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Oil of the African baobab: fatty acid and sterol composition of Adansonia digitata



Oil extd. from decorticated baobab (A. digitata) seeds contained palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at 26.7, 41.9, and 20.6%, resp., of the fatty acids present; satd. fatty acids accounted for 34.6% of the fatty acids. Sterols of the oil included β-sitosterol 81, campesterol 6.3, Δ7-stigmastenol 4.8, Δ5-avenasterol 3.4, stigmasterol 2.0, cholesterol 1.9, and Δ7-avenasterol 0.6%. The oil content of the kernels was 31.4%; the unsaponifiable fraction was 2.2%. The oil may be useful as an alimentary oil. [on SciFinder(R)]
... The saponification number of the oil was high, but the iodine value was low, indicating good stability. A similar iodine value has been reported for baobab seed oil from Madagascar [28]. Values for specific gravity and refractive index are within the range found for vegetable oils. ...
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The baobab seed and pulp were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content, and amino acid composition. The seed oil and protein were evaluated for their fatty acid profile and protein solubility. The seed was found to be a good source of energy, protein, and fat. Both the kernel and the pulp contain substantial quantities of calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Amino acid analyses revealed high glutamic and aspartic acid contents and the sulfur-containing amino acids as being the most limited amino acid. The fatty acid profile showed that oleic and linoleic were the major unsaturated fatty acids, whereas palmitic was the major saturated acid. Of the several solvents tested to solubilize the seed protein, 0.1 M NaOH was found to be the most effective. The protein was more soluble at alkaline than acidic pH. with the lowest solubility at pH 4.0.
(Oleum Baobab) synonyms: Affenbrotbaumöl (D); Kuka oil (E) – Ill. 6
Fatty acid profiles and iodine values of tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.), decorticated seeds of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.), and their mixture (one part of tigernut to three parts of baobab seeds, w/w) were chromatographically and chemically determined. All three samples contained myristic acid as the main saturated acid and oleic acid as the predominant unsaturated acid. Linoleic acid was present in the samples to the extent of 8.8–27.4%, and no other polyunsaturated acids were found. The vegetable oil mixture had the highest level of linoleate, and its possible significance in relation to the intended use in novel food formulation is discussed.
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