWDO ORQJLWXGLQDO QRQ
+H234/*+06=.;)065)*.,5)2:.8367./.:5+<=.:)-6=. /01.
?)**)8<2:. 6+-6-. 1+-3,0. 8/-. 39:*+9+06+1>. &/6/.
8+5+. ;)**+;6+1=. 12530,. ;*/--. 639+=. /6. 67+. @+,30<
030,.)?.67+.-+9+-6+5./01./6.67+.+01.)?.67+.-+9+-<
6+5>.E)**)8<2:.1/6/.8+5+.;)**+;6+1./6./.;)04+03+06.
639+. ?)5. -621+06-. 12530,. 67+35. -+;)01. -+9+-6+5.
-):7)9)5+.B+/5>.
!0. 67+. :5+<6+-6=. 8+. ;)**+;6+1. 30?)59/63)0.
)0. 5+/130+--. 6). *+/50=. 30;*2130,. :53)5. -+543;+<
*+/5030,. +F:+53+0;+. /01. :53)5. ,+0+5/634+. *+/50<
30,.+F:+53+0;+>.W+./*-).;)**+;6+1.4/53)2-.1+9)<
JUDSKLFV VXFK DV ¿QDQFLDO VWDWXV RI SDUHQWV DQG
ZKHWKHUWKH\OLYHGRQRURIIFDPSXV,QWKH¿UVW
:)-6<6+-6=. 8+. ;)**+;6+1. 30?)59/63)0. )0. ;255+06.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,./01.67+.*+/5030,.)26;)9+-.)?.
;343;./663621+-./01. 8+**<@+30,>.!0.67+.?)**)8<2:=.
8+. ;)**+;6+1. 30?)59/63)0. )0. *+/5030,. )26;)9+-.
30;*2130,./;/1+93;./663621+-=.;343;./663621+-./01.
@+7/43)5=./01.8+**<@+30,>.!0./11363)0=.8+.;)**+;6<
+1.30?)59/63)0.)0. 1+9),5/:73;-.I5/;+=.-+F=./01.
DJH SHUIRUPDQFH LQGLFDWRUV 6$7 VFRUHV KLJK
VFKRRO *3$ DQG JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH IURP WKH
2034+5-36B. 30?)59/63)0. -B-6+9. /6. 67+. +01. )?. 67+.
-+9+-6+5./01./6.67+.+01.)?.67+.-:530,.-+9+-6+5>
0($685(6
Readiness'to'learn
V53)5.-+543;+.*+/5030,>.W+.2-+.)0+.36+9.?5)9.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
8
67+.:5+<6+-6._!0.67+.*/-6.B+/5=.:+5?)59+1.;)992<
036B<-+543;+./-.:/56.)?./.;*/-->`.#7+.S.:)306.-;/*+.
5/0,+1.?5)9."+4+5iK.6).j+5B.%?6+0iS>
V53)5.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.W+.9+/-25+1.:53)5.
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30. 68). 8/B->. E35-6. 8+. /-<
-+--+1. @+7/43)5-. 3013;/630,. :25:)-+?2*. -++C30,.
/01. 65B30,. )26. 0+8. -C3**-=. 0+8. 30?)59/63)0=. )5.
0+8.8/B-. )?. 306+5/;630,. 8367. )67+5->. W+.;/**+1.
673-. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,>. #7+. :53)5. ,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,.-;/*+-.8/-.;5+/6+1.2-30,.67+.?)**)830,.
36+9-.?5)9.67+.:5+<6+-6[.!0.67+.:/-6.B+/5.!.7/4+[
.
 /-C+1./.H2+-63)0.30.;*/--.)5.;)0653@26+.6).;*/--.
13-;2--3)0-.
 9/1+./.;*/--.:5+-+06/63)0.
 8)5C+1.)0./.:/:+5.)5.:5)b+;6.67/6.5+H235+1.30<
6+,5/630,. 31+/-. )5. 30?)59/63)0. ?5)9. 4/53)2-.
-)25;+-.
 8)5C+1.8367.)67+5.-621+06-.)0.:5)b+;6-.125<
30,.;*/--.
 :26. 6),+67+5. 31+/-. )5. ;)0;+:6-. ?5)9. 13??+5<
+06. ;)25-+-. 87+0. ;)9:*+630,. /--3,09+06-.
)5.12530,.;*/--.13-;2--3)0=./01.D6213+1.8367.
)67+5.-621+06->.
D+;)01=. 8+. /--+--+1. @+7/43)5-. 3013;/630,.
67/6. -621+06-. 8+5+. 13-+0,/,+1. ?5)9. ,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,>. W+. ;/**+1. 673-. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9.
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,>=. #7+. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.-;/*+-.8/-.;5+/6+1.2-30,.67+.
?)**)830,.36+9-[.!0.67+.:/-6.B+/5.!.7/4+[.
 ;)9+.6).;*/--.8367)26.;)9:*+630,.5+/130,-.)5.
/--3,09+06-
 ?/3*+1.6).;)9:*+6+.;)25-+-.30.;*/--
 ?+*6.@)5+1.30.;*/--.
 ;)9+.*/6+.6).;*/--
 )4+5-*+:6=./01.93--+1./.;*/--.)5./::)3069+06
 ?/**+0./-*++:.12530,.;*/-->.
!0.67+.:5+<6+-6=.-621+06-.3013;/6+1.7)8.)?6+0.67+B.
HQJDJHGLQWKHVHEHKDYLRUVGXULQJWKHLU¿QDO\HDU
30.73,7.-;7))*>.
D621+06-. 5/6+1. 7)8. )?6+0. 67+B. +0,/,+1. 30.
+/;7. @+7/43)5. )0. /. S. :)306. -;/*+. 5/0,30,. ?5)9.
"+4+5iK.6).j+5B.%?6+0iS>.D;/*+.5+*3/@3*363+-.I;)<
HI¿FLHQWDOSKDIRUWKH3ULRU*HQHUDWLYH/HDUQLQJ
SUHWHVWZDV7KHFRHI¿FLHQWDOSKDIRU3ULRU
&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,..I:5+<
6+-6T.8/-.>]P>
Generative'learning
.
W+. 9+/-25+1. ;255+06. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,.
2-30,.67+.-/9+.36+9-./-.8+. 2-+1.?)5.V53)5. Q+0<
+5/634+. Z+/5030,. /01. ?)5. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9.
Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.+F;+:6.67/6.67+.-6+9.@+,/0=.
_!0.67+.:/-6.-+9+-6+5`>.D;/*+.5+*3/@3*363+-.?)5.Q+0<
+5/634+.Z+/5030,.8/-.>]]./01.?)5.&3-+0,/,+9+06.
?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.I:)-6<6+-6T.8/-.>]Y>
Learning'Outcomes
$FDGHPLF SHUIRUPDQFH $FDGHPLF SHUIRU<
PDQFHZDVDVVHVVHGWZLFH:HXVHG¿UVWFROOHJH
VHPHVWHU*3$DQGFXPXODWLYH*3$LQWKHWKVH<
9+-6+5>.#7+-+.8+5+.)@6/30+1.675)2,7.67+.2034+5<
-36BG-.D621+06.!0?)59/63)0.DB-6+9.ID!DT>.
$FDGHPLFDWWLWXGHV$FDGHPLFDWWLWXGHVZHUH
0)6.9+/-25+1.30. 67+. :)-6<6+-6>. !0. 67+. ?)**)8<2:=.
8+. 2-+1. 67+. D621+06. V/563;3:/63)0. /01. !1+0<
WL¿FDWLRQ VXUYH\ /HLWKZRRG  -DQW]L 
Z+3678))1=.XYY]T>.#7+. )53,30/*. -254+B.30;*21+-.
QLQHVFDOHVVWXGHQWDFDGHPLFVHOIHI¿FDF\YDOX<
30,.+12;/63)0=.H2/*36B.)?.30-652;63)0=.-;7))*.1+;3<
-3)0.9/C30,=.5+-:)01. 6). 5+H235+9+06-=. ;*/--<5+<
*/6+1.30363/634+=.+F65/<;2553;2*/5./;634363+-=./.-+0-+.
)?.@+*)0,30,=./01.?/93*B.+12;/63)0/*.;2*625+>.$+<
SRUWHGVFDOHUHOLDELOLWLHVFRHI¿FLHQWDOSKDUDQJH
?5)9.>MO.6).>PL>.^+;/2-+.673-.-254+B.8/-.)53,3<
0/**B.;5+/6+1.?)5.73,7.-;7))*.-621+06-=.8+.131.0)6.
XVHDOOWKH VFDOHVDQGVOLJKWO\PRGL¿HG VRPHRI
67+.-;/*+-.?)5.;)**+,+.-621+06->.
2XU³6WXGHQW$FDGHPLF 6HOI(I¿FDF\´VFDOH
30;*21+1.67+.?)**)830,.36+9-[.!.8/-./@*+.6).201+5<
-6/01.9)-6.)?.67+.9/6+53/*.;)4+5+1.30.9B.;*/--+-=.
,IHHOFRQ¿GHQWWKDW,ZDVVXFFHVVIXOLQVFKRRO,
OHDUQHGDORWLQVFKRRODQG,DPVDWLV¿HGZLWKP\
JUDGHV &RHI¿FLHQW DOSKD LV  2XU ³9DOXLQJ´
-;/*+.30;*21+1.67+.?)**)830,.36+9-[.!.6730C.-;7))*.
Volume'1,'Number'2
9
8)5C.3-.5+/**B.39:)56/06=.!6.3-.5+/**B.39:)56/06.6).
9+. 67/6. !. ,/30. 67+. C0)8*+1,+. /01. 1+4+*):. 9B.
-C3**-.675)2,7.9B.-;7))*8)5C=.!./9.:5)21.)?.9B.
-;7))*=. !. 5+/**B. +0b)B. -;7))*. 9)-6. )?. 67+. 639+=.
$OOSHRSOHVKRXOGJHWDVPXFKHGXFDWLRQDVWKH\
;/0=./01.D;7))*.-:3536.3-.4+5B.73,7.30.9B.-;7))*>.
&RHI¿FLHQW DOSKD LV   2XU ³5HVSRQG WR 5H<
H235+9+06-`.-;/*+.30;*21+1[.!.5/5+*B. /9. */6+. ?)5.
VFKRRO,DOZD\V¿QLVKP\VFKRROZRUNRQWLPH,
1)./**.67+.7)9+8)5C.67/6.!. /9.+F:+;6+1.6).1)=.!.
5+-:)01.87+0+4+5. !./9./-C+1./.H2+-63)0. 12530,.
;*/--=./01.!. 5/5+*B.-C3:./. ;*/--.20*+--.!./9. -3;C>.
&RHI¿FLHQW DOSKD ZDV  2XU ³&ODVV5HODWHG
!0363/634+`. -;/*+. 30;*21+1[. !. +0b)B. ,3430,. 9B.
):303)0-. 12530,. ;*/--. 13-;2--3)0-=. !. ?5+H2+06*B.
/-C.H2+-63)0-.12530,.;*/--=./01.!.?5+H2+06*B.7/4+.
GLVFXVVLRQVZLWKP\WHDFKHUVDERXWWKLQJV,¿QG
LQWHUHVWLQJ&RHI¿FLHQWDOSKDZDV2XU³([<
WUDFXUULFXODU $FWLYLWLHV´ VFDOH LQFOXGHG$WWHQG<
30,.-;7))*.+4+06-.3-./.4+5B.39:)56/06.:/56.)?.9B.
*3?+./6.-;7))*=.W)5C30,.)0.-;7))*.+4+06-.3-./.4+5B.
39:)56/06.:/56.)?.9B.*3?+./6.-;7))*=.V/563;3:/630,.
/-./.9+9@+5.)?.-;7))*.)5,/03a/63)0-.3-./.4+5B.39<
:)56/06.:/56.)?.9B.*3?+./6.-;7))*=./01.!.:/563;3:/6<
HGLQH[WUDFXUULFXODUDFWLYLWLHV&RHI¿FLHQWDOSKD
8/-. >LK>. %25. _D+0-+. )?. ^+*)0,30,`. -;/*+. 30<
;*21+1[.!.?++*.!.@+*)0,./6.673-.-;7))*=.c)-6.)?.9B.
6+/;7+5-./5+.306+5+-6+1.30.9+./-./.:+5-)0=.!.9/1+.
9/0B.?53+01-.30.9B.-;7))*=.c)-6.)?.9B.6+/;7+5-.
9/1+.9+.?++*.;)9?)56/@*+.30.;*/--=.!.7/4+.,)66+0.
6).C0)8.)67+5.-621+06-.30.)25.-;7))*.5+/**B.8+**=.
!.,)6./*)0,.8367.9)-6.)67+5.-621+06-.!.9+6.30.9B.
-;7))*=.9B.6+/;7+5-.-:+06.639+. b2-6.6/*C30,.8367.
9+=.9)-6.)?.9B.6+/;7+5-.-++9.6).201+5-6/01.9+=.
/01.!.,)6./*)0,.8367.9)-6.)?.9B.6+/;7+5->.()+?<
¿FLHQWDOSKDZDV
&LYLF $WWLWXGHV ,Q WKH SRVWWHVW WHQ LWHPV
9+/-25+1./663621+-.6)8/51.;)992036B.:5)@*+9->.
E/;6)5./0/*B-3-./01.-;/*+. 5+*3/@3*363+-.8+5+.2-+1.
WRFUHDWHFDWHJRULHVIRUFLYLFDWWLWXGHV$OWKRXJK
VHYHUDOSRVVLEOHFRQ¿JXUDWLRQVRIDWWLWXGHVDURVH
12530,./.?/;6)5./0/*B-3-=.-2@-+H2+06.6+-6-.)?.5+*3<
/@3*363+-.1+6+5930+1.67/6.)0*B.)0+.-;/*+.8/-.43<
/@*+>.#73-. -;/*+.3-.;/**+1._!9:)56/0;+.)?.j)*20<
WHHULQJ´7KHVFDOHLQFOXGHG$GXOWVVKRXOGJLYH
639+.?)5.67+.,))1.)?.67+.;)992036BN.D);3/*.:5)@<
*+9-./5+.9B.;)0;+50N.!?.!.;)2*1.;7/0,+.)0+.6730,.
/@)26. -);3+6B. 36. 8)2*1. @+. 6). /;73+4+. /. ,5+/6+5.
-+0-+.)?.-);3/*.b2-63;+N.!.?++*.!.;/0.7/4+./0.39:/;6.
)0.-)*430,.67+.:5)@*+9-.30.9B.;)992036BN./01.!6.
3-.39:)56/06.?)5.9+.6).4)*206++5.9B.639+.6).7+*:.
SHRSOHLQQHHG&RHI¿FLHQWDOSKDLQWKHSRVWWHVW
ZDV$OORWKHULWHPV ZHUHGURSSHGIURPWKH
/0/*B-3->.
W+. 9+/-25+1. ;343;. /663621+-. 30. 67+. ?)**)8<
XSXVLQJWKH&RPPXQLW\ 6HUYLFH$WWLWXGHV6XU<
YH\ &6$6 6KLDUHOOD 0F&DUWK\  7XFNHU
XYYYT>..#73-. 30-6529+06.7/-.+3,76.-;/*+-.30;*21<
LQJ ³$ZDUHQHVV´ RI QHHGV LQ WKH FRPPXQLW\
W=._")59/634+.A+*:30,.^+7/43)5-`.I:+):*+.;/0.
/01.-7)2*1.7+*:.30.67+.;)992036BT=._()00+;6+1<
0+--`.I@+*3+?-.67/6.)0+.3-.:/56. )?.67+.;)992036B.
/01.-7)2*1.7+*:.)26T=._D+53)2-0+--`.I)?.67+.0++1-.
30. 67+. ;)992036BT=. _()-6-`. I;)-6-. )?. 7+*:30,T=.
³%HQH¿WV´JHQHUDOEHQH¿WVWRYROXQWHHULQJDQG
³&DUHHU%HQH¿WVDQG,QWHQWLRQV´DSHUVRQDOGH<
-35+.6).:/563;3:/6+T>. V2@*3-7+1.5+*3/@3*363+-.I;)+?<
¿FLHQWDOSKDVYDU\IURPWR6KLDUHOODHW
/*>=.XYYYT>.
(343;.@+7/43)5->.W+.9+/-25+1.)0,)30,.;343;.
@+7/43)5-.30.?)**)8<2:.2-30,./.-;/*+.@/-+1.)0.67+.
?)**)830,. 36+9-[. _V+5?)59+1. j)*206++5. W)5C=`.
_g)30+1. /. ()992036B. Q5)2:. )5. %5,/03a/63)0=`.
/01._V/563;3:/6+1.30./.E2015/3-+5>`. D621+06-. /-<
-+--+1. 67+. 1+,5++. 6). 873;7. 67+B. :/563;3:/6+1. 30.
67+-+.)0./.\.:)306.-;/*+.5/0,30,.?5)9.Ki"+4+5.6).
 9HU\ 2IWHQ &RHI¿FLHQW DOSKDIRUWKHVHLWHPV
8/-..>]X>
W+**<@+30,>. #8). 8+**<@+30,. 9+/-25+-. 8+5+.
2-+1.30.67+. :)-6<6+-6. /01. 67+. ?)**)8<2:[. (RD<&.
/01.D8ZD>.#7+.(RD<&. 3-. /. XY. 36+9. -+*?<5+:)56.
1+:5+--3)0. -;/*+. 1+4+*):+1. @B. 67+. (+06+5. ?)5.
R:31+93)*),3;/*. D6213+-<&+:5+--3)0. 9+/-25<
30,.-2@<;*303;/*. 1+:5+--3)0.I$/1*)??=.KL]]T>.#7+.
-;/*+.8/-.;5+/6+1. @/-+1.)0./.5+43+8. )?.+F3-630,.
30-6529+06->. !06+50/*. ;)0-3-6+0;B. 7/-. @++0. /-<
-+--+1./9)0,.92*63:*+.-/9:*+-.8367.(5)70@/;7.
/*:7/.@+68++0.>]M<>LK>.#7+.6+-6<5+6+-6.7/-.-7)80.
)0*B. /. 9)1+5/6+. /9)206. )?. /,5++9+06. I9)-6.
;)55+*/63)0-./5+.@+68++0. >\Y<>MYT>.#7+.-;/*+. 7/-.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
10
@++0.-7)80.0)6.)0*B.6).13??+5+063/6+.67)-+. 8367.
/01. 8367)26. /. ;*303;/**B. 13/,0)-+1. 1+:5+--3)0=.
@26./*-).6).13??+5+063/6+.67)-+.87).5+:)56+1.0++1<
LQJKHOSZLWKDQHPRWLRQDOSUREOHP$VDVFUHHQ<
30,.6))*=. 36.7/-.@++0.6+-6+1.30.)26:/63+06.-+6630,-.
/01./9)0,.:/63+06-.8367.-+4+5+.1+:5+--3)0>.
6DWLVIDFWLRQZLWK/LIH6FDOH6Z/6LVD¿YH
36+9.30-6529+06.1+-3,0+1.6).9+/-25+.,*)@/*.;),<
QLWLYHMXGJPHQWVRI RQH¶VOLIH $GHVFULSWLRQRI
:-B;7)9+653;.:5):+563+-.)?.67+.-;/*+.;/0.@+.?)201.
30.V/4)6./01.&+30+5.IKLLOT>
.
$RD'Z#D
Control'Variables.
E35-6=. 8+. ;)9:/5+1. )25. +F:+539+06/*. ,5)2:.
8367.)25.;)9:/53-)0.,5)2:.)0./.029@+5.)?.1+<
9),5/:73;-. /01. :53)5. :+5?)59/0;+. 3013;/6)5->.
D621+06-.30.67+.68).,5)2:-.131.0)6.13??+5.)0.5/;+=.
VH[DJHRUKLJKVFKRRO*3$+RZHYHUWKHWZR
JURXSV GLG GLIIHU RQ ¿QDQFLDO VWDWXV RI SDUHQWV
6$7VFRUHVDQGOLYLQJDUUDQJHPHQWV*HQHUDOO\
RXUH[SHULPHQWDO JURXSUHSRUWHGORZHU¿QDQFLDO
VWDWXVRISDUHQWVKDGORZHUWRWDO6$7VFRUHVDQG
8+5+.9)5+.*3C+*B.6).5+:)56.*3430,.)0.;/9:2-.67/0.
67+. ;)9:/53-)0. ,5)2:>. W+. 30;*21+. 67+-+. 675++.
;)065)*.4/53/@*+-.30.-2@-+H2+06./0/*B-+-. 6).;)0<
WUROIRUWKHLULQÀXHQFH,QDGGLWLRQZHORRNHGDW
;)55+*/63)0-. @+68++0. 67+. ,5)2:30,. 4/53/@*+. /01.
67+.5+/130+--.6).*+/50. 9+/-25+->. D621+06-. 30.67+.
+F:+539+06/*.,5)2:.-;)5+1.73,7+5.)0.:53)5. ,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,.I5i>KP=.:k>Y\T./01.:53)5.-+543;+.
*+/5030,.I5i>O\=.:k>YKT>.W+.+06+5.67+-+.4/53/@*+-.
/*)0,. 8367. 67+. ,5)2:30,. 4/53/@*+. 30. -2@-+H2+06.
/0/*B-+-.6)./**)8.2-.6).13??+5+063/6+.@+68++0.67+.
4/53/0;+./6653@26+1.6).,5)2:. 4+5-2-. 67+.4/53/0;+.
/6653@26+1.6).5+/130+--.6).*+/50>
D++.#/@*+.X./01.#/@*+.O.?)5.9+/0-=.-6/01/51.
1+43/63)0-=./01.;)55+*/63)0-.)?./**.4/53/@*+->
. AB:)67+-+-. K=. X/=. /01. O/. :5+13;6+1. 9/30.
+??+;6->.AB:)67+-+-. X@./01.O@.:5+13;6+1./.9)1<
+5/6)5.+??+;6>.W+.6+-6+1.67+.9/30.+??+;6-./01.67+.
9)1+5/6+1. +??+;6-. /-. -2,,+-6+1. @B. ^/5)0. /01.
U+00B. IKLPMT[. #). 6+-6. 7B:)67+-+-. K=. X/. /01. @=.
/01.O/./01.@=.8+.5/0.68).-+:/5/6+.-6+:83-+.5+<
,5+--3)0. +H2/63)0-. 8367. 67+. 675++. ;)065)*. 4/53<
DEOHV ¿QDQFLDO VWDWXV 6$7 VFRUHV DQG /LYLQJ
DUUDQJHPHQWV HQWHUHG ¿UVW JURXS YDULDEOH H[<
:+539+06/*.)5.;)9:/53-)0T=..67+.V53)5.Q+0+5/634+.
Z+/5030,. -;/*+=. 67+. V53)5. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9.
Z+/5030,. -;/*+. /01. 67+. V53)5. D+543;+. Z+/5030,.
Table'2
c+/0-=.D6/01/51.&+43/63)0-=./01.()55+*/63)0-.?)5.$+/130+--.6).Z+/50./01.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.c+/-25+-[.R0635+.D/9:*+>
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Financial Status 2.93 (1.09)
SAT scores .37** 1453.59
(181.44)
Living arrangements -.06 -.11 1.54 (.52)
Group variable -.18* -.17 .28** 1.46 (.50)
Prior generative learning -.10 -.10 .12 .18* 3.03 (.55)
Prior disengagement .06 .10 -.01 -.06 -.24** 1.91 (.58)
Prior service learning -2.4** -.24** .18* .35** .29** -.13 2.13 (1.13)
Generative learning -.08 -.11 .07 .37** .43** -.19* .27** 2.78 (.56)
Disengagement from
Learning
-.26** .02 .11 .06 -.10 .60** -.03 .01 (1.80) .45)
N=127. *p<.05, **p<.01.
Volume'1,'Number'2
11
Table'3
c+/0-=.D6/01/51.&+43/63)0-=./01.()55+*/63)0-.?)5.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.^+7/43)5-./01.Z+/5030,.%26;)9+-[.D+543;+.Z+/5030,.D621+06-.%0*B
Generative Learning 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Generative Learning .30
(.52)
Disengagement from
Learning
.07 1.8
(.46)
GPA1 .14 -.28* 2.8
(.76)
GPA2 .46 -.46 .42 2.6
(1.0)
Academic Self-Ecacy .23 -.56* .30 .60* 3.6
(.66)
Valuing .12 -.41 -.08 .17 .37 4.0
(.51)
Respond to Require-
ments
.39 -.61* .41 .77** .87** .41 3.7
(.75)
Initiative .29 -.18 .14 .27 .48 .03 .51* 3.2
(.56)
Extracurricular .42 -.31 .38 .39 .27 .23 .22 .03 3.7
(1.17)
Belonging .07 .03 -.01 .04 .17 .52* .-6 -.35 .08 3.8
(.58)
Civic Attitudes 1 .33* -.20 .11 .60* .57* -.22 .59* .26 .04 -.40 3.7
(.47)
Awareness .50* -.15 .30 .48 .31 .05 .38 .07 .55* -.11 .43 4.2
(.45)
Normative .17 -.22 .32 .58* .32 -.20 .27 -.17 .70** -.13 .48 .53* 3.9
(.60)
Connectedness .10 -.17 .21 .60* .48 -.33 .42 .31 .32 -.41 .71** .45 .73** 3.5
(.55)
Seriousness -.08 -.16 .28 .21 .39 -.37 18 -.12 .25 -.13 .56* .35 .62** .72** 3.2
(.56)
Costs -.15 .45 -.11 -.23 -.55* -.45 -.48 .00 -.58* -.20 -.22 -.25 -.45 -.22 -.38 3.0
(.59)
Benets .44 -.06 -.07 .41 .34 -.04 .26 -.05 .51* -.20 .45 .52* .70** .60* .51* -.47 4.4
(.57)
Career benets .11 -.12 .16 .17 .17 -.19 .27 -.06 .28 -.40 .39 .37 .54* .40 .49* -.43 .54* 4.4
(.67)
Intentions .47 -.06 -.05 .47 .56* .19 .33 .12 .04 .55* .37 .19 .27 .18 -.42 .47 .38 3.6
(.77
Civic Behaviors .51* .19 .17 .19 .23 .21 .11 .00 .72** .25 -.07 .47 .45 .11 .10 -.40 .45 .14 .39 3.6
(.68)
CES-D1 -.11 .18 .13 .21 -.10 -.48 -.02 .06 .07 -.45 -.11 .50* .17 .25 .18 .35 .12 .01 -.06 .00 15.9
(7.82)
CES-D2 -.15 .18 .28 .19 .28 .27 .10 .22 .15 .00 .24 -.04 -.04 -.07 -.05 .31 -.14 .13 .17 .19 14.3
(6.26)
SwLS1 .03 -.10 .20 .40 .44 .19 .21 .20 .36 .17 -.33 .07 .05 -.11 -.19 .06 -.27 .15 .20 -.52** .08 24.6
(6.04)
SwLS2 -.18 -.04 -.17 -.04 .10 .48 -.04 -.37 .24 .64** -.18 -/28 .10 -.26 -.06 -.45 .03 -.20 .16 .39 -.67** -.03 .65** 25.2
(6.25)
N=58 for rst post-test, N=17 for second post-test. *p<.05, **p<.01.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
12
36+9. +06+5+1. -+;)01N. /01. 67+. O. 306+5/;63)0-. )?.
67+.,5)2:.4/53/@*+.I+F:+539+06/*.)5.;)9:/53-)0T.
8367. 67+. V53)5. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. -;/*+=. 67+.
V53)5.&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,=.
/01.67+.V53)5.D+543;+.Z+/5030,.36+9.+06+5+1.67351>
6SHFL¿FDOO\ LQ WKH ¿UVW HTXDWLRQ ZH UH<
JUHVVHG *HQHUDWLYH /HDUQLQJ ¿UVW RQ WKH WKUHH
;)065)*. 4/53/@*+-. I$Xi>YX=. 0>->T=. -+;)01. )0. 67+.
,5)2:. 4/53/@*+=. 67+. V53)5. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,.
-;/*+=. 67+. V53)5. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. Z+/50<
30,. -;/*+=. /01. 67+. V53)5. D+543;+. Z+/5030,. 36+9.
5  S DQG ¿QDOO\ RQ WKH WKUHH LQ<
WHUDFWLRQ YDULDEOHV 5 QV7KH JURXS
YDULDEOH  S DQG 3ULRU *HQHUDWLYH
/HDUQLQJ SZHUHSRVLWLYHO\UHODW<
+1.6).Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,>
!0. 67+. -+;)01. +H2/63)0=. 8+. 5+,5+--+1. &3-<
HQJDJHPHQW IURP *HQHUDWLYH /HDUQLQJ ¿UVW RQ
67+.675++.;)065)*.4/53/@*+-.I$Xi>YL=.:k>Y\T=.-+;<
)01.)0.67+.,5)2:. 4/53/@*+=. 67+. V53)5.Q+0+5/634+.
Z+/5030,. -;/*+=. 67+. V53)5. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9.
Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.-;/*+=../01.67+.V53)5.D+543;+.
/HDUQLQJLWHP 5 SDQG¿QDOO\RQ
WKHWKUHHLQWHUDFWLRQYDULDEOHV 5 QV,Q
WKH¿UVWVWHSIDPLO\¿QDQFLDOVLWXDWLRQZDVQHJD<
634+*B.5+*/6+1.6).&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.
/HDUQLQJ S ,Q WKH VHFRQG VWHS
V53)5. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. *+/5030,. 8/-. :)-3<
634+*B. 5+*/6+1. 6). &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. Z+/5030,.
S
AB:)67+-3-. K. 8/-. :/563/**B. -2::)56+1>. D62<
1+06-.30. 67+.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+.1+9)0-65/6<
+1. 9)5+. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 67/0. -621+06-. 30. /.
0)0<-+543;+.*+/5030,.;)25-+>.A)8+4+5=.67+5+.8/-.
0). 13??+5+0;+. 30. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. ,+0+5/<
634+.*+/5030,.@+68++0.67)-+.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+./01.67)-+.0)6.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+>.
AB:)67+-3-.X/./01.X@.8+5+.0)6.-2::)56+1>.#7+5+.
8/-.0+367+5./.9/30.+??+;6.0)5./.9)1+5/6)5.+??+;6.
)?.:53)5.-+543;+.*+/5030,.)0.,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,>.
AB:)67+-3-. O/. 8/-. -2::)56+1>. V53)5. ,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,. 8/-. :)-3634+*B. 5+*/6+1. 6). ,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,. /01. :53)5. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. ,+0+5/<
634+.*+/5030,. 8/-. :)-3634+. 5+*/6+1. 6). 13-+0,/,+<
9+06. ?5)9. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,>. AB:)67+-3-. O. @.
8/-.0)6.-2::)56+1./-.67+5+.8/-.0).3013;/63)0.)?./.
9)1+5/6)5.+??+;6>
#). 6+-6. 7B:)67+-+-. S/=. S@=. S;=. /01. S1=. 8+.
FRQ¿QHGRXUDQDO\VHVWRRQO\VWXGHQWVZKRSDU<
63;3:/6+1. 30. 67+. )53,30/*. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+.
I0i\P.?)5.:5+./01.:)-6.6+-6=.0iK].?)5.67+.?)**)8<
2:T>.W+.5/0./.-+53+-.)?.5+,5+--3)0. +H2/63)0-. 5+<
,5+--30,. *+/5030,. )26;)9+-. )0. 67+. 68). ,+0+5/<
634+.*+/5030,.4/53/@*+-.IQ+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,./01.
&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,T>
Academic'performance
'
W+. 5/0. 68). 5+,5+--3)0-=. )0+. )0. 67+. +01. )?.
IUHVKPDQ VHPHVWHU *3$ DQG WKH VHFRQG RQ WKH
IRXUFXPXODWLYHVHPHVWHUV¶*3$,WLVZRUWKQRW<
LQJ WKDW WKH ¿UVW HTXDWLRQ DSSURDFKHG VLJQL¿<
;/0;+.I$Xi>KY=.:k>KYT.8367.&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.
*HQHUDWLYH /HDUQLQJ QHJDWLYHO\ UHODWHG WR *3$
 S 7KH VHFRQG HTXDWLRQ ZDV VLJ<
QL¿FDQW5 SZLWK*HQHUDWLYH/HDUQ<
LQJSRVLWLYHO\UHODWHG SDQG'LVHQ<
,/,+9+06. ?5)9. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. 0+,/634+*B.
UHODWHG S
Academic'Attitudes
'
W+. 5/0. -3F. 5+,5+--3)0->. RH2/63)0-. ?)5. /;/<
GHPLFVHOIHI¿FDF\DQGUHVSRQGWRUHTXLUHPHQWV
ZHUHVLJQL¿FDQW,WLVZRUWKQRWLQJWKDWWKHHTXD<
63)0. ?)5. +F65/<;2553;2*/5. /;634363+-. /::5)/;7+1.
VLJQL¿FDQFH 7KHUH ZDV QR VLJQL¿FDQW UHODWLRQ<
-73:.@+68++0.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.)5.&3-+0,/,+<
9+06. ?5)9. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. /01. 67+. )67+5.
675++.-;/*+-[.j/*230,=.(*/--.5+*/6+1.30363/634+=./01.
D+0-+.)?.^+*)0,30,>.
:HUHJUHVVHG6WXGHQW$FDGHPLF6HOI(I¿FD<
;B.)0.67+.68).,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.-;/*+-.I$Xi>OP=.
:k>Y\T. 8367. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. Q+0+5/634+.
/HDUQLQJ QHJDWLYHO\ UHODWHG  S
!0. 67+. -+;)01. +H2/63)0=. 8+. 5+,5+--+1. $+-:)01.
6). $+H235+9+06-. )0. 67+. 68). ,+0+5/634+. *+/50<
30,.-;/*+-.I$Xi>\S=.:k>YY\T.8367.67+.Q+0+5/634+.
/HDUQLQJVFDOHSRVLWLYHO\UHODWHG S
/01. &3-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/50<
Volume'1,'Number'2
13
LQJQHJDWLYHO\UHODWHG S:HUH<
JUHVVHG ([WUD&XUULFXODU $FWLYLWLHV RQ WKH WZR
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.-;/*+-.I$Xi>XL=. :k>KYT. 8367.
67+.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,. -;/*+.:)-3634+*B.5+*/6+1.
S
#7+-+. /0/*B-+-. 1+9)0-65/6+. :/563/*. -2::)56.
?)5.AB:)67+-+-.S/./01.S@>.D621+06-.1+9)0-65/6<
30,.73,7+5.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,./01.*)8+5.&3-+0<
,/,+9+06.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,. 7/1. 73,7+5.
*3$VSDUWLFXODUO\LQ WKHIROORZXS,QWHUPV RI
/;/1+93;. /663621+-=. -621+06-. 8367. 73,7+5. Q+0<
+5/634+.Z+/5030,./01.*)8+5.&3-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.
Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,./5+.9)5+. *3C+*B. 6).5+-:)01.
WR UHTXLUHPHQWV $QG WKRVH ZKR ZHUH OHVV 'LV<
+0,/,+1.?5)9.Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. 7/4+. 73,7+5.
DFDGHPLFVHOIHI¿FDF\
Civic'attitudes
W+.9+/-25+1.;343;./663621+-./6.67+.+01.)?.67+.
¿UVWVHPHVWHUZLWKRQHVFDOH:HPHDVXUHG&LYLF
$WWLWXGHV DW WKH HQG RI WKH VRSKRPRUH \HDU XV<
LQJWKHHLJKWVFDOHVLQWKH&6$6:H UDQ VHSD<
5/6+. 5+,5+--3)0-. )0. +/;7. )?. 67+-+. ?)5. /. 6)6/*. )?.
QLQH UHJUHVVLRQ HTXDWLRQV ,Q WKH ¿UVW HTXDWLRQ
ZH UHJUHVVHG WKH &LYLF $WWLWXGHV 6FDOH RQ WKH
68).,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.-;/*+-.I$Xi>KM=. :k>>YKT.
8367. 67+. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. -;/*+. :)-3634+*B.
UHODWHG SDQGWKH'LVHQJDJHPHQW
IURP *HQHUDWLYH /HDUQLQJ DSSURDFKLQJ VLJQL¿<
FDQFHLQ WKHQHJDWLYHGLUHFWLRQ  S
,QWKH&6$6QRVFDOHVZHUHVLJQL¿FDQWDOWKRXJK
$ZDUHQHVV DSSURDFKHG VLJQL¿FDQFH 5 
:k>KYT=.8367.67+.Q+0+5/634+..Z+/5030,.-;/*+.:)-3<
WLYHO\UHODWHG S
.
Civic'behaviors
'
W+.5+,5+--+1.)0,)30,.;343;./;634363+-. )0.67+.
WZR JHQHUDWLYH OHDUQLQJ VFDOHV $OWKRXJK WKH
HTXDWLRQ ZDV QRW VLJQL¿FDQW LW LV ZRUWK QRWLQJ
WKDW LW DSSURDFKHG VLJQL¿FDQFH 5  S
8367.67+.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.-;/*+.:)-3634+*B.5+<
ODWHG S
AB:)67+-3-.S;. 8/-. :/563/**B. -2::)56+1>. D62<
1+06-. 1+9)0-65/630,. 9)5+. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,.
8+5+. 9)5+. *3C+*B. 6). -++. 67+. 39:)56/0;+. )?. 4)*<
206++530,./6.67+.:)-6<6+-6=.9/B.@+.9)5+./8/5+.)?.
67+.39:)56/0;+.)?.4)*206++530,./6.?)**)8<2:=./01.
9/B. -7)8. /. 6+01+0;B. 6). ;)06302+. 6). +0,/,+. 30.
;343;./;634363+-.30.67+35.-):7)9)5+.B+/5>
Well[being
.
W+. 5/0. ?)25. 5+,5+--3)0-=. 68). 2-30,. (RD<&.
I:)-6<6+-6. /01. ?)**)8<2:T. /01. 68). 2-30,. D8ZD.
I:)-6<6+-6. /01. ?)**)8<2:T>. W+. 5+,5+--+1. (RD<&.
I:)-6.6+-6T.)0.67+.68).,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.-;/*+->.
$OWKRXJK WKH HTXDWLRQ ZDV QRW VLJQL¿FDQW LW LV
ZRUWK QRWLQJ WKDW LW DSSURDFKHG VLJQL¿FDQFH
I$Xi>XL=. :k>KYT. 8367. 67+. Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,.
VFDOH SRVLWLYHO\ UHODWHG  S :H UH<
,5+--+1. (RD<&. I?)**)8<2:T. )0. 67+. 68). ,+0+5/<
634+. *+/5030,. -;/*+-. I$Xi>\O=. :k>YY\T. 8367. 67+.
Q+0+5/634+. Z+/5030,. -;/*+. :)-3634+*B. 5+*/6+1.
 S 7KH UHJUHVVLRQV ZLWK WKH WZR
6Z/6ZHUHQRWVLJQL¿FDQW
AB:)67+-3-.S1.8/-.:/563/**B.-2::)56+1N.67+5+.
8/-./.5+*/63)0-73:.@+68++0.Q+0+5/634+.Z+/5030,.
/01.8+**<@+30,./-.9+/-25+1.@B.67+.(RD<&>.D62<
1+06-. 1+9)0-65/630,. 73,7+5. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,.
-;/*+./*-).-;)5+1. 73,7+5. )0.67+.(RD<&=.3013;/6<
30,.73,7+5.*+4+*-.)?.1+:5+--3)0>
&!D('DD!%"
$+-+/5;7.3-.@+,30030,.6)./;;292*/6+.67/6.-2,<
,+-6-.67/6.-+543;+.*+/5030,.7/-./.:)-3634+.39:/;6.
)0. /;/1+93;=. ;343;=. /01. 8+**<@+30,. )26;)9+-.
I-++.?)5.+F/9:*+=.V/-;/5+**/.J.#+5+0a303=.XYY\T>.
^26. *366*+. 8)5C. 7/-. B+6. @++0. 1)0+. 6). 1+6+5930+.
67+.9+;7/03-9-.675)2,7. 873;7.673-.5+*/63)0-73:.
3-.);;25530,.I-++.D8/0+5.XYY\T>.#73-./563;*+.;)0<
653@26+-.6).67+.+F3-630,.*36+5/625+.)0.-+543;+.*+/50<
30,. @B. @+,30030,. 6). 1+6+5930+. 67+. 9+;7/03-9-.
675)2,7. 873;7. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+-. *+/1. 6).
/;/1+93;=.:+5-)0/*=./01.;343;.1+4+*):9+06.8367<
30.30134312/*->.W+.2-+.D+--/./01.Z)01)0G-.IXYY\=.
XYYMT.*+/5030,.67+)5B.6).1+534+./01.6+-6.7B:)67<
+-+-.5+,/5130,.7)8.-+543;+<*+/5030,. 653,,+5-. 30<
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
14
134312/*-.6).+0,/,+.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,=.873;7.
30.6250.*+/1-.6). /;/1+93;=.;343;=./01.8+**<@+30,.
)26;)9+->. W+. -2,,+-6+1. 67/6. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+-.653,,+5.-621+06-.6). +0,/,+. 30.,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,=. :/563;2*/5*B. 67)-+. 87). 7/4+. 7/1. :53)5.
+F:+53+0;+. 8367. 673-. 6B:+. )?. *+/5030,=. /01. 67/6.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.3-./--);3/6+1.8367./;/1+93;=.
;343;=./01.8+**<@+30,.)26;)9+->
!0. *30+. 8367. 7B:)67+-+-=. )25. 5+-2*6-. -2,,+-6.
67/6.:/563;3:/630,.30./. -+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+.3-.
/--);3/6+1.8367./.,5+/6+5.2-+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/50<
30,.-2;7./-./-C30,.H2+-63)0-./01.;)0653@2630,.6).
,5)2:.13-;2--3)0-=.306+,5/630,.31+/-.?5)9.13??+5<
+06. -)25;+-. /01. +4+0. 13??+5+06. ;*/--+-=. /01. /;<
634+*B. +0,/,30,. 8367. )67+5. -621+06-. /01. ?/;2*6B.
@)67.836730.;*/--./01.)26-31+.)?.;*/-->.D393*/5.6).
67+.*36+5/625+.)0.67+.39:/;6.)?.+0,/,+1.:+1/,),B.
)0.-621+06.+0,/,+9+06.30.*+/5030,.I^3**3,=.XYY]=.
(/9:2-.()9:/;6=.XYYP=.D8/0+5=.XYY\N.W7+66+0=.
XYY]=. 30;*2130,. -+543;+. *+/5030,=. ;)992036B<
@/-+1.*+/5030,=.;)**/@)5/634+.*+/5030,=./01.:5)@<
*+9<@/-+1.*+/5030,=./9)0,.)67+5-T=.-621+06-.87).
:/563;3:/6+1.30./.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+.3013;/6+.
67/6.67+B. 7/1.+0,/,+1.30.9)5+.,+0+5/634+. *+/50<
30,. )4+5. 67+. ;)25-+. )?. 67+. -+9+-6+5. 67/0. 67)-+.
87). 7/1. 0)6. :/563;3:/6+1. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
FRXUVH6XUSULVLQJO\ ZH GLGQRW¿QGDUHODWLRQ<
-73:.@+68++0.:/563;3:/630,. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+./01.13-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/50<
30,>. D621+06-. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+. 8+5+.
b2-6./-.*3C+*B.6)./1936.67/6.67+B.93--+1. ;*/--. )5.
;/9+.6).;*/--.*/6+=.;/9+.6). ;*/--.20:5+:/5+1=.)5.
8+5+.@)5+1. /01.-*+:6.30.;*/--.)4+5.67+.;)25-+.)?.
67+.-+9+-6+5>.
E2567+59)5+=. 8+. ?)201. 67/6. :53)5. +F:+53<
+0;+.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,. I/01. 13-+0,/,+9+06.
?5)9. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,T. 8+5+. 5+*/6+1. 6). 67+.
2-+. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 12530,. 67+. -+9+-6+5>..
D621+06-.87). 2-+1. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 30. 73,7<
VFKRROFRQWLQXHGWRGRVRLQWKH¿UVWVHPHVWHURI
;)**+,+>.D393*/5*B=.67)-+.-621+06-.87).13-:*/B+1.
13-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.30.73,7<
-;7))*./*-).;)06302+1.673-.13-+0,/,+9+06.30.;)*<
OHJH $OWKRXJK WKHVH ¿QGLQJV JHQHUDOO\ VXSSRUW
)25. 7B:)67+-+-=. 67+B. 1+9)0-65/6+. 67/6. 8+. 0++1.
6).C0)8.92;7.9)5+./@)26.67+.13??+530,.6B:+-.)?.
*+/5030,.-621+06-.+0,/,+.30. /01. 67+./06+;+1+06-.
/01. ;)0-+H2+0;+-. )?. +/;7. 6B:+. I-++. E5+153;C-=.
^*29+0?+*1=.J.V/53-=.XYYS.?)5.13-;2--3)0.)?.673-.
3--2+. ?5)9. /. _-;7))*. +0,/,+9+06`. :+5-:+;634+=.
/01.c+B+5=.A)?-735+=.J.^3**3,=.XYYS=.?)5./.13-<
;2--3)0.)?.673-.3--2+.30.,5/1+.-;7))*.-621+06->T>
$OVR VLPLODU WR WKH OLWHUDWXUH $VWLQ 
KLLO=.U+9@+5.J.Z+20,=.XYY\=.'**/7.J.W3*-)0=.
XYY]T=. 8+. ?)201. 67/6. @)67. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,.
/01.13-+0,/,+9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.7/1.
/0. 39:/;6. )0. /;/1+93;=. ;343;=. /01. 8+**<@+30,.
)26;)9+-. 30. -621+06-. 87). 8+5+. 30. 67+. -+543;+<
*+/5030,.;)25-+-=.@)67. 12530,. 67+. -+9+-6+5. 67+B.
:/563;3:/6+1.30. 67+.-+543;+<*+/5030,./01.;)06302<
30,.?)5.675++. -+9+-6+5-.675)2,7.67+35.-+;)01. -+<
9+-6+5. -):7)9)5+. B+/5>. Z))C30,. )0*B. /6. 67)-+.
-621+06-.87).:/563;3:/6+1.30.67+.-+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+=.8+.?)201.67/6.67)-+.87).+0,/,+1.30.9)5+.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,./01.+0,/,+1.30.*)8+5.13-+0<
,/,+9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.7/1./.73,7+5.
*3$E\WKHHQG RIWKHLUVRSKRPRUH\HDU7KRVH
87).+0,/,+1.30.9)5+.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,./01.+0<
,/,+1. 30. *)8+5. 13-+0,/,+9+06. ?5)9. ,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,.8+5+.9)5+.*3C+*B.+0,/,+.30.-2;7.@+7/4<
3)5-./-. ;)930,. 6). ;*/--=. /0-8+530,. H2+-63)0-. 30.
FODVVDQG¿QLVKLQJDOOWKHLUVFKRROZRUNRQWLPH
/6.67+.+01.)?.67+35.-):7)9)5+.B+/5>.E2567+59)5+=.
-621+06-. 87). 1+9)0-65/6+1. *)8+5. 13-+0,/,+<
9+06. ?5)9. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 7/1. 73,7+5. /;/<
GHPLFVHOIHI¿FDF\DWWKHHQGRIWKHLUVRSKRPRUH
B+/5>.!6./::+/5-.67/6.-621+06-./5+.-6392*/6+1.6).2-+.
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. 12530,. 67+. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+./01. 67/6. 673-. ;)06302+-. 6). 7/4+. /.*/-630,.
39:/;6. )0. 67+9. 30. 6+59-. )?. /;/1+93;. /663621+-.
/01./;73+4+9+06>..
A)8+4+5=. 67+. 39:/;6. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,.
9/B. 0)6. );;25. 8367. ;343;. /663621+-. /01. @+7/4<
LRUV$OWKRXJKVWXGHQWVZKRGHPRQVWUDWHGPRUH
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. I/01. :+57/:-. *)8+5. 13-+0<
,/,+9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,T.836730.67+35.
-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+.8+5+.9)5+.*3C+*B.6).7/4+.
9)5+. :)-3634+. /663621+-. 6)8/51-. 4)*206++530,. /6.
67+. +01. )?. 67+35. -+543;+<*+/5030,. -+9+-6+5=. /0B.
13??+5+0;+-. 30. /663621+-. /01. @+7/43)5. 7/1. 13-<
Volume'1,'Number'2
15
/::+/5+1. @B. 67+. +01. )?. 67+35. -):7)9)5+. B+/5>.
V5+43)2-. 5+-+/5;7. -2,,+-6-. 67/6. :/563;3:/63)0. 30.
/. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+. 1)+-. 39:/;6. -621+06.
;343;. /663621+-. /01. @+7/43)5-. I-++. RB*+5=. Q3*+-=.
D6+0-)0=.J.Q5/B=.XYYK.?)5./. 5+43+8T>.A)8+4+5=.
36./::+/5-.67/6.9+;7/03-9-.)67+5.67/0.,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,.9/B.0++1.6).@+.1+6+5930+1.6).?2**B.20<
1+5-6/01.673-.5+*/63)0-73:>
R431+0;+. 3-. @+,30030,. 6). -2,,+-6. 67/6. -62<
1+06-.87).:/563;3:/6+.30.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-.
DUH PRUH VDWLV¿HG DQG WKHLU ZHOOEHLQJ LV HQ<
7/0;+1=. /*67)2,7. 673-. +431+0;+. 3-. :5+*3930/5B.
/01.*3936+1.30. 0/625+.ID8/0+5=.XYY\T>.A)8+4+5=.
8+.?)201.67/6.67)-+.87).+0,/,+1.30.73,7+5.,+0<
+5/634+. *+/5030,. 836730. 67+35. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
;)25-+.I/01.)67+5.;)25-+-.12530,.67/6.-+9+-6+5T.
*+1.6).,5+/6+5.1+:5+--34+.-B9:6)9-=.:)--3@*B./6.
WKHHQGRIWKH¿UVWIUHVKPDQVHPHVWHUDQGFRQ<
630230,. 675)2,7. 67+. -):7)9)5+. B+/5>. D621+06-.
87).5+,2*/5*B.+0,/,+.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.9/B.
?++*.9)5+.-65+--+1.67/0.67)-+.87).1).0)6.ID6/2@.
J. E30*+B=. XYY]T>. A)8+4+5=. 8+. /5+. 20/@*+. 6).
1+6+5930+. +F/;6*B. 87/6. 3-. ;/2-30,. 67)-+. -;)5+-.
LQ VWXGHQWV$UH WKH\ ZRUNLQJ WRR KDUG" 2U DUH
-*)8*B.8)5C30,.675)2,7.;7/0,+-.30.67+35.6730C30,.
I+>,>=. c+a35)8=. KLLK=. KLLSN. V)06+5)66). J. V+1<
HUVRQ",Q HLWKHUFDVHRXUUHVXOWV VXJJHVW
67/6.30.)51+5.?)5. -621+06-. 6).5+,2*/5*B.+0,/,+.30.
,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,=. 8+. 0++1. 6). 6730C. ;/5+?2**B.
/@)26.:5)43130,.9+;7/03-9-.6).7+*:.67+9. ;):+.
8367. ;7/0,30,. 4/*2+-. /01. :+5-:+;634+->. E2567+5.
5+-+/5;7. 3-. 0++1+1. 6). 1+6+5930+. 67+. 0/625+. )?.
67+.5+*/63)0-73:.@+68++0. +0,/,30,.30.,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,./01.8+**<@+30,=./-.8+**./-.87/6.9+;7<
/03-9-. 83**. -2::)56. -621+06-. /-. 67+B. +0,/,+. 30.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>
.
Limitations
#7+5+. 8+5+. 675++. 9/30. *3936/63)0-. 6). 673-.
-621B>. E35-6=.673-.5+-+/5;7.8/-. 0)6.)53,30/**B.1+<
-3,0+1./-./.6+-6.)?.67+.D+--/./01.Z)01)0.*+/5030,.
9)1+*. IXYY\=. XYYMTN. /01. 67+. :/563/*. -2::)56. )?.
673-.9)1+*.-2,,+-6-.67/6. 673-.8)2*1.@+./.8)567<
873*+.+F+5;3-+>.'-30,.+F3-630,.1/6/=.8+.8+5+./@*+.
6). *))C. /6. 67+. /06+;+1+06-. /01. ;)0-+H2+0;+-. )?.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.2-30,./.:5)F3+. 5/67+5. 67/0. /.
135+;6.9+/-25+.)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.A)8+4+5=.
67+. -;/*+. /01. 67+. 36+9-. 67/6. ;)9:)-+1. 36. /5+. /.
JRRG UHÀHFWLRQ RI JHQHUDWLYH OHDUQLQJ ,Q DGGL<
63)0=. 8+. 30;*21+1. /. -;/*+. 67/6. 8/-. /0. 304+5-3)0.
)?.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.!6.8)2*1.7/4+.@++0.2-+<
?2*. 6). ;)**+;6. 135+;6. 9+/-25+-. )?. /**. 675++. 6B:+-.
)?. *+/5030,[. /1/:634+=. ,+0+5/634+=. /01. 65/0-?)5<
9/634+. *+/5030,. 67/6. -621+06-. 8+5+. +0,/,30,. 30.
/01.1+6+593030,.67+.13??+530,.*+/5030,.)26;)9+-.
/--);3/6+1.8367.+/;7>.!0./11363)0=.673-.9)1+*.63+-.
30134312/*. *+/5030,. 6). ,5)2:. /01. )5,/03a/63)0/*.
*+/5030,.ID+--/.J.Z)01)0=.XYY\N.Z)01)0.J.D+-<
-/=.XYYMT>.!6.8)2*1.@+.2-+?2*.6).@+66+5.1+6+5930+.
7)8.-621+06.*+/5030,.3-.*30C+1.6).)67+5.*+4+*-.)?.
*+/5030,.30;*2130,. ?/;2*6B. /01. 67+. 2034+5-36B. /-.
/.87)*+>.
#7+.-+;)01.*3936/63)0.8/-.)25.-9/**.-/9:*+=.
:/563;2*/5*B.30.67+.?)**)8<2:>.#73-.*3936+1.-6/63-<
63;/*.:)8+5.39:/;6+1.67+./0/*B-+-. 67/6. 8+. 8+5+.
/@*+.6).2-+./01.9/B.7/4+./66+02/6+1.5+*/63)0-73:-.
I()7+0=. KLPPT. 30. 1+6+593030,. 67+. ?2**. 5+*/63)0<
-73:-.@+68++0.)25.4/53/@*+->.!6.8)2*1.@+.2-+?2*.
6).5+:*3;/6+.67+.-621B.8367./.92;7.*/5,+5.-/9:*+.
/01.2-+.9)1+*.6+-630,.-6/63-63;-.6).9)5+.?2**B.1+<
6+5930+.67+.5+*/63)0-73:-./9)0,./01.@+68++0./**.
67+.4/53/@*+->.
#7351.8/-.)25.2-+.)?./.0)0<+H234/*+06.;)9<
:/53-)0.,5)2:.6).6+-6. -+4+5/*. )?. )25.7B:)67+-+->.
$/01)93a/63)0. )?. -621+06-. 306). *+/5030,. ;)9<
92036B. 8)2*1. @+. 31+/*. @26. 3-. 0)6. 5+/*3-63;>. W+.
@+*3+4+. 8+. )4+5;/9+. 67+. 307+5+06. :5)@*+9-. @B.
3065)12;30,.5+*+4/06.;)065)*. 4/53/@*+-. 67/6. 9)-6.
13??+5+063/6+1.@+68++0.67+.68).,5)2:-./01.@B.2-<
30,.67+.-6/63-63;/*.:5);+125+-.67/6. 8+.131>.!0. /1<
1363)0=.8+./*-).*3936+1.-)9+.)?.)25.7B:)67+-+-.6).
-621+06-.30.67+.+F:+539+06/*.;)01363)0.)0*B>
.
,03/,&$7,216
Implications'for'Research
#73-.5+-+/5;7.7/1./.029@+5.)?.-65+0,67-.67/6.
7/4+. *3936+1. )67+5. -6213+-. 30. 67+. :/-6. I^530,*+.
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
16
J.A/6;7+5=.XYYYT>.W+.2-+1.67+)5B. 6).1+534+.7B<
:)67+-+->. W+. 2-+1. H2/0636/634+=. 92*63:*+. 36+9.
9+/-25+-.)?.;)0-652;6-=./.029@+5.)?.873;7.7/4+.
@++0.2-+1.:5+43)2-*B./01.7/4+.5+:)56+1.:-B;7)<
9+653;. :5):+563+->. W+. 6+-6+1. *30C-. @+68++0. 67+.
;)0-652;6-. 2-30,. -):73-63;/6+1. -6/63-63;/*. /0/*B<
VLV$QGWKLVLVDORQJLWXGLQDOVWXG\LQZKLFKZH
8+5+. /@*+. /19303-6+5. /. :5+<6+-6=. /. :)-6<6+-6. /01.
/. ?)**)8<2:. )4+5. 67+. ;)25-+. )?. 68). B+/5->. #73-.
PHWKRGRORJ\LQFUHDVHVRXUFRQ¿GHQFHLQPDNLQJ
;/2-/*.30?+5+0;+->..
#7+.-621B.8/-.1+-3,0+1. 6). +F/930+.,+0+5/<
634+.*+/5030,=.67+.39:/;6.)?.-+543;+.*+/5030,./01.
5+/130+--. 6). *+/50. )0. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,=. /01.
67+. ;)0-+H2+0;+-. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,>. c)5+.
5+-+/5;7. 3-. 0++1+1. 6). 1+6+5930+. 87/6. C301-. )?.
*+/5030,.-621+06-.+0,/,+.30./-./.5+-2*6.)?.-+543;+<
*+/5030,=.7)8.67+-+.*+/5030,.:5);+--+-.13??+5.?5)9.
67+.*+/5030,.67+B.+0,/,+.30.)67+5.:+1/,),3+-=./01.
87/6./5+.67+35.13??+530,.)26;)9+->. E)5.+F/9:*+=.
/*67)2,7.673-.-621B.1+9)0-65/6+-.67/6.:/563;3:/6<
30,. 30. /. -+543;+<*+/5030,. ;)25-+. 3-. /--);3/6+1.
8367.1+9)0-65/630,.9)5+.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,=. 36.
131. 0)6. 1+9)0-65/6+. /. *+--+030,. )?. 13-+0,/,+<
9+06.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,>.W+.0++1.6).@+66+5.
XQGHUVWDQGZKHWKHUDQ\SHGDJRJ\FDQLQÀXHQFH
-621+06-.87).7/@362/**B.1+9)0-65/6+.13-+0,/,+<
9+06=.)5.87+67+5.67+5+./5+.)67+5.73,7+5<*+4+*.30<
VWLWXWLRQDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVWKDWFDQEHPRGL¿HGWR
7+*:.-621+06-.)4+5;)9+.673-.13-+0,/,+9+06.I-++.
A2.J.U27=.XYYXT>..W+./*-).8+5+.20/@*+.6).1+6+5<
930+.3?.-621+06-.13??+5+1.30.67+35.2-+.)?./1/:634+.
*+/5030,. /01. 65/0-?)59/634+. *+/5030,>. #5/0-?)5<
9/634+.*+/5030,.8)2*1.@+.:/563;2*/5*B.306+5+-630,.
6).+F:*)5+.30.9)5+.1+6/3*./-.67+5+.3-./0.3013;/63)0.
LQWKHVHUYLFHOHDUQLQJOLWHUDWXUHWKDWUHÀHFWLRQD
65/0-?)59/634+.*+/5030,. :5);+--f-++. D+--/. /01.
Z)01)0=.XYY\T.3-./.:/563;2*/5*B.39:)56/06./-:+;6.
)?.67+.:+1/,),B>.E2625+.5+-+/5;7.-7)2*1.;)0-31+5.
1+-3,030,. -6213+-. 873;7. 8)2*1. 13-630,23-7. 67+.
13??+5+0;+-. @+68++0. /1/:634+=. ,+0+5/634+=. /01.
65/0-?)59/634+.*+/5030,=./01.67+35.-2@-+H2+06.5+<
*/63)0-73:. 8367. /;/1+93;=. ;343;=. /01. 8+**<@+30,.
)26;)9+->.
!0./11363)0=.)25.5+-+/5;7.3013;/6+-.67/6.+0,/,<
30,.30.,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.9/B.;)9+./6./.;)-6.6).
67+. -621+06->. c)5+. 5+-+/5;7. 3-. 0++1+1. 6). 9)5+.
?2**B. 1+6+5930+. 67+. 5+*/63)0-73:. @+68++0. ,+0<
+5/634+.*+/5030,./01.8+**<@+30,.)?.-621+06->.#73-.
5+-+/5;7. -7)2*1. @+. 92*63?/;+6+1=. +F/93030,. 67+.
+??+;6-. )?. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,. )0. 67+. -621+06-G.
-65+--. *+4+*-=. ;7/0,+-. /01. 1+4+*):9+06-. 30. -62<
1+06-G. 9)5/*-./01.4/*2+-=.67+.)4+5/**.;)06+06. )?.
-621+06-G.*+/5030,./-.67+B.+0,/,+.30.673-.:5);+--=.
/01.67+.):639/*.@/*/0;+.)?.92*63:*+.*+4+*-.)?.,+0<
HUDWLYHOHDUQLQJWKDWPLJKWEHPRVWEHQH¿FLDOWR
)4+5/**.)26;)9+-./01.8+**<@+30,>
.
Implications'for'Pedagogical'Practice.
#73-.-621B./11-.6).)25.,5)830,. 201+5-6/01<
30,.)?./01.2-+.)?.-+543;+<*+/5030,./01.)67+5.:+1/<
,),3+-. )?. +0,/,+9+06>. $+-+/5;7=. 30;*2130,. 673-.
)0+=.3-.1+9)0-65/630,.67+./14/06/,+-.I/01.*3936/<
63)0-T.)?.+0,/,+1.:+1/,),B.?)5.-621+06.*+/5030,.
/01.1+4+*):9+06>.!6.3-.@+;)930,.;*+/5.67/6.-62<
1+06-.0++1.6).6/C+.;)065)*.)?. 67+35.)80.*+/5030,.
/01.@+./**)8+1=.+0;)25/,+1=./01.+4+0.6/2,76.6).
1).-)>.#73-.5+-+/5;7.-2,,+-6-.67/6.)0+.)?.67+.C+B.
4/53/@*+-.3-.6B:+.)?.*+/5030,.);;25530,./-./.5+-2*6.
)?.67+.:+1/,),B>.
A)8+4+5=.)0+.)5.68).;)25-+-.2-30,.+0,/,+1.
SHGDJRJ\ DUH QRW HQRXJK $OWKRXJK VRPH VWX<
1+06-.;)9+.306).67+.2034+5-36B.5+/1B=.83**30,=./01.
/@*+. 6). +0,/,+. 30. ,+0+5/634+. *+/5030,=. /01. )67<
+5-.-++9.6). 5+-:)01. 87+0.+0;)25/,+1.6).1). -)=.
43/. ;)25-+. 5+H235+9+06-=. 67+5+. /5+. /. 029@+5. )?.
-621+06-.87).5+9/30.13-+0,/,+1.?5)9.,+0+5/634+.
*+/5030,>.V+57/:-.67+B.7/4+.0+4+5.*+/50+1.6).6/C+.
;)065)*.)?.67+35.)80.*+/5030,=.7/4+.@++0.13-;)25<
/,+1. ?5)9. 1)30,. -). I)5. +0;)25/,+1. 0)6. 6)lT=. )5.
8+5+.0)6.-6392*/6+1.6).1).-).2-30,.-+543;+.*+/50<
30,.:+1/,),B.I@26.93,76.5+-:)01.6).)67+5.?)59-.
)?. +0,/,+1. :+1/,),BT>. . !6. 3-. @+;)930,. +431+06.
67/6.36.3-.39:)56/06.6). ;7/0,+. 67+. ;2*625+.836730.
67+.2034+5-36B. 6)./.;2*625+.)?.+0,/,+9+06.873;7.
-73?6-. +0,/,+1. *+/5030,. ?5)9. 67+. :+53:7+5B. I)5.
);;/-3)0/*.;)25-+T.6).67+.;+06+5.)?.6+/;730,./01.
*+/5030,. ID8/0+5=. XYY\T>. !?. 8+. 652*B. 8/06. -62<
1+06-. 6). 39:5)4+. )0. 67+35. /;/1+93;=. ;343;=. /01.
Volume'1,'Number'2
17
8+**<@+30,.)26;)9+-=.67+B.0++1.6).6/C+.;)065)*.)?.
67+35.)80.*+/5030,=.?/;2*6B.0++1.6).*+/50.6).6+/;7.
13??+5+06*B=./01.2034+5-363+-.0++1.6).*+/50.6).;5)--.
/;/1+93;./01.-621+06./??/35-. @)201/53+-.6).:5)<
431+. -621+06-. 8367. 9)5+. -+/9*+--. )::)5620363+-.
?)5.*+/5030,.I/-.8+**./-. :5)431+. -2::)56. /01. 5+<
8/51-.?)5.?/;2*6B.6).6+/;7.30./.8/B.67/6.+0;)25/,<
+-.,+0+5/634+./01.+4+0.65/0-?)59/634+.*+/5030,T>.
!0. /11363)0=. -6213+-. -2;7. /-. 67+-+. /5+. 1+9<
)0-65/630,. 67/6. *+/5030,. )26;)9+-. /-. /. 5+-2*6. )?.
;)25-+8)5C. /5+. 92;7. @5)/1+5. 67/0. 13-;3:*30+.
VSHFL¿F NQRZOHGJH DQG EURDGHU FRPSHWHQFLHV
-2;7. /-. ;5363;/*. 6730C30,. /01. /0/*B63;/*. 5+/-)0<
30,>.A)8+4+5=.)25.,+0+5/*.?);2-.30.67+.*36+5/625+.
)0.67+-+.;),03634+.)26;)9+-.9/B.@+.*393630,./01.
20306+063)0/**B. 0/55)830,. )25. 201+5-6/0130,. )?.
:)--3@*+. *+/5030,. )26;)9+-. 67/6. 8+. 93,76. ;)0<
-31+5>. D621+06-. /5+. 1+9)0-65/630,. *+/5030,. )26<
;)9+-. 30. )67+5. 39:)56/06. /5+0/-. -2;7. /-. 67+35.
;343;. 1+4+*):9+06. /01. 67+35. 8+**<@+30,>. #7+5+.
9/B. @+. /11363)0/*. 39:)56/06. )26;)9+-. 67/6. 8+.
7/4+.0)6.B+6.;)0-31+5+1>
E30/**B=. 8+. 0++1. 6). @+. /8/5+. 67/6. -621+06-.
:/563;3:/630,. 30. -+543;+<*+/5030,. /01. )67+5. +0<
,/,+1. :+1/,),3+-. 1). 0++1. 9)5+=. )5. /. 13??+5+06.
-)56.)?=. -2::)56.12530,.67+35.-+543;+<*+/5030,.-+<
9+-6+5. /01. +4+0. /?6+58/51->. R0,/,30,. 30. 9)5+.
,+0+5/634+.*+/5030,.I/01.65/0-?)59/634+.*+/5030,.
/-. 8+**T. 92-6. @+. @/*/0;+1. 8367. 2034+5-36B. -2:<
:)56-.?)5.67+.8+**<@+30,.)?.-621+06->.#)1/BG-.-62<
GHQWV DOUHDG\ KDYH VLJQL¿FDQWO\ PRUH FRPSOH[
:5)@*+9-.67/0.67)-+.)?. /. 1+;/1+./,).I30;*2130,.
+9)63)0/*.13-65+--=.65)2@*+1.-+0-+.)?.-+*?=.1+:5+-<
-3)0=.-+F2/*. /--/2*6=.-+4+5+./0F3+6B=.-23;31+=./01.
-2@-6/0;+. /@2-+T. I^+06)0=. $)@+56-)0=. #-+0,=.
"+86)0=.J.^+06)0=.XYYOT>.W73*+. 67+5+. 3-.-)9+.
@+*3+?. 67/6. :/563;3:/630,. 30. +0,/,+1. :+1/,),3+-.
93,76.7+*:./**+43/6+.-)9+.)?.67+-+.:5)@*+9-=.)25.
5+-+/5;7.-2,,+-6-.67/6.8+.92-6.:5);++1.;/5+?2**B>
/,7(5$785(&,7('
$VWLQ $ :  6WXGHQW LQYROYHPHQW $
1+4+*):9+06/*. 67+)5B. ?)5. 73,7+5. +12;/63)0>.
g)250/*. )?. ()**+,+. D621+06. V+5-)00+*=. X\=.
XL]<OYP>
$VWLQ $ :  :KDW PDWWHUV LQ FROOHJH
E)25. ;5363;/*. B+/5-. 5+43-36+1>. D/0. E5/0;3-;)[.
g)--+B<^/--.V2@*3-7+5->
$XVXEHO'3(GXFDWLRQDOSV\FKRORJ\
$FRJQLWLYHYLHZ1HZ<RUN+ROW5LQHKDUW
J.W30-6)0>
%DQGXUD $  6RFLDO IRXQGDWLRQV RI
WKRXJKWDQGDFWLRQ$VRFLDOFRJQLWLYHWKHRU\
R0,*+8))1.(*3??-=."g[.V5+063;+<A/**>
^/5)0=. $>. J. U+00B=. &>. IKLPMT. #7+. 9)1+5/6)5<
9+13/6)5. 4/53/@*+. 13-630;63)0. 30. -);3/*. :-B<
;7)*),3;/*. 5+-+/5;7[. ()0;+:62/*=. -65/6+,3;=.
/01.-6/63-63;/*.;)0-31+5/63)0-=.g)250/*.)?.V+5<
-)0/*36B. /01. D);3/*. V-B;7)*),B=. \K=. KK]O<
KKPX>
^+06)0=.D>=.$)@+56-)0=.g>=.#-+0,=.W>=."+86)0=.E>=.
J.^+06)0=.D>.IXYYOT>.(7/0,+-.30.;)20-+*30,.
;+06+5.;*3+06.:5)@*+9-./;5)--.KO.B+/5->..V5)<
?+--3)0/*.V-B;7)*),B[.$+-+/5;7./01.V5/;63;+=.
OSIKT>
^3**3,=. D>A>. IXYY]T>. '0:/;C30,. 87/6. 8)5C-. 30.
-+543;+. *+/5030,[. V5)93-30,. 5+-+/5;7<@/-+1.
:5/;63;+-.6).39:5)4+.-621+06.)26;)9+->..$+<
WULHYHG IURP 1DWLRQDO <RXWK /HDGHUVKLS
()20;3*. $+-)25;+. Z3@5/5B. 8+@-36+[. 888>
0B*;>)5,e5+-)25;+-
^3**3,=.D>=.$))6=.D>.J.g+--+=.&>.IXYY\T>.#7+.39:/;6.
)?. :/563;3:/63)0. 30. -+543;+. *+/5030,. )0. 73,7.
-;7))*. -621+06-G. ;343;. +0,/,+9+06>. IW)5C<
30,.V/:+5.OOT>.(+06+5.?)5.!0?)59/63)0.J.$+<
-+/5;7.)0.(343;.Z+/5030,.J.R0,/,+9+06>
%ULQJOH5*+DWFKHU-$0HDQLQJIXO
9+/-25+9+06.)?.67+)5B<@/-+1.-+543;+<*+/530,.
)26;)9+-[.c/C30,.67+.;/-+.8367.H2/0636/634+.
5+-+/5;7>. c3;73,/0. g)250/*. )?. ()992036B.
D+543;+.Z+/5030,=.D:+;3/*.!--2+=.MM<]\>
^520+5=. g>. D>. IKLMYT>. #7+. :5);+--. )?. +12;/63)0>.
1HZ<RUN9LQWDJH
(/9:2-. ()9:/;6>. IXYYPT>. XYY]. D+543;+. -6/63-<
63;-[.A3,7*3,76-./01.65+01-.)?.(/9:2-.()9<
:/;6G-. /002/*. 9+9@+5-73:. -254+B>. V5)43<
1+0;+=.$![.(/9:2-.()9:/;6>
&DSUD)7KHZHERIOLIH$QHZVFLHQ<
WL¿F XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI OLYLQJ V\VWHPV 1HZ
<RUN$QFKRU%RRNV
(/:5/=.E>.IXYYXT>.#7+. 7311+0. ;)00+;63)0-[. !06+<
,5/630,. 67+. @3)*),3;/*=. ;),03634+=. /01. -);3/*.
139+0-3)0-.)?.*3?+.306)./. -;3+0;+. )?. -2-6/30<
DELOLW\1HZ<RUN'RXEOHGD\
&OD\WRQ3+$VK6/6KLIWVLQSHU<
-:+;634+[. (/:36/*3a30,. )0. 67+. ;)206+5<0)5<
9/634+.0/625+.)?.-+543;+<*+/5030,>. c3;73,/0.
g)250/*.)?.()992036B.D+543;+.Z+/5030,=.KK=.
\L<]Y>
&RKHQ- 6WDWLVWLFDO3RZHU$QDO\VLVIRU
67+.^+7/43)5/*.D;3+0;+-=.X01.+1>.R0,*+8))1=.
"g[.Z/85+0;+.R5*@/29>
()0+=.&>=.J.A/553-=.D>. IKLLMT>. D+543;+. *+/5030,.
:5/;63;+[. &+4+*):30,. /. 67+)5+63;/*. ?5/9+<
8)5C>.c3;73,/0.g)250/*. )?. ()992036B.D+5<
43;+.Z+/5030,>.OK<SO>
&+8+B=.g>.IKLOPeKLL]T>..RF:+53+0;+./01.R12;/<
WLRQ1HZ<RUN6LPRQDQG6FKXVWHU
)UHGULFNV $ %OXPHQIHOG 3&  3DULV $+
IXYYST>.D;7))*.+0,/,+9+06[.V)6+063/*.)?.67+.
;)0;+:6=.-6/6+.)?.67+.+431+0;+>.$+43+8.)?.R1<
2;/63)0/*.$+-+/5;7=.]S=.\L<KYL>.
RB*+5=.g>D>=. Q3*+-=.&>R>=.D6+0-)0=.(>c>=. J.Q5/B=.
&-$WDJODQFH:KDWZHNQRZDERXW
67+.+??+;6-.)?.-+543;+<*+/5030,.)0.;)**+,+.-62<
1+06-=.?/;2*6B=.30-636263)0-=./01.;)9920363+-=.
KLLO<XYYY. IO51. . +1T>. $+653+4+1. ?5)9. 766:[ee
ZZZVHUYLFHOHDUQLQJRUJ¿OHPDQDJHUGRZQ<
ORDGB$W$*ODQFHSGI
*DJQp1/7KHVFLHQWL¿FEDVLVRIWKH
DUWRIWHDFKLQJ1HZ<RUN7HDFKHUV&ROOHJH
V5+-->
Q3*+-=.&>.J.RB*+5=.g>.IKLLST>.#7+.67+)5+63;/*.5))6-.
)?.-+543;+<*+/5030,.30.g)70.&+8+B[.#)8/51./.
67+)5B.)?.-+543;+<*+/5030,>.c3;73,/0.g)250/*.
)?.()992036B.D+543;+.Z+/5030,=.K=.]].<.P\>.
A/58/51=. &>. IW306+5=. XYY]T>. R0,/,+1. *+/5030,.
/01. 67+. ;)5+. :25:)-+-. )?. *3@+5/*. +12;/63)0[.
^530,30,. 67+)5B. 6). :5/;63;+>. Z3@+5/*. R12;/<
63)0=.M<K\>
+LQWRQ & '  $ UHSRUW RI WKH OHDUQLQJ
-;3+0;+-. /01. @5/30. 5+-+/5;7>. $!UR". ^5/30.
D;3+0;+. !0-63626+G-.#7351. Z3?+*)0,. Z+/5030,.
"+68)5C.c++630,=.W/C)<-73=.D/36/9/=.g/:/0>..
$+653+4+1. ?5)9. 766:[ee888>)+;1>)5,e1/6/)<
+;1eMOe\PeOSLYY]LM>:1?
+RZDUG -3) $FDGHPLF VHUYLFH OHDUQ<
LQJ$FRXQWHUQRUPDWLYHSHGDJRJ\1HZ'L<
5+;63)0-.?)5.#+/;730,. /01. Z+/5030,=. ]O=. XK<
XL>
A2=.D>.J.U27=.Q>&>.IXYYXT>.^+30,.I13-T+0,/,+1.
30.+12;/63)0/**B.:25:)-+?2*./;634363+-[.#7+.30<
ÀXHQFHV RI VWXGHQW DQG LQVWLWXWLRQDO FKDUDF<
6+53-63;->. $+-+/5;7. 30. A3,7+5. R12;/63)0=. SO=.
\\\<\]\>
.HPEHU'/HXQJ'< 37KHLQÀX<
+0;+. )?. /;634+. *+/5030,. +F:+53+0;+-. )0. 67+.
1+4+*):9+06.)?.,5/12/6+.;/:/@3*363+->.D6213+-.
30.A3,7+5.R12;/63)0.O\IXT=.K\\<K]Y>
U0)8*+-=. c>. D>. IKL]\T>. D+*?<135+;6+1. *+/5030,>.
$34+5.Q)4+=.!Z[.E)**+66>
.ROE'$([SHULHQWLDO/HDUQLQJ(QJOH<
8))1.(*3??-=."g>[.V5+063;+.A/**>.
Z/-a*)=.R>=.IXYYXT>.#7+.-B-6+9-.43+8.)?.67+.8)5*1[.
$KROLVWLFYLVLRQIRURXUWLPH&UHVVNLOO1-
A/9:6)0.V5+-->
Z)01)0=. c>. J. D+--/=. j>!>. IXYYMT>. ()06302)2-.
OHDUQLQJ LQ RUJDQL]DWLRQV$ OLYLQJ V\VWHPV
/0/*B-3-. )?. 30134312/*=. ,5)2:=. /01. )5,/03a/<
63)0/*. *+/5030,>. $+-+/5;7. 30. c2*63*+4+*. !-<
-2+-=.KXO<K]X>
/HLWKZRRG . -XO\   $FDGHPLF (Q<
,/,+9+06. ()0-652;6-. /01. $+*3/@3*363+->. V+5<
-)0/*.;)99203;/63)0>
Z+3678))1>.U>.J.g/06a3=.&>.IXYYYT>.#7+.+??+;6-.)?.
13??+5+06.-)25;+-.)?.*+/1+5-73:.)0.-621+06.+0<
,/,+9+06.30. -;7))*>.!0.U>.$3*+B.J.U>.Z)23-.
IR1->T=.Z+/1+5-73:.?)5.;7/0,+./01.-;7))*.5+<
IRUP1HZ<RUN1<)DOPHU
0DVORZ$+0RWLYDWLRQDQGSHUVRQDO<
LW\ QG HG 1HZ<RUN 9DQ1RVWUDQG5H<
307)*1>
c;(*+00+B=. U>c>. J. c/563=. (>">. IXYYMT>. RF<
:*)530,. 5+*/63)0-73:-. @+68++0. -621+06. +0<
,/,+9+06. /01. -621+06. )26;)9+-. 30. ;)992<
036B.;)**+,+-[.$+:)56.)0.4/*31/63)0.5+-+/5;7>.
IW)5C30,. :/:+5T>. $+653+4+1. ?5)9. . 766:[ee
888>;;--+>)5,e:2@*3;/63)0-e;;--+hXY8)5C<
30,hXY:/:+5hXY)0hXY4/*31/63)0hXY5+<
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
18
-+/5;7hXY1+;+9@+5hXYXYYM>:1?>
c+B+5=.D>g>=.A)?-735+=.Z>=.J.^3**3,=.D>A>.IXYYST>.
7KHLPSDFWRIVHUYLFHOHDUQLQJRQ0($3$
*/5,+<-;/*+.-621B.)?.c3;73,/0.Z+/50.J.D+54+.
*UDQWHHV<HDU7ZR(YDOXDWLRQ5HSRUW'HQ<
4+5=.(%[.$c(.$+-+/5;7.()5:)5/63)0>.
c+a35)8=. g>. IKLLKT>. #5/0-?)59/634+. 139+0-3)0-.
)?./12*6.*+/5030,>.D/0.E5/0;3-;)[.g)--+B<^/-->
c+a35)8=. g>. IKLLST>. '01+5-6/0130,. 65/0-?)59/<
WLRQWKHRU\$GXOW(GXFDWLRQ4XDUWHUO\
XXX<XOX>
"/C/925/=.g>.J.(-3Ca+06937/*B3=.c>.IXYYOT>.#7+.
;)0-652;63)0. )?. 9+/030,. 675)2,7. 436/*. +0<
,/,+9+06>.!0.(>Z>c>.U+B+-.J.g>.A/316.IR1-T>.
E*)253-730,[. V)-3634+. V-B;7)*),B. /01. 67+.
/LIH :HOO/LYHG :DVKLQJWRQ '&$PHUL<
FDQ3V\FKRORJLFDO$VVRFLDWLRQ
V/-;/5+**/=. R>#>=. J. #+5+0a303=.V>#>. IXYY\T>. A)8.
&ROOHJH$IIHFWV6WXGHQWV9ROXPH$7KLUG
&+;/1+. )?. $+-+/5;7>. D/0. E5/0;3-;)[. g)--+B.
^/-->.
V/4)6=. W>=. J. &3+0+5=. R>. IKLLOT>. $+43+8. )?. 67+.
D/63-?/;63)0. 8367. Z3?+. D;/*+>. V-B;7)*),3;/*.
$VVHVVPHQW
V3/,+6=.g>=.J.!07+*1+5=.V>.IKLMLT>.#7+.:-B;7)*),B.
RIWKHFKLOG1HZ<RUN%DVLF%RRNV
V)06+5)66)=. g>Q>=. J. V+1+5-+0=. V>^>. IKLLOT. V5+<
YHQWLQJSUHMXGLFH$JXLGHIRUFRXQVHORUVDQG
HGXFDWRUV1HZEXU\3DUN&$6DJH
V536;7/51=. E>E>. J. W736+7+/1=. Q>!>=. !!!>. IXYYST>.
D+54+. /01. *+/50[. !9:*+9+0630,. /01. +4/*2<
/630,. -+543;+<*+/5030,. 30. 9311*+. /01. 73,7.
-;7))*-=. c/78/7=. "g[. Z/85+0;+. R5*@/29.
$VVRFLDWHV
V5);7/-C/=.g>.%>=.&3(*+9+06+=.(>.(>=.J.")5;5)--=.
g>.(>.IKLLXT>.!0.-+/5;7.)?.7)8.:+):*+.;7/0,+>.
$PHULFDQ3V\FKRORJLVW
5DGORII6)7KH&(6'6FDOH$VHOI
5+:)56. 1+:5+--3)0. -;/*+. ?)5. 5+-+/5;7. 30. 67+.
JHQHUDO SRSXODWLRQ $SSOLHG 3V\FKRORJLFDO
c+/-25+9+06.K=.OP\<SYK>
5DWH\ -  $ 8VHUV *XLGH WR WKH %UDLQ
1HZ<RUN3DQWKHRQ%RRNV
$),+5-=.(>.$>.IKLMLT>.E5++1)9.6).*+/50>.()*29<
@2-=.%A[.c+553**>
6HQJH 3 0  7KH ¿IWK GLVFLSOLQH 7KH
/56./01.:5/;63;+.)?.67+.*+/5030,.)5,/03a/63)0>.
1HZ<RUN'RXEOHGD\
D+--/=. j>!>. J. Z)01)0=. c>. IXYY\T>. ()06302)2-.
*+/5030,.30.%5,/03a/63)0-[.!0134312/*=.,5)2:=.
/01. )5,/03a/63)0/*. :+5-:+;634+->. c/78/7=.
1-/DZUHQFH(UOEDXP$VVRFLDWHV,QF
D+--/=. j>!>=. "/6/*+=. &>=. J. A):C30-=. (>. IXYYPT>.
#7+. +??+;6. )?. +0,/,+1. *+/5030,. )0. -621+06.
/;/1+93;=. :+5-)0/*=. /01. ;343;. 1+4+*):9+06=.
3DUW $QDO\VLV RI TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD 0RQW<
;*/35.D6/6+.'034+5-36B>.
6KLDUHOOD $ 0F&DUWK\ $0  7XFNHU 0/
IXYYYT>. &+4+*):9+06. /01. ;)0-652;6. 4/*3136B.
)?.-;)5+-.)0.67+.;)992036B.-+543;+./663621+-.
-;/*+>. R12;/63)0/*. /01. :-B;7)*),3;/*. 9+/<
-25+9+06=.MY=.XPM<OYY>
6WDXE6' )LQOH\$36XPPHU$V<
-+--30,. 67+. 39:/;6. )?. +0,/,+1. *+/5030,. 303<
WDWLYHV IRU ¿UVW\HDU VWXGHQWV 3HHU5HYLHZ
KP<XK>
D8/0+5=. Z>. IXYY\T>. W7/6. 3-. 67+. 5+-+/5;7. @/-3-.
?)5.*30C30,.+0,/,+1.*+/5030,=.-621+06.9+06/*.
7+/*67. /01. 8+**<@+30,=. /01. ;343;. 1+4+*):<
PHQW" $$&8¶V %ULQJLQJ 7KHRU\ WR 3UDF<
WLFHQG$QQXDO:RUNLQJ&RQIHUHQFH
#+5C*/=. &>Q>=. %GZ+/5B=. Z>D>=. W3*-)0=. ">R>=. J.
'LD] $  &LYLF HQJDJHPHQW DVVHVV<
PHQW/LQNLQJDFWLYLWLHVWRDWWLWXGHV$VVHVV<
9+06.':1/6+[.V5),5+--=.#5+01-=.J.V5/;63;+-.
30.A3,7+5.R12;/63)0=.KL.IOT=.K<Xm>
8OODK+:LOVRQ0$6WXGHQWV¶DFD<
1+93;.-2;;+--./01.36-./--);3/63)0.6). -621+06.
304)*4+9+06.8367.*+/5030,./01.5+*/63)0-73:-.
8367.?/;2*6B./01.:++5->.()**+,+.D621+06.g)25<
0/*=.KKLX<KXYX>
:KHWWHQ '$  3ULQFLSOHV RI HIIHFWLYH
;)25-+. 1+-3,0[. W7/6. !. 83-7. !. 7/1. C0)80.
/@)26. *+/5030,. ;+06+5+1. 6+/;730,. OY. B+/5-.
/,)>.g)250/*.)?.c/0/,+9+06.R12;/63)0=.OK=.
OOL<O\]>
$87+25127(6
!0.67+.?)25.-+543;+.*+/5030,.;)25-+-=.8+.2-+1.
Volume'1,'Number'2
19
/0. 3--2+-. @/-+1. 9)1+*. /01. /**. -+543;+<*+/5030,.
):63)0-. 8+5+. ,+/5+1. 6)8/51-. 67+. *+/5030,. /01.
1+4+*):9+06. )?. +*+9+06/5B. /01. 9311*+. -;7))*.
-621+06->.D+543;+<*+/5030,.-621+06-.;)2*1.-3,0.2:.
?)5.K.)?.67+.S.):63)0-.@/-+1.)0.+367+5.306+5+-6.)5.
)0.;)04+03+06.639+.-*)6>.
7KH¿UVWRSWLRQZDVWXWRULQJ\RXQJHOHPHQ<
6/5B.-621+06-.30.9/67./01.5+/130,./6.68).*);/*.+*<
+9+06/5B.-;7))*->.#7+-+.+*+9+06/5B.-;7))*.-62<
1+06-.8+5+.:*/;+1.30.67+.626)530,.:5),5/9.@/-+1.
)0.6+-6.-;)5+-.3013;/630,. 67/6. 67+B. 8+5+.*/,,30,.
@+7301. 30. 67+35. -C3**-. ;)9:/5+1. 6). 67+35. ,5/1+.
*+4+*>. D+543;+<*+/5030,. -621+06-. 8+5+. ,34+0. /.
-652;625+1. )53+06/63)0. /01. /. ,231+@))C. )0. 7)8.
6).626)5.67/6.7/1.@++0.:5+43)2-*B.1+4+*):+1.30./.
:/560+5-73:.@+68++0.67+.2034+5-36B./01.67+.@)/51.
)?. +12;/63)0. 30. 67+. ;)992036B>. !0. 67+. 626)530,.
+0435)09+06=.67+B.?)**)8+1./.-+6.-;7+12*+>.
#7+.-+;)01.):63)0.8/-. /. ;)9@30+1.626)530,.
/01.9+06)530,.:5),5/9./39+1. /6.9311*+.-;7))*.
-621+06-. ?5)9. /. 65/1363)0/**B. +;)0)93;/**B. /01.
+12;/63)0/**B. 13-/14/06/,+1. -;7))*. -B-6+9>.
W++C. 6). 8++C. /;634363+-. )?. 673-. :5),5/9. 8+5+.
1+-3,0+1. @B. /01. 9/0/,+1. @B. /14/0;+1. 2034+5<
-36B. -621+06-. 87). 7/1. @++0. :/563;3:/630,. 30. 67+.
:5),5/9.)4+5.67+.B+/5-./01.9)4+1.306).9/0/,+<
ULDOUROHV,QWKH¿UVWSDUWRIHDFKZHHNO\VHVVLRQ
-+543;+<*+/5030,. -621+06-. 8)5C+1. )0+<)0<)0+.
8367.67+35.9+06++-.6).7+*:. 67+9. 1). 67+35.7)9+<
8)5C.30.87/6+4+5./5+/.67/6. 67+B.0++1+1.7+*:. 30>.
!0.67+.-+;)01.7/*?.)?.67+.-+--3)0=.67+.87)*+.,5)2:.
)?.@)67.-+543;+<*+/5030,.-621+06-./01.67+35.9+0<
6++-.:/563;3:/6+1.30.,5)2:./01.*+/1+5-73:. 1+4+*<
):9+06./;634363+-. 1+-3,0+1. 6). 7+*:. 9+06)5-. /01.
9+06++-.1+4+*):.5+*/63)0-73:-. /01.6).7+*:.9+0<
6++-.@+;)9+./;H2/306+1.8367.;)**+,+.*3?+>.
#7+. 67351. ):63)0. 8/-. /. 9+06)530,. :5),5/9.
/39+1./6.*);/*. 9311*+.-;7))*.-621+06-./-. /0.):<
63)0/*. /?6+5. -;7))*. :5),5/9>. #7+. :5),5/9. 8/-.
1+-3,0+1. 6). 39:5)4+. -);3/*. -C3**-. )?. -621+06->.
R/;7.8++C.30;*21+1.13??+5+06.6):3;-.-2;7./-.@2*<
*B30,=.134+5-36B=./01.4/*2+->.W++C.6).8++C./;6343<
63+-. 8+5+. 1+4+*):+1. @B. /0. +9:*)B++. 30. -621+06.
/??/35-. 8367. 30;5+/-30,. :/563;3:/63)0. @B. -+543;+<
*+/5030,.-621+06-.)4+5. 67+. ;)25-+. )?. 67+. -+9+-<
WHU$OWKRXJKVHUYLFHOHDUQLQJVWXGHQWV ZHUH DV<
-3,0+1.30134312/*. 9+06++-=. 9)-6. /;634363+-. 8+5+.
,5)2:<@/-+1>. #73-. /**)8+1. @)67. )0+<)0<)0+. 13<
5+;63)0.8367.,5)2:.306+5/;63)0>
7KH¿QDORSWLRQZDVDQDIWHUVFKRROSURJUDP
)??+5+1.6).9311*+.-;7))*.-621+06-.30.67+.*);/*./5+/.
@/-+1.)0.;)992036B.0++1->.D621+06-.8+5+.7/0,<
30,.)26.)0.-65++6-./01.;)50+5-.30.67+.;)992036B.
/?6+5.-;7))*./-.67+B.7/1.*366*+.):63)0-.5+,/5130,.
87+5+.6).,)./01.87/6.6).1)>.#73-.:5),5/9.)??+5+1.
-/?+.-:/;+.6).7/0,.)26./01.):63)0-.?)5./;634363+->.
D+543;+<*+/5030,. -621+06-. 7+*:+1. 8367. /. 4/53+6B.
)?.;7)5+-.I-2;7./-.-3,030,.-621+06-.30./01.)26./01.
,+0+5/**B.)4+5-++30,T./-.8+**./-.6/C30,.67+.30363/<
634+.6).)??+5.):63)0-.?)5./;634363+-.I-2;7./-.:3;C<
2:.@/-C+6@/**.)5.1/0;+.;)06+-6-T>
W+./66+9:6+1.6).;5+/6+.-393*/5.+0435)09+06-.
30.+/;7.)?.67+.-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-.30.67+.+F<
:+539+06/*.;)01363)0[.#7+.V-B;7)*),B.)?.Z+/1+5<
-73:[.#7+)5B./01.V5/;63;+>.#7+.?)25.?/;2*6B.30.67+.
-+543;+<*+/5030,.;)25-+-./**. 5+;+34+1. 65/3030,. 30.
-+543;+<*+/5030,.675)2,7.67+.2034+5-36B>.#7+B.?)*<
*)8+1.67+.-/9+.-B**/@2-=.873;7.2-2/**B.30;*21+1.
13-;2--30,.*+/1+5-73:.67+)5B.)0+.1/B./.8++C./01.
YHUEDOUHÀHFWLRQVVHVVLRQVW\LQJWKHRU\WRSUDF<
WLFH LQ WKH RWKHU VHVVLRQ $OO VWXGHQWV ZURWH UH<
ÀHFWLRQVXVLQJWKHVDPHUHÀHFWLRQSURPSWVDQG
+F+5;3-+-.30.+/;7.)?.67+.S.;)25-+->
$&.12:/('*0(17
#73-.5+-+/5;7.8/-.-:)0-)5+1.30.:/56.@B.67+.^530,<
30,. #7+)5B. 6). V5/;63;+. V5)b+;6>. #7+. ^530,30,.
#7+)5B. 6). V5/;63;+. V5)b+;6. 3-. -:)0-)5+1. @B. 67+.
&KDUOHV(QJHOKDUG)RXQGDWLRQRI1HZ<RUN&LW\
DQG GHYHORSHG LQ SDUWQHUVKLS ZLWK WKH $VVRFLD<
WLRQRI$PHULFDQ&ROOHJHVDQG8QLYHUVLWLHV
Journal'of'Community'Engagement
20
... Additionally, student personality and their level of course involvement or project buy-in may dictate an individual's level of service learning engagement. Despite efforts by faculty, some students just may not connect with the project (Sessa et al., 2010). ...
... For example, students who identified a learning goal of improving communication skills might work with a local agency to provide a series of lectures or workshops on an identified topic; students who wish to gain experience working with older adults may work with an assisted living facility or nursing home to organize social events for the residents; students who want to understand fundraising in nonprofit organizations may find a community partner and hold a fundraiser or donation drive. This approach avoids the barriers previously identified by Madden et al. (2014) and aims to address Sessa et al. (2010) assertion that students just may not connect with a project organized by the faculty member. This approach follows the guidance of Hollis (2002) for a structured service learning experience (and reflective work in the classroom), but does put more onus on the student, appropriate at the graduate level. ...
... This approach also allows students the freedom to set goals and choose projects based on their interests and experience, personalizing the assignment for maximum learning potential and student engagement. As noted by Sessa et al. (2010), student buy-in impacts engagement in the project. When students plan, develop, and implement the project themselves, buy-in is likely to be higher. ...
Article
Full-text available
To provide meaningful experiential learning activities for students outside of the classroom, many social work programs are including service learning as a curricular component. Indeed, research shows that service learning is a widespread practice in higher education across academic majors. This study uses qualitative data from from 34 students in two sections of a master’s-level social work course to explore student experiences with service learning. Major themes from the students’ data are presented here. Students reported both liking and being challenged by the freedom to tailor their own experiences, described developing new skills, reported being able to apply course content/learn about the field through hands-on learning, and felt that they contributed to a community organization/agency through their service learning projects. There are often challenges to implementing service learning projects. This paper presents semi-structured service learning as an alternate model to the traditionally arranged project, giving students the opportunity to develop their own projects tailored to their interests. Instructors looking to provide educational opportunities through real world experiences will gain insight into this process and the outcomes of such a project.
... Recognizing this, Astin and Sax (1998) suggest that certain students may be more inclined than their peers to participate in service-learning courses and that these predispositions must be controlled for in research studies. To account for these predispositions, researchers sometimes remove participants with previous service-learning experience from the analyses (e.g., Prentice, 2007) or statistically control for differences in analyses (Sessa, Natale, London, & Hopkins, 2010). In addition, a few studies have begun to directly address this relationship, finding that service-learning efficacy is higher in those choosing to take service-learning courses than those choosing other courses (Reeb, 1998). ...
... Although there is no research that directly assesses whether students who tend to be academically engaged also seek out courses that may be more engaging (such as those defined as high-impact educational practices), logic suggests that students who enjoy deep/engaged learning as well as participating in class, being involved and making an effort in class, and expending energy learning may look for "engaged learning" courses that allow and encourage them to do just that. Although they did not make a hypothesis about this relationship, Sessa et al. (2010) found that those with higher academic engagement in high school were more likely to take a service-learning course during their first semester in college. In line with this finding, we predict the following relationship: ...
... In this section, we argue that although service-learning pedagogy represents the opportunity for and encourages both academic and civic engagement, students may not respond as planned. For example, Sessa et al. (2010) found that students in a service-learning course were just as likely to admit they had missed class, come to class late or unprepared, or were bored and slept in class over the course of the semester as students in non-service-learning courses. Thus, it may be that service-learning pedagogy does not universally impact the engagement of all students and that research needs to address this. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study begins to unravel the multiple bidirectional relationships between service-learning pedagogy and civic and academic engagement attitudes and behaviors. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 300 first- semester freshmen participating in either a service-learning-based learning community or a learning community without service-learning. Participants completed a pre-test at the beginning of the semester measuring high school civic and academic engagement behaviors and attitudes and a post- test at the end of the semester measuring the same variables based on their first semester in college. Students with higher civic engagement attitudes and behaviors prior to college were more likely to take a service-learning course than students with lower civic engagement attitudes and behaviors. Students in service-learning were more likely to participate in community activities than students not participating in service-learning. Finally, within the service-learning groups, students who were more academically engaged had higher academic and civic attitudinal engagement at the end of the course. Students who were more civically engaged were more likely to see lower costs of helping to themselves; they did not change in terms of their beliefs about the community’s needs. This study replicates and extends previous research to demonstrate that there are multiple bidirectional relationships among these variables that need to be taken into account in research and practice.
... Empowerment questions tap into students' sense of selfefficacy and sense of control over their environments (Cronbach's ά = 0.52). While a couple of subscales are below Cronbach's alpha of 0.7, it is understood that subscales with a Cronbach's alpha lower than 0.7 should be interpreted with caution; however, it is not uncommon in research on outcomes related to service learning to have subscales below 0.7 (see Nokes, Nickitas, Keida, & Neville, 2005;Sessa, Natale, London, & Hopkins, 2010). Furthermore, low alpha scores could be the result of other factors including too few questions, little interrelatedness of items, or no homogeneity among subscale constructs (Tavakol & Dennick, 2011, p. 54). ...
... In other words, faculty members need to guide students through the process so they are engaged and can take control of their own learning. Yet researchers caution that some students may remain disengaged from the process despite the best efforts of their faculty (Sessa, Natale, London, & Hopkins, 2010). Some students may be shy and become nervous when asked to conduct interviews and deliver presentations. ...
... Although they did not explore how students integrated their ABs with later career experiences, they did demonstrate that students had an interest in connecting and applying what they learned during their ABs to their careers. In studies of longer-term service-learning programs, Sessa, Natale, London, and Hopkins (2010) found that students enrolled in a service-learning course were more inclined to integrate "ideas from different sources and even different classes" (p. 14) than were peers in a non-service-learning course, and Hughes and colleagues (2012) documented how students integrated their service experience in high-poverty environments with classroom learning about inequality. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore how students integrate learning from one particular experience, participating in a service learning-based alternative break (AB), with other postsecondary experiences and to identify the conditions that may facilitate integrative learning. Using qualitative case studies combined with narrative analysis, we analyzed data from interviews with 38 AB participants. Consistent with Barber’s (2012) theory of integrative learning, we found evidence that students were engaging in the processes of connecting, applying, and synthesizing learning from their ABs. We identified the importance of interacting with diverse others in facilitating integrative learning, but also noted barriers to integration such as difficulty connecting information across disparate contexts. Through exploring integrative learning in one particular context, the findings from this study can inform our understanding of how students are engaging in integration and improve our understanding of how educators can best support integration in higher education.
... Through hands-on activities, the participants are immersed into the environment where they learn to face and solve problems in real life context. While reflective experience is one of the essential elements in learning (Sessa, Natale, London, and Hopkins, 2010), Karasik and Wallingford (2007) pointed out that the definition of "meaningful service" in service learning needs to be determined by the community (p. 776). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the use of participatory action research (PAR) in a graduate teacher education research course. It presents data on how the Principles of Kwanzaa are exemplified in community activities in an African American community in Toledo, Ohio. Using a case study approach, the PAR focused on two questions: (1) In what ways do neighborhood people and institutions illustrate or explain the Principles of Kwanzaa? (2) How can the Principles of Kwanzaa be used to analyze the assets of a neighborhood? Data were collected through interviews, document collection, and field notes. Results demonstrate that the Seven Principles of Kwanzaa were descriptive of neighborhood values and activities. Furthermore, results suggest that the PAR process of collaborating with strong community-based partners can provide teachers with a relatively easy way to access and understand a community’s cultural values. Finally, results demonstrate potential to make community values accessible to learners for use in developing culturally relevant teaching.
Article
The challenge and opportunity for the field of evaluation is to prepare evaluators with sophisticated interpersonal competence alongside technical research skills. This article shows that service-learning, a “real-world” pedagogical model, holds promise as a way to educate students in evaluation while developing their interpersonal skills. While other community-based approaches offer experiential applications of evaluation methods, service-learning adds the important element of reflection to deepen student learning. A course that employed the “client-based” service-learning approach, individual-to-group student assignments, practice with interpersonal skills, and ongoing reflection activities is presented as a pedagogical approach to expand the range of interpersonal skills that can be developed among students. Student surveys showed that the course conveyed many benefits beyond technical knowledge of evaluation: use and awareness of important interpersonal skills, growing insight into their community and its people, growth of professional self-confidence, and kindling an interest in the field of evaluation.
Article
Full-text available
Students of organizations are beginning to recognize the importance of continuous learning in organizations, but to date the concept is not well understood, particularly in terms of how the learning of individuals is related to the learning that takes place in groups, which is related to the learning that occurs in organizations (and all other combinations). To further our understanding, we offer the idea of continuous learning in organizations from a living system's perspective. We view individuals, groups, and organizations as living systems nested in a hierarchy. We propose that living systems can learn in three ways: they can adapt, they can generate, and they can transform. Learning triggers from the environment spark learning, and this relationship is moderated by the system's readiness to learn. Readiness to learn is a function of the permeability of the system's boundaries, the system's stage of development, and the system's meta-systems perspective. Additional research questions are presented to explore learning flow between levels and to determine how the match between one system's pressure for change and another system's readiness to learn affects the emergence of adaptive, generative, and transformative learning. In addition, research questions are offered as a means to test these ideas and build grounded theory. Finally, using this model, the chapter presents three case studies and suggests diagnostic questions to analyze and facilitate continuous learning from a multi-level perspective.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was developed to assess satisfaction with the respondent’s life as a whole. The scale does not assess satisfaction with life domains such as health or finances but allows subjects to integrate and weight these domains in whatever way they choose. Normative data are presented for the scale, which shows good convergent validity with other scales and with other types of assessments of subjective well-being. Life satisfaction as assessed by the SWLS shows a degree of temporal stability (e.g., 54 for 4 years), yet the SWLS has shown sufficient sensitivity to be potentially valuable to detect change in life satisfaction during the course of clinical intervention. Further, the scale shows discriminant validity from emotional well-being measures. The SWLS is recommended as a complement to scales that focus on psychopathology or emotional well-being because it assesses an individuals’ conscious evaluative judgment of his or her life by using the person’s own criteria.
Article
This volume makes two important contributions: First, it provides a framework grounded in theory and best professional practice that middle and high school teachers, their students, and community partners can use to design, implement, and evaluate service-learning projects that address authentic community needs. Second, it demonstrates ways collaborative service-learning can enhance students' intellectual development, promote their academic achievement, strengthen their citizenship skills, and accelerate the kinds of educational accountability and reform initiatives emphasized in the national educational standards movement, and the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act. Serve and Learn: Implementing and Evaluating Service-Learning in Middle and High Schools: * provides what may be the only comprehensive guide to implementing, assessing, and celebrating service-learning in today's middle and high schools; * emphasizes and explicates a collaborative approach to service-learning in which teachers, students, and community partners team together to advance learning and meet genuine community needs; * demonstrates how service-learning teams use key elements of standards-based education, multiple intelligences theory, and cooperative learning to guide project development, implementation, assessment, and evaluation; * offers optional designs for service-learning projects that are suitable for use by interns and beginning teachers, as well as by experienced and master teachers, and that can be used in a developmental sequence by school and community partners to build from small, individual projects toward school, system, and community wide projects; and * includes end-of-chapter activities that help those who use the book as a text to practice the model and its strategies, and use results to create their own service-learning projects. The book is organized in three parts that present service-learning along a theoretical to practical continuum. Part I lays the foundations for the method by proposing a collaborative model for service-learning. Part II explicates this model and explains the four sets of processes that teams use to commit to a project, cooperatively determine students' project outcomes and ways to measure them, develop learning activities to help students achieve outcomes, and then evaluate their projects and celebrate growth. Part III provides resources for carrying out the collaborative model. A wide range of educators will find this book useful. Its distinctive contributions and features are particularly valuable for teacher educators, students, and community partners already committed to service-learning projects; to those who are introducing service-learning into their practice; and to instructional supervisors, school administrators, and community agencies seeking to create a climate for service-learning or to enrich initiatives already underway. © 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions