Elaboration d’aliments composés secs pour le Tilapia du Nil, Oreochromis niloticus (L., 1758) en élevage dans les eaux géothermales du sud tunisien

Bull Inst Nat Sci Tech Mer 01/2005; 32:56-67.


Dans le but de promouvoir l’alimentation du Tilapia en élevage dans les fermes aquacoles tunisiennes, quatre aliments composés secs ont été élaborés à partir de matières premières conventionnelles et contenant différents taux de farine de poisson de fabrication locale (0 %, 10%, 20 % et 30 %). Ces aliments composés, de 36 % de protéines brutes et 6 % de lipides, ont été testés sur des alevins de Tilapia de poids moyen initial de 2 g. Après 45 jours d’expérimentation, les poids moyens finaux ont varié entre 21,33 g et 29,34 g selon les traitements. Les meilleurs taux de croissance et de transformation alimentaire ont été obtenus par les aliments contenant 20 % et 30 % de farine de poisson, avec des taux de croissance spécifiques (TCS) respectifs de 5,82 % et 5,89 % et des taux de conversion de 1,71 et 1,49, contre un TCS de 5,2 % et un TC de 1,96 obtenus avec l’aliment témoin. Ce test qui nous a permis de disposer d’aliments performants pour le prégrossissement du Tilapia sera poursuivi pour la valorisation des sous produits agroalimentaires locaux dans l’alimentation de ce poisson.

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    • "In parallel, maize meal (MM) was reduced to adjust protein and carbohydrate contents. A practical feed (28% protein and 15.6 kJ g − 1 gross energy) containing 45% DSBM, which had previously been demonstrated to support good growth performance (Azaza et al., 2005), was used as the control. A fixed quantity of fish meal (14%) was used in all diets to include a basic level of animal protein. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the possible use of faba bean meal (FBM) in juvenile Nile tilapia-practical diets by progressively increasing its inclusion level at the expense of dehulled soybean meal (DSBM) in isonitrogenous (27.5%) and isoenergetic formulated (15.20 kJ g− 1) diets. DSBM was replaced by 12, 24 and 36% of FBM (diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively). A diet without FBM served as the control. Each diet was fed for 75 days to three replicate groups of 30 fish (17.64 ± 0.04 g; mean ± SE), arranged in a completely randomized design in an open circulation system.Survival did not differ among treatments (p > 0.05). The growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) between fish fed diets1, 2 and the control diet. By contrast fish fed diet 3 showed poorer growth and feed conversion ratio than the other groups. Apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) showed a progressive reduction with increasing FBM levels. Apparent protein digestibility (APD) decreases significantly in fish fed diet 3. No significant difference in carcass protein content was found among the treatments, but fish fed diet 3 had higher moisture and lower lipid content in carcass than fish fed in the other diets. Results showed that FBM could be incorporated up to 24% in diets of juvenile Nile tilapia which corresponds to a reduction of 20% DSBM in the control diet without compromising growth or feed conversion ratio.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Aquaculture
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    • "The practical feed used in this study (380 g kg − 1 crude protein and 17.40 kJ g − 1 gross energy) had previously been demonstrated to support good growth performance in O. niloticus (Azaza et al., 2005). It consisted of powdered fish meal, soybean meal, maize meal, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral premixes, and carboxymethylcellulose as binder. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at determining the food particle sizes (diameter) that produce the fastest growth (Sopt) in juvenile Nile tilapia, and modeling the growth penalties for particles departing from Sopt. Three 14-day experiments were run with 3, 7 and 11 g juveniles, which were raised in 120-L flow-through cylindro-conical tanks at 29 ± 1 °C, fed at the optimum feeding level (Ropt) and weighed at weekly intervals. In each experiment, four different sizes of pellets (diameter) were evaluated (0.5-mm intervals, 1.0–3.5 mm; three replications per pellet size). At the end of each experiment, food intake and gastric evacuation rate were determined by radiographic methods following the use of ballotini labelled feed.The results indicate that i) in all experiments, specific growth rates (SGRs) are significantly depressed for the largest particles; ii) Sopt increases with increasing fish size (1.4 mm at 3 g, to 2.5 mm at 20 g); iii) the optimum particle size relative to mouth width (MW) varies only slightly with fish size (28 to 25% MW from 3 to 20 g); iv) growth heterogeneity is proportional to food particle size; and, v) food intake and gastric evacuation rates are inversely proportional to food particle size. A growth model (SGR) was constructed with a stepwise multiple-regression analysis against fish size, feeding level and food particle size (R2 = 0.853, df = 71). For a particular fish size, the growth-to-particle size relationship is a log–log second order polynomial, which implies that the growth penalty is more severe when fish are fed small than large particles. By contrast, application of food particles slightly smaller than Sopt tends to minimize growth heterogeneity. As fish size increases, the width of the SGR-to-S relationship broadens; so, the penalty for distributing particles departing from Sopt is lower, and feeding strategies are facilitated.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Aquaculture
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    • "Prior to feed formulation, proximate compositions of these ingredients were determined (Table 1). On the basis of the nutrient composition of the ingredients (Table 1), a practical feed (380 g kg -1 crude protein and 18.5 kJ g -1 gross energy) which had previously been demonstrated to support good growth performance was formulated according to Azaza et al. (2005) and served as a control diet (SBM 0 ). Three other experimental diets were prepared. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of feeding heat-treated, defatted soybean meal (SBM) on growth, feed utilization, and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (SBM0) of 378gkg−1 crude protein with 18.4kJg−1 gross energy was formulated, and three diets identical to the basal diet were autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30min. The autoclaved diets were named SBM10, SBM20, and SBM30, respectively. Each diet treatment was applied to triplicate groups of 30 fish (2.45±0.03g) per tank (120l). The fish were hand fed to satiation four times daily for 45days. At the end of the feeding trial the fish fed with the SBM30 diet had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio than those fed with the other diets. No feed-related mortality was observed during the whole experimental period. Heating SBM for 30min reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and increased apparent protein digestibility (APD), and indicated significant differences (P<0.05) among various treatments. No significant differences were found in carcass moisture, lipid, and ash of fish fed with different experimental diets. An increase in the body protein content of fish fed with diet SBM30 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in all other experimental groups. The results of this study seem to indicate that autoclaving the SBM for 30min improved its nutritional value in practical feeds for Nile tilapia fingerlings.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Aquaculture International
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