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Gratitude and Grit Indirectly Reduce Risk of Suicidal Ideations by Enhancing Meaning in Life: Evidence for a Mediated Moderation Model

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Abstract

We examined meaning in life as a suicide resiliency factor. Since meaning in life may be hard to directly modify, we examine gratitude and grit as factors that synergistically confer resiliency to suicide by increasing meaning in life. Using a longitudinal study of 209 college students, we find that gratitude and grit interact such that individuals endorsing high gratitude and grit experience a near absence of suicidal ideations over time. Testing a mediated moderation model we find that grit and gratitude confer resiliency to suicide by increasing meaning in life. Our findings illustrating the importance of examining co-occurring personality factors as well as the mechanisms of these factors that can confer resiliency to suicide.

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... Grit was originally conceptualized as a personality trait characterized by sustained attention to specific goal-related activities (a.k.a., consistency of interests), and persisting despite obstacles and failures (a.k.a., perseverance of effort) associated with the pursuit of long-term ambitions (Duckworth et al., 2007). Previous investigations have linked grit to increased life satisfaction (Jin & Kim, 2017;Li et al., 2018), positive emotions (Datu et al., 2016), and meaning in life (Datu et al., 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013). Grit was also related to reduced suicidal tendencies (Kleiman et al., 2013) and burnout (Salles et al., 2014). ...
... Previous investigations have linked grit to increased life satisfaction (Jin & Kim, 2017;Li et al., 2018), positive emotions (Datu et al., 2016), and meaning in life (Datu et al., 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013). Grit was also related to reduced suicidal tendencies (Kleiman et al., 2013) and burnout (Salles et al., 2014). Recently, grit has been identified as a protective psychological factor during the COVID-19 pandemic (Bono et al., 2020). ...
... Unlike previous research, the present study assessed the roles that meaning in life (the realization that life has meaning; Steger et al., 2006) and relatedness needs satisfaction (the perception that one has a sense of connectedness and significance to other people; Deci & Ryan, 2000) play in the link between TMG and well-being. Consistent with previous findings (Kleiman et al., 2013), it is reasonable to expect a positive association between grit and meaning in life given that gritty individuals are likely to understand the importance of personal struggles and even failures when pursuing long-term aspirations. As the triarchic model of grit (Datu et al., , 2018a has clearly emphasized the importance of calibrating goal-related pathways and strategies depending on contextual or situational factors and past studies have linked grit to positive interpersonal functioning (Bowman et al., 2015;Lan, 2020;Lan et al., 2019), it is possible that grit may be linked to satisfaction of basic psychological needs for relatedness. ...
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This study examined how the triarchic model of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) is related to cultivation of genuine happiness, loneliness, and COVID-19 anxiety in American ( n = 643) and Filipino ( n = 546) undergraduate students. It also explored whether grit had indirect effects on such social and well-being outcomes via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that whereas all grit dimensions were linked to increased relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in the United States, only consistency and adaptability were associated with such constructs in the Philippines. Meaning in life was related to increased cultivation of happiness and reduced loneliness in both societies. Relatedness needs satisfaction was associated with higher happiness as well as decreased COVID-19 anxiety and loneliness in the United States and the Philippines. Finally, evidence supported indirect effects of grit on cultivation of genuine happiness via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in both settings. This research complements existing literature on the relational and psychological benefits of staying gritty in different societies.
... Grit was originally conceptualized as a personality trait characterized by sustained attention to specific goal-related activities (a.k.a., consistency of interests), and persisting despite obstacles and failures (a.k.a., perseverance of effort) associated with the pursuit of long-term ambitions (Duckworth et al., 2007). Previous investigations have linked grit to increased life satisfaction (Jin & Kim, 2017;Li et al., 2018), positive emotions (Datu et al., 2016), and meaning in life (Datu et al., 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013). Grit was also related to reduced suicidal tendencies (Kleiman et al., 2013) and burnout (Salles et al., 2014). ...
... Previous investigations have linked grit to increased life satisfaction (Jin & Kim, 2017;Li et al., 2018), positive emotions (Datu et al., 2016), and meaning in life (Datu et al., 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013). Grit was also related to reduced suicidal tendencies (Kleiman et al., 2013) and burnout (Salles et al., 2014). Recently, grit has been identified as a protective psychological factor during the COVID-19 pandemic (Bono et al., 2020). ...
... Unlike previous research, the present study assessed the roles that meaning in life (the realization that life has meaning; Steger et al., 2006) and relatedness needs satisfaction (the perception that one has a sense of connectedness and significance to other people; Deci & Ryan, 2000) play in the link between TMG and well-being. Consistent with previous findings (Kleiman et al., 2013), it is reasonable to expect a positive association between grit and meaning in life given that gritty individuals are likely to understand the importance of personal struggles and even failures when pursuing long-term aspirations. As the triarchic model of grit (Datu et al., , 2018a has clearly emphasized the importance of calibrating goal-related pathways and strategies depending on contextual or situational factors and past studies have linked grit to positive interpersonal functioning (Bowman et al., 2015;Lan, 2020;Lan et al., 2019), it is possible that grit may be linked to satisfaction of basic psychological needs for relatedness. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how the triarchic model of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) is related to cultivation of genuine happiness, loneliness, and COVID-19 anxiety in American (n = 643) and Filipino (n = 546) undergraduate students. It also explored whether grit had indirect effects on such social and well-being outcomes via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that whereas all grit dimensions were linked to increased relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in the United States, only consistency and adaptability were associated with such constructs in the Philippines. Meaning in life was related to increased cultivation of happiness and reduced loneliness in both societies. Relatedness needs satisfaction was associated with higher happiness as well as decreased COVID-19 anxiety and loneliness in the United States and the Philippines. Finally, evidence supported indirect effects of grit on cultivation of genuine happiness via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in both settings. This research complements existing literature on the relational and psychological benefits of staying gritty in different societies.
... Furthermore, Kleiman et al. (2013) found that higher grit predicts the absence of suicidal risk and depressive symptoms. Likewise, Musumari et al. (2018) reported a strong negative association between grit and mental health issues, including depression and anxiety. ...
... These imply the partial protective effect of grit in that consistency of interest can buffer psychological distress caused by fear of COVID-19. Although the relationship between grit and mental health has been extensively documented in the literature (Kleiman et al., 2013;Musumari et al., 2018), our results provide novel insights into the relationship between grit and fear COVID-19. Interestingly, on the grit subscale, consistency of interest was significantly correlated with psychological distresses, whereas perseverance of effort was not. ...
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In the context of a recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the present study investigated the buffering effect of grit on the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress. The data were collected from 224 Japanese participants (98 females; mean age = 46.56, SD = 13.41) in July 2020. The measures used in this study included the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), Short Grit Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 (DASS). The results of mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of consistency of interest, a major component of grit, on psychological distress (depression: estimate = .042; 95% CI: [.008, .088], anxiety: estimate = .021; 95% CI: [.001, .050], and stress: estimate = .030; 95% CI: [.004, .066]); we also found non-significant indirect effects of perseverance of effort, another major component of grit, on psychological distress. These results suggest that consistency of interest buffers the psychological distress induced by fear of COVID-19. Based on these results, it can be concluded that individuals with higher consistency of interest are less likely to experience worsening of their mental health, even if they experience fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
... Previous studies have focused on MIL as a predictor of life satisfaction [35], psychological well-being [36,37], and stress [38,39]. MIL was found to mediate the relationship between optimism and subjective well-being [40], gratitude, grit, and suicide ideation [41]. Moreover, Hill et al. [42] found that the purpose in life is moderated by daily stress and well-being. ...
... Previous studies also pointed to the existence of a correlation between personality traits and meaning in life. For instance, gratitude and grit displayed a positive correlation with meaning in life in patients with suicide ideation [41]. Optimism was positively related to two ways of understanding meaning in life-presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life-in elderly people [40], whereas Future time perspective displayed a positive correlation with MIL in emerging adults, young and middle-aged adults [66]. ...
Article
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Resilience and meaning in life are significant indicators of psychological well-being and health, which are particularly important in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they have been explored by a growing number of scientists. There has been a research gap, however, that fails to show that time perspectives also have a significant impact on the perception and building of different life aspects. The current study investigated the associations between resilience, time perspectives and meaning in life and examined the moderating role of time perspective in the relationship between resilience and meaning in life. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 363 adults aged 18-70. Resilience Measurement Scale (SPP-25), the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL) were used. Results: The findings confirmed a positive relationship between resilience, meaning in life, and positive time perspectives (Present Hedonistic and Future) and a negative link with Past Negative and Present Fatalistic perspectives. The linear regression analyses showed that Past Negative and Past Positive perspectives significantly moderated the relationship between resilience and meaning in life. The moderating effect was also confirmed in the case of past time perspectives only. Conclusions: The findings indicate the relevance of positive resources, such as resilience and positive perception of the past, in keeping the meaning in life. Understanding the effect of psychological strengths in the context of the pandemic time can be a key to providing intervention and therapeutic services fostering mental health and well-being.
... found that grit buffered the negative effects of peer bullying and school disengagement on problematic Internet game use in adolescents (Li and Zhu, 2020). Kleiman et al. (2013) found that grit protected people from suicidal intention by increasing their pursuit of the meaning of life (Kleiman et al., 2013). Based on previous studies, this study posits that grit could buffer the impact of interpersonal stress on freshmen's psychological security, that is, grit plays a moderating role in interpersonal stress and psychological security. ...
... found that grit buffered the negative effects of peer bullying and school disengagement on problematic Internet game use in adolescents (Li and Zhu, 2020). Kleiman et al. (2013) found that grit protected people from suicidal intention by increasing their pursuit of the meaning of life (Kleiman et al., 2013). Based on previous studies, this study posits that grit could buffer the impact of interpersonal stress on freshmen's psychological security, that is, grit plays a moderating role in interpersonal stress and psychological security. ...
Article
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Grit, as an important positive psychological quality, has rarely been studied for its role involved in the mechanism between stress and psychological security. This article explores the moderating and mediating role of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security of freshmen through two studies. In study 1, freshmen from several Chinese universities ( N = 1,224) were recruited to complete a battery of questionnaire, including assessments about interpersonal stress, grit, and psychological security. The moderating effect analysis showed that grit moderated the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security. Specifically, grit buffered the negative effects of interpersonal stress on freshmen’s psychological security, but this effect was obvious only when the level of interpersonal stress was relatively low, and decreased when the level of interpersonal stress was high. In study 2, college freshmen from another university apart from above ones ( N = 604) were recruited, and we verified the results of study 1 and further explored the mediating role of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and security. The moderating effect analysis of study 2 also verified that of study 1. The mediating effect analysis showed that interpersonal stress not only negatively predicted psychological security, but also affected psychological security through the mediation of grit. In general, grit played a mediating and moderating role in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security. This study provides first-hand evidence to explain the multiple roles of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security.
... Recently, many scholars have focused on the relationship between gratitude and the meaning of life (Lin, 2019), and the research found that gratitude consistently predicted meaning in life (Kleiman et al., 2013). Gratitude is a mindful appreciation of benefits and gifts that can be attributed to the kindness of other people (McCullough et al., 2001). ...
... Gratitude is a feeling of joy and appreciation and can be viewed as "part of a wider life orientation toward noticing and appreciating the positive in the world" (Wood et al., 2010). Individuals with this life orientation tend to experience more frequent, intense, and enduring associated states in daily life (Kleiman et al., 2013). Meanwhile, grateful individuals have stronger social connections and a more positive view of the social environment, so that they can get a stronger sense of belonging and connection (Lambert et al., 2010), which will acquire more opportunities to be aware of how meaningful their life is (Lin, 2019) as well as reinforce their tendency to maintain a meaningful life (Wood et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the influence of gratitude on the meaning of life of college students and the mediating effect of family function and peer relationships. Methods: A total of 1,049 college students (mean age: 18.59 ± 0.96 years) were investigated by gratitude scale, family function scale, peer relationship questionnaire, and meaning of life scale. Results: (1) Gratitude was positively correlated with meaning existence ( r = 0.39, P < 0.05), meaning seeking ( r = 0.23, P < 0.05), and peer relationship ( r = 0.32, P < 0.05); meanwhile, it is also positively correlated with family function ( r = 0.34, P < 0.05); (2) family function partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Similarly, peer relationship partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Conclusion: The mediating model showed that grateful individuals can better sense the meaning of life by perceiving good family function and good peer relationships.
... Having meaning in life certainly brings many benefits to the functioning of the individual. However, as researchers point out, it is difficult to modify it directly, hence the idea to do so indirectly, e.g., by strengthening gratitude (Kleiman et al., 2013). It is known that both gratitude and meaning in life are positively related to psychological well-being (Krok, 2015;Kardas et al., 2019). ...
... There were no significant differences in the level of meaning in life, so our gratitude intervention has proved ineffective in this area. There is much evidence that there is a positive relationship between gratitude and meaning in life (Kleiman et al., 2013;Datu and Mateo, 2015;Disabato et al., 2017), but the effectiveness of gratitude interventions for meaning in life has not yet been studied. Researchers point out that meaning in life is rather stable (Steger and Kashdan, 2006), which may make it not so easy to strengthen with simple interventions. ...
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Background: Strengthening the sense of meaning in life and psychological well-being brings benefits for mental health. The group particularly vulnerable to mental problems are young adults, therefore the aim of our research was to explore how a gratitude intervention will affect the sense of meaning in life, psychological well-being, general health and perceived stress among them. The research also took into account the issue of expressing gratitude. Method: The study involved 80 young adults (58 women and 22 men) who were randomly assigned to the experimental group that filled out the specially prepared diaries for a week (participants were asked to list three things for which they feel grateful, to whom they are grateful and if and how they expressed their gratitude) or the control group. Participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), the General Health Questionnaire – 28 (GHQ-28), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWBS) twice (before and after intervention). Results: In the experimental group significant increases were observed in three areas of psychological well-being: environmental mastery, relationships with others and purpose in life. The significant decrease was also noted in anxiety/insomnia and depression symptoms as well as in perceived stress. There were no differences in the level of meaning in life. There was a positive relationship between expressing gratitude and meaning in life and psychological well-being. Conclusion: Proposed gratitude intervention has the potential to enhance psychological well-being among young adults, however, it may not be effective in enhancing meaning in life.
... The present study adopts this complex perspective to gain understanding of the effective coping mechanisms in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic and thus approaches meaning-centered coping as a set of emotional, cognitive and behavioral strategies that promote a sense of global meaning in life. Based on theoretical considerations and previous empirical data, these coping mechanisms include positive reframing (Park, 2010), hope (Feldman & Snyder, 2005), existential courage (Maddi, 2013), life appreciation (also termed existential gratitude: Jans-Beken & Wong, 2019; Kleiman et al., 2013), engagement in meaningful activities (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003;Schueller & Seligman, 2010), and prosociality (Klein, 2017;Van Tongeren et al., 2016). The only available questionnaire in the literature that explicitly measures meaning-focused coping includes only predominantly cognitive facets of meaning-creation (e.g., changes in situational beliefs, changes in global beliefs, and changes in goals), thus it does not fully capture the phenomena described above based on the original works of Frankl and the current empirical and theoretical studies on how humans create sense of meaning. ...
... Instead, we approached meaning-centered coping as a concept that inherently involves cognitive, emotional and behavioral elements, as well as personal and interpersonal aspects (e.g., Reker & Wong, 1988;Wong, 2012). Empirical evidence supports this integrative approach, demonstrating the involvement of the areas measured by the MCCS in the creation of meaning in life (e.g., Feldman & Snyder, 2005;Jans-Beken & Wong, 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013;Klein, 2017;Maddi, 2013;Nakamura & Csikzentmihalyi, 2003;Park, 2010;Schueller & Seligman, 2010;Van Tongeren et al., 2016). These results are consistent with the framework adopted by existential positive psychology (e.g., Wong, 2011). ...
Article
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Background/Objective This study examined the role of different psychological coping mechanisms in mental and physical health during the initial phases of the COVID-19 crisis with an emphasis on meaning-centered coping. Method A total of 11,227 people from 30 countries across all continents participated in the study and completed measures of psychological distress (depression, stress, and anxiety), loneliness, well-being, and physical health, together with measures of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, and a measure called the Meaning-centered Coping Scale (MCCS) that was developed in the present study. Validation analyses of the MCCS were performed in all countries, and data were assessed by multilevel modeling (MLM). Results The MCCS showed a robust one-factor structure in 30 countries with good test-retest, concurrent and divergent validity results. MLM analyses showed mixed results regarding emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. However, the MCCS was the strongest positive predictor of physical and mental health among all coping strategies, independently of demographic characteristics and country-level variables. Conclusions The findings suggest that the MCCS is a valid measure to assess meaning-centered coping. The results also call for policies promoting effective coping to mitigate collective suffering during the pandemic.
... The present study adopts this complex perspective to gain understanding of the effective coping mechanisms in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic and thus approaches meaning-centered coping as a set of emotional, cognitive and behavioral strategies that promote a sense of global meaning in life. Based on theoretical considerations and previous empirical data, these coping mechanisms include positive reframing (Park, 2010), hope (Feldman & Snyder, 2005), existential courage (Maddi, 2013), life appreciation (also termed existential gratitude: Jans-Beken & Wong, 2019; Kleiman et al., 2013), engagement in meaningful activities (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003;Schueller & Seligman, 2010), and prosociality (Klein, 2017;Van Tongeren et al., 2016). The only available questionnaire in the literature that explicitly measures meaning-focused coping includes only predominantly cognitive facets of meaning-creation (e.g., changes in situational beliefs, changes in global beliefs, and changes in goals), thus it does not fully capture the phenomena described above based on the original works of Frankl and the current empirical and theoretical studies on how humans create sense of meaning. ...
... Instead, we approached meaning-centered coping as a concept that inherently involves cognitive, emotional and behavioral elements, as well as personal and interpersonal aspects (e.g., Reker & Wong, 1988;Wong, 2012). Empirical evidence supports this integrative approach, demonstrating the involvement of the areas measured by the MCCS in the creation of meaning in life (e.g., Feldman & Snyder, 2005;Jans-Beken & Wong, 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013;Klein, 2017;Maddi, 2013;Nakamura & Csikzentmihalyi, 2003;Park, 2010;Schueller & Seligman, 2010;Van Tongeren et al., 2016). These results are consistent with the framework adopted by existential positive psychology (e.g., Wong, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the role of different psychological coping mechanisms in mental and physical health during the initial phases of the COVID-19 crisis with an emphasis on meaning-centered coping. Method: A total of 11,227 people from 30 countries across all continents participated in the study and completed measures of psychological distress (depression, stress, and anxiety), loneliness, well-being, and physical health, together with measures of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, and a measure called the Meaning-centered Coping Scale (MCCS) that was developed in the present study. Validation analyses of the MCCS were performed in all countries, and data were assessed by multilevel modeling (MLM). Results: The MCCS showed a robust one-factor structure in 30 countries with good test-retest, concurrent and divergent validity results. MLM analyses showed mixed results regarding emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. However, the MCCS was the strongest positive predictor of physical and mental health among all coping strategies, independently of demographic characteristics and country-level variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the MCCS is a valid measure to assess meaning-centered coping. The results also call for policies promoting effective coping to mitigate collective suffering during the pandemic.
... People who feel gratitude more often have better well-being and perceive less stress both in general (e.g., Lee et al., 2018;Nezlek et al., 2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Jiang, 2020). Individuals who feel more gratitude than others have better mental and physical health, including lower suicidal ideation (Kleiman et al., 2013), posttraumatic stress (among earthquake survivors in Indonesia, Lies et al., 2014), better sleep quality (Wood et al., 2009), and less stress (Lee et al., 2018;Nezlek et al., 2019), which in turn increase life satisfaction (Yildirim & Alanazi, 2018). Furthermore, an intervention promoting daily feelings of gratitude and grateful reflection improved daily well-being and reduced daily stress (O'Leary & Dockray, 2015). ...
... In addition, the nonsignificant partner effect may be due to the fact that we focused on feelings of gratitude, but not gratitude expression (e.g., Kleiman et al., 2013). As noted above, feeling gratitude differs from expressing gratitude to a partner, so a partner might not detect a person's gratitude feelings without their overt expression. ...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced stress and anxiety. According to past studies, positive support within married couples reduces stress during diseases and disasters, but their mechanisms are unclear. To address this gap and help individuals better cope with COVID-19-related psychological distress, this study examined the relationships among daily positive support, daily gratitude, and daily stress within married couples. In this 14-day daily diary study, 54 heterosexually married couples (N = 108) aged 28 to 71 years participated. After reporting their demographic information at the start of the study, they reported their perceived positive support from their partner, daily stress, and feelings of gratitude at the end of each day of the study for 14 consecutive days. Using a multivariate outcome, multilevel cross-classification, we found that daily positive support was negatively associated with daily stress, mediated by daily feelings of gratitude. On a day when a person reported more perceived positive support than others, this person also reported a higher level of feelings of gratitude and a lower level of stress, regardless of age. We found only an actor effect, no partner effect. These findings show how greater daily positive support is linked to greater daily feelings of gratitude, which in turn is linked to less daily stress during an emergent public health crisis. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-021-00387-0.
... Extant studies have only examined the buffering effects of gratitude and patience on minimally or moderately distressed populations, such as community samples of adolescents (Li et al., 2012;Rey et al., 2019), college students (Kleiman et al., 2013a(Kleiman et al., , 2013b or cardiovascular outpatients (Hashemi et al., 2018); researchers have not examined the protective effects of gratitude and patience for meaning struggles among participants experiencing acute and/or severe mental illness. Previous theory and research suggest protective factors are most valuable in the presence of risk factors (Kraemer et al., 2001), so gratitude and patience may be more salient during acute distress. ...
... For example, Rey et al. (2019) found that gratitude was a protective factor for bullying victimization on suicide risk and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls (but not boys) in Spain. Likewise, Kleiman et al. (2013b) found gratitude and grit reduced suicidal ideation across 4 weeks in U.S. college students through increased meaning in life. ...
Article
Objective: Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death, so research identifying protective factors is essential. Research suggests gratitude and life hardships patience are character strengths that might protect against the deleterious association of struggles with ultimate meaning and suicide risk. However, no studies have evaluated their utility among people experiencing acute/severe mental health concerns. Method: We tested the protective function of gratitude and life hardships patience with cross-sectional data from adults (Mage = 31.83 years; SD = 14.84; range = 18-82) hospitalized in a Christian psychiatric inpatient facility (Mstay = 6.37 days, SD = 4.64). Results: Gratitude and life hardships patience moderated the positive relation between meaning struggles and suicide risk. Specifically, gratitude and life hardships patience protected against meaning struggles as a risk factor for suicide through mechanisms separate from ameliorating depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Findings provide initial support for gratitude and patience interventions as an adjunct to standard psychiatric treatment for minimizing suicide risk.
... Unlike more static predictors of success (e.g., IQ and SES), grit is malleable and can be learned (Duckworth, 2016). Grit significantly impacts psychological outcomes, including commitment in school, marriage, and work (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), teaching effectiveness (Duckworth et al., 2009), intensity of physical exercise (Reed et al., 2013), and meaning in life (Kleiman et al., 2013). Individuals with grit view achievement as a long-term process; they can sustain effort over many years, despite disappointments, failures, or boredom (Duckworth et al., 2007). ...
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The individual with grit is one who engages in deliberate practice in effortful perseverance toward long-term goals, despite experiencing difficulty or struggle. We investigated how age, grade point average (GPA), college discipline, and adult attachment dimensions (close, depend, and anxiety) relate to grit. Grit, a trait-level characteristic defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, has been found to predict successful outcomes, including achievement and high performance, above and beyond talent. We recruited 797 participants through a university listserv to complete an anonymous online survey. Although studies have found gender and age variably relate to grit, we found gender had no significant relationship and age had a small but significant positive relationship with grit. Age, GPA, college discipline, and adult attachment were significant predictors of grit, with close and anxiety attachment dimensions having the largest effect. Although grit may not be inherent to a college discipline, this study joins others in finding that some college disciplines have individuals with higher levels of grit than other disciplines.
... Datu and Mateo (2015) posited that gratitude relates to higher levels of life satisfaction through the partial mediating effects of meaning in life, more specifically, presence of meaning in life. Kleiman et al. (2013) investigated the relationship between gratitude and reduction of suicidal ideation, and suggested that the combination of gratitude and grit were related to reduced suicidal ideation, and that these were partially mediated by increased levels of meaning in life. In one longitudinal study, gratitude and meaning in life predicted decreased depression levels (Disabato et al., 2017). ...
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In this mixed-methods research, we examined the practice of writing and delivering letters of gratitude (gratitude visits) and its impact on well-being, happiness, meaning and relationships for students in an online graduate program in psychology. Participants completed assessments and inventories relating to happiness, well-being and meaning in life, including the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Approaches to Happiness Questionnaire and open-ended qualitative questions before and after they wrote and delivered gratitude letters. Quantitative analyses found significant increases in meaning in life, satisfaction with life, and approaches to happiness after the gratitude visit intervention. Using a grounded theory qualitative analysis of the data, eight primary themes emerged related to the impact and meaning of gratitude letters on graduate students: (1) the impact on the relationship; (2) positive emotions experienced; (3) experiencing a reciprocal expression of gratitude from the receiver; (4) overcoming uncomfortable emotions; (5) relief, release or liberation after sharing; (6) impact on spiritual growth; (7) unexpected responses; and (8) greater reflection on the meaning of life and a changed perspective. Overall, providing graduate students with the opportunity to engage in gratitude visit interventions was related to greater meaning and well-being. This study suggests implications and recommendations related to the use of positive psychology interventions in educational settings.
... Grit is predominantly discussed in the context of academic outcomes, but lately its relevance towards work outcomes, wellbeing, and quality of life is also receiving considerable attention (Datu et al., 2018;Goodman et al., 2017;Kleiman et al., 2013;Musumari et al., 2018;Tiittanen, 2014). It is associated with greater life course achievements (Abuhassàn & Bates, 2015) and better health care management (Sharkey et al., 2018). ...
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Positive psychology nurtures the potent qualities of individuals and aids them in carving a niche for themselves. Based on this theoretical foundation, a non-cognitive trait-like grit plays an imperative role in attaining high achievement. Previous studies have identified three dimensions of grit: perseverance of effort, consistency of interest and adaptability to situations. Recent research has criticized the dimension consistency of interest in a collectivist context. The present study provides an account of grit in view of eastern perspectives to check the suitability of the construct in India. Current findings provide a framework for the development and validation of Multi-Dimensional Scale of Grit reveals four dimensions of grit, namely, adaptability to situation, perseverance of effort, spirited initiative and steadfastness in adverse situations. It also provides an insight regarding the duration of goal attainment with respect to grit. The research conducted over three studies included Indian university students to develop and examine the psychometric properties of grit. Study 1 focused on item analysis and development of the factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 confirmed the previously obtained factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis. In study 3, the psychometric properties of the scale were measured through test-retest reliability and validity, criterion, convergent and divergent. Results indicated that Multi-Dimensional Scale of Grit is a reliable and valid measure. It also indicated that the obtained 12 items and four dimensions were in synchronization with the relevant eastern perspective.
... physical fitness, conscientiousness), it is also malleable and can be cultivated in children and young adults, with positive downstream effects on effort and cognitive performance (Eskreis-Winkler, 2015). Most of the existing research on grit has focused on adolescent and young adult samples (Duckworth, Quinn, & Tsukayama, 2012;Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Silvia, Eddington, Beaty, Nusbaum, & Kwapil, 2013), with few empirical studies of grit in older adults. The focus of this study is to characterize grit in older adults and determine its impact on successful aging. ...
Article
Objectives Grit is a noncognitive trait that has been shown to increase monotonically throughout adulthood and predict late-life cognitive performance. Less is known about the relation between grit and successful aging in older adults. Method Participants over 55-years-old (N = 185) completed a series of self-report surveys assessing demographics, grit (Short Grit Scale; Grit-S), physical and emotional functioning (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey; SF-36), and changes in cognitive functioning (Everyday Cognition; ECog). Principal component analysis of the Grit-S was conducted, and then Pearson product moment correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the relations between grit, age, and measures of successful aging. Results Grit showed no association with age, even after controlling for education. Grit total score was positively associated with a variety of successful aging variables (SF-36; physical, emotional, and social functioning, energy, general health; all p’s <.001). Component analysis of the Grit-S showed a two-component solution representing Consistency and Perseverance. Both components predicted SF-36 measures of energy, general health, and emotional function (SF-36), but only Consistency predicted cognitive decline (ECog) and SF-36 measures of physical health and pain. Conclusion Grit is stable throughout older adulthood and may serve as a protective factor that promotes active adaptation to the developmental challenges of aging. Consistency of interests appears to play an adaptive role in all facets of successful aging, including stability of cognitive functioning, while perseverance of effort may have a more circumscribed positive effect on physical and emotional well-being in older adults.
... In addition to being predictive of facets of academic success in higher education, recent research has also confirmed grit as predictive of nonacademic outcomes as well. Grit is related to elevated levels of happiness, positive affect, autonomy, competence, and life satisfaction, as well as lower levels of depression, substance use, and suicidal ideation (Guerrero, Dudovitz, Chung, Dosanjh, & Wong, 2016;Jin & Kim, 2017;Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Singh & Jha, 2008). ...
Article
Due to demand for high performance inside and outside of the classroom, student-athletes are a unique subsection of college students. Researchers have focused on investigating protective factors, which may enhance student-athlete well-being and academic success in higher education and reduce athlete burnout. The current study examined grit as a mediator between parenting behaviors and academic success, mental health outcomes, and burnout in higher education among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and Division II student-athletes ( N = 202). Overparenting behaviors were negatively associated with psychological autonomy granting, mental health outcomes, and athlete burnout. Psychological autonomy granting behaviors were positively associated with grit and negatively associated with mental health outcomes and athlete burnout. Student-athlete grit mediated the relationship between overparenting behaviors and mental health outcomes. Clinical implications include improving student-athlete parent onboarding protocol; student-athlete psychoeducation; and preventative outreach and health promotion among athletes, athletic staff, and university practitioners. In summary, these findings suggest that parenting behaviors and grit are factors that require more attention in fostering student-athlete success.
... Our prediction regarding the importance of grit to eco-friendly attitudes and behaviours corroborates the fundamental tenets of invest-and-accrue model of conscientiousness (Hill & Jackson, 2016), which argues that conscientiousness or related personality traits (e.g., grit) can facilitate successful outcomes in specific domains as conscientious or gritty individuals are likely to "invest" in behaviours (e.g., buying eco-friendly products) that can "accrue" optimal domain-specific performance outcomes (e.g., reduced emission of greenhouse gas). If there is evidence showing positive relationships between perseverance and sustainable ecological behaviours (Corral-Verdugo et al., 2015) as well as grit and meaning in life (Kleiman et al., 2013), it is likely that gritty students may demonstrate increased capacity to invest in behaviours that might potentially contribute to ecological welfare. ...
Article
Objectives: Prior studies have demonstrated the educational and mental health benefits of grit — disposition to show passion and perseverance for long term goals — in different societies. However, there is limited research on how grit's dimensions relate to pro-environmental outcomes. This study aims to explore the associations of grit's dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interests) with environmental passion, environmentally friendly behaviors, and environmental awareness via a cross-sectional design. Method: A sample of 700 Filipino undergraduate students completed a self-reported survey on grit, environmental awareness, environmental passion, and pro-environmental behaviors. Structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation was used to examine the hypothesized links among grit and pro-environmental outcomes. Results: Both dimensions of grit were associated with all pro-environmental outcomes. Whereas consistency was more strongly linked to environmental passion, perseverance was more strongly related to environmentally friendly behaviors as well as environmental awareness. Conclusions: Results point to the ecological benefits of espousing passion and perseverance for long-term goals.
... Positive psychologists have long called for deeper investigations to understand how college students (especially freshmen) develop their MIL and use it to adapt to the new environment . Although there already are longitudinal studies examining MIL in college students (e.g., Kleiman et al., 2013;Steger & Kashdan, 2007;Yu et al., 2020), scant research has focused specifically on freshmen. Even less is known about the development of MIL and its antecedents and adjustment consequences. ...
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Entering tertiary education is a critical developmental task during emerging adulthood when exploration of life meaning becomes salient. A strong sense of meaning in life (MIL) plays a key role in smooth transition to college. However, little is known about how MIL develops in the first year of college, and even less is studied about the extent to which such development is a function of social relationships and predicts subsequent adjustment outcomes in college freshmen. This three-wave longitudinal research aims to address these underexplored questions, collecting data from Chinese college freshmen regarding their MIL, social relationships with parents, peers, and teachers, and a range of adjustment outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, adaptation, procrastination, and smartphone addiction) at the second (T1), fourth (T2), and eighth (T3) months upon entry into college (i.e., higher vocational training institute; T1 N = 1,578). Results of latent growth models unravelled that Chinese college freshmen’s MIL showed a slight, but significant, decrease over the first year of college. Positive relationships with mother and teachers were related to higher levels of initial MIL and a positive teacher-student relationship mitigated the decline of MIL over time. In addition, results of path analysis revealed that MIL was concurrently related to better adjustment at both T2 and T3 and that T2 MIL also predicted better adjustment at T3. Mediation analyses further revealed that T2 MIL mediated the associations between T1 teacher-student relationship quality and T3 adjustment, even after controlling for T1 MIL and T2 adjustment. These findings bear important implications for college freshmen’s positive transition to college.
... It is only recently that scholars have started to inspect this construct in general, and in language settings in particular, having the agenda to comprehend the role of grit with respect to well-being and enjoyment, in spite of the noticeable function in language education of grit in contrast to other issues (MacIntyre et al., 2019). The role of grit and its predictive impacts on educational accomplishment has been evidenced by several experts (e.g., Duckworth, 2017;Datu et al., 2018;Musso et al., 2019;Alhadabi and Karpinski, 2020;Meyer et al., 2020); however, grit has been interrelated to numerous indicators of well-being in multicultural research, pleasure, and life gratification (Kleiman et al., 2013;Jin and Kim, 2017). Studies have established that grit is significantly related to desire (Sigmundsson et al., 2020), resilience (Calo et al., 2019;Shakir et al., 2020), well-being (Moen and Olsen, 2020), and enthusiasm (Steinmayr et al., 2018;Karlen et al., 2019). ...
Article
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It has been documented that grit plays an indispensable role in the process of language learning and teaching. It is postulated that gritty people are more able to become involved in classroom practice and remain motivated even in light of challenges; however, what remains vague is the interplay of grit, well-being, and classroom enjoyment. To this end, 335 male and female Chinese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners who were studying English in 28 universities took part in this study. They completed three questionnaires including the grit scale questionnaire (Grit-S), foreign language enjoyment scale, and PERMA well-being scale. The Pearson coefficient of correlation was run to investigate the first research question of the study while, after checking the preliminary assumptions, for the second research question a multiple regression analysis was used. The findings of the study demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between learners' grit and enjoyment, and high degrees of enjoyment were interrelated to high degrees of grit. The findings of the study also signified that grit significantly predicted students' well-being and was also a predictor of classroom enjoyment. Finally, some implications and recommendations have been offered for language teaching stakeholders in educational settings.
... Moreover, the studies on the relationship between grit and other psychological indicators and healthcare indicators have sprung up over the past few years. Previous studies have found that grit could negatively predict stress, anxiety and depression (Zhang et al., 2018a;Datu et al., 2019;Coleman, 2020), reduce suicidal ideation (Kleiman et al., 2013), and be an important protective factor for adolescent Internet addiction (Borzikowsky and Bernhardt, 2018;Kim et al., 2021). By contrast, grit could positively promote health management skills and health-related quality of life (Traino et al., 2019), improve individual wellbeing (Arya and Lal, 2018;Schimschal et al., 2021) and life satisfaction (Li et al., 2018a). ...
Article
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Grit, as a positive psychological trait, could affect the stability of nursing workforce and nurses’ physical and mental health continuously. The Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) with fewer items than the original Grit Scale was widely used to measure individual trait-level grit. However, the psychological properties of Grit-S among Chinese nurses have not been verified. A self-designed sociodemographic questionnaire was used to investigate 709 Chinese nurses in the study, and Grit-S, Big Five Inventory-44, Brief Self-Control Scale, 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and Task Performance Scale were adopted to collect information of grit, personality, self-control, resilience, and work performance. The confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analysis, and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to verify the psychometric properties of the Grit-S. The results demonstrated that the Grit-S had sound validity and reliability among Chinese nurse samples and had good measurement invariance across nurses in general hospitals and psychiatric hospitals. The results of this study provide confidence in using the grit measurement among Chinese nurse in the future.
... In addition, having both grit and perfectionist tendencies can provide great benefits to individuals. Grittier individuals pursue long-term goals, which could compensate for the lack of life meaning caused by perfectionism (Kleiman et al., 2013;Park and Jeong, 2016). Perfectionists in college tend to experience more pressure when meeting strict personal standards for academic performance, and grit could significantly improve their academic achievement to alleviate the mental burden (Rice et al., 2006;Tang et al., 2019). ...
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Background: As a personality trait, perfectionism has shown a close association with psychological disorders, such as depression. The protective effect of grit on depression has been confirmed by a series of recent studies. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the buffering role of grit in the above relationship and the possible underlying mechanism. Objective: Based on the multidimensional theory of perfectionism, we differentiated two dimensions of perfectionism as positive and negative and further examined the relationships between these two dimensions of perfectionism and depression. We also aimed to examine the possible moderating effect of grit on the above two relationships. Methods: Us a questionnaire survey approach, a total of 2,602 college students (1,608 females and 994 males) were assessed using the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale the Short Grit Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the direct effect of two dimensions of perfectionism on depression as well as the moderating role of grit in these associations. Results: After controlling for gender, age, family income, and academic performance, both positive and negative perfectionism had positive predictive effects on depression, and grit negatively moderated these two relationships. Specifically, grit completely counteracted the effect of positive perfectionism on depression yet partly counteracted the effect of negative perfectionism on depression. Conclusion: Grit prevents the depressive symptoms raised by positive and negative perfectionism.
... A study conducted among Chinese adolescents also showed that gritty adolescents experienced more positive affect, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction since they were more mindful in pursuing goals in the present moment . The beneficial effect of grit on well-being has been documented in many other empirical studies (e.g., Datu et al., 2020;Disabato et al., 2019;Jiang et al., 2019;Jin & Kim, 2017); it is thus suggested that grit could serve as a protective factor for suicidality (Kleiman et al., 2013). ...
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To extend our understanding of the development of adolescent grit, we examined the relationships between social support and the two facets of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interest) and whether the relations were moderated by age and gender. Our sample was composed of 1475 Chinese adolescents with ages ranging from 10.65 to 19.24 years old (Mage = 14.98, SDage = 1.66). The results showed that social support was positively related to perseverance of effort but not significantly related to consistency of interest. However, these relations were moderated by age. Specifically, the effect of social support on perseverance of effort declined as age increased, but remained positive among late adolescents. Nevertheless, the effect of social support on consistency of interest was positive only among early adolescents, and the effect decreased and even became marginally negative among late adolescents. Gender difference was further examined, and the results show that the moderating role in the relationship between social support and perseverance of effort was only significant among males rather than females. That is, the positive effect of social support on perseverance of effort did not change with age among females. Theoretic and practical implications are discussed.
... It is hard to capture the tradeoffs that a person adopts to pursue their purpose. It is hard to examine the interactive influence of multiple strengths that operate within a person (recent work suggests that synergies among strengths are common and offer added psychological benefits; Kleiman et al., 2013;Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2020). It is hard to capture the nonlinear value of strengths, where underuse or overuse can produce problems. ...
Article
Much has been discovered about well-being since 1998, when positive psychology entered the lexicon. Among the wide range of areas in positive psychology, in this commentary we discuss recent discoveries on (1) distinctions between meaning in life, a sense of purpose, and happiness, (2) psychological or personality strengths and the benefits of particular combinations, and (3) resilience after exposure to adversity. We propose a series of questions about this literature with the hope that well-being researchers and practitioners continue to update their perspectives based on high-quality scientific findings and revise old views that rely on shaky empirical ground.
... This shows that while the presence of MiL is clearly higher in patients with lower SI, the search for MiL tends not to be significantly different between patients with high versus low SI. Previous studies have also found a protective effect of searching for MiL against SI [52], but other studies have reported a positive correlation between searching for MiL and SA [28]. Overall, our results support the search for MiL as a factor that can protect against an increased severity of SI; however, less significantly as compared to presence of MiL. ...
Article
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Background Chronic pain is associated with an elevated risk of suicidal ideation (SI). Objective We aimed to examine if the presence or the search for Meaning in Life (MiL) are associated with less SI and explore whether MiL profiles emerge in our cohort. These profiles can be described as high presence–high search, high presence–low search, low presence–low search, and low presence–high search. Methods In this observational study, we recruited 70 patients who were referred to the Multidisciplinary Pain Center of the Geneva University Hospitals and who answered positively to question 9 on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition, investigating SI. Patients who agreed to participate in the study were further investigated; they participated in a structured diagnostic interview to screen for psychiatric diagnoses. During this interview, they completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire and the semistructured Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) to assess the characteristics and severity of SI. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of MiL subscale and the SSI. These 2 scales had a negative and statistically highly significant correlation (R=–.667; P<.001). The results also showed a negative and statistically highly significant correlation between the score of the search for MiL and the SSI (R=–.456; P<.001). The results thus pointed to the presence of MiL as a potential protective factor against the severity of SI, while the search for MiL is also a possible resiliency factor, although to a lesser extent. The profile low presence–low search grouped the vast majority (47%) of the patients; in these patients, the mean SSI score was 14.36 (SD 5.86), much higher compared with that of the other subgroups. Conclusions This study’s results point to MiL as a concept of interest regarding devising psychotherapeutic interventions for chronic pain patients in order to reduce the suicidal risk and more accurately determine patients’ suffering.
... This instrument measures a set of attitudes and behaviors that include positive reframing of adversity, maintaining hope, existential courage, life appreciation, engagement in meaningful activities, and prosociality (see Eisenbeck et al., unpublished). Elements of this conceptualization of meaning-centered coping are well-studied, show strong relationships with both higher levels of well-being and decreased psychological distress (e.g., Nakamura and Csikzentmihalyi, 2003;Feldman and Snyder, 2005;Schueller and Seligman, 2010;Kleiman et al., 2013;Maddi, 2013;Van Tongeren et al., 2016;Klein, 2017;Jans-Beken and Wong, 2019) and are incorporated in the theory of PP2.0. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has subjected most of the world’s population to unprecedented situations, like national lockdowns, health hazards, social isolation and economic harm. Such a scenario calls for urgent measures not only to palliate it but also, to better cope with it. According to existential positive psychology, well-being does not simply represent a lack of stress and negative emotions but highlights their importance by incorporating an adaptive relationship with them. Thus, suffering can be mitigated (and transformed into growth) by, among other factors, adopting an attitude of positive reframing, maintaining hope, existential courage, life appreciation, engagement in meaningful activities, and prosociality. The conglomerate of these elements has been recently denominated as meaning-centered coping. In this study, we evaluated the protective role of this type of coping on mental health. A sample of 12,243 participants from 30 countries across all continents completed measures of Meaning-Centered Coping Scale (MCCS), depression, stress, anxiety and stressful COVID-19 related conditions they experienced. Results indicated that meaning-centered coping was strongly associated with diminished symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, it moderated various relationships between vulnerability factors and markers of psychological distress, especially in the case of depression. These findings call for attention to meaning-centered coping approaches in the context of hardship, such as the current COVID-19 health crisis. In these difficult times, decision-makers and health organizations may integrate these approaches into their guidelines.
... Mental health professionals can help clients increase their optimism by employing the Best Possible Selves intervention (Malouff & Schutte, 2017) and learned optimism techniques (e.g., cognitive distancing from negative events and linking to positive desired future outcomes; Seligman, 2006). Moreover, there are numerous ways shown to increase meaning in life, including enhancing one's sense of belonging (Lambert et al., 2013), engaging in prosocial behavior (Klein, 2017), and practicing gratitude (Kleiman et al., 2013). Although these interventions are likely beneficial for almost anyone, they may also help to promote happiness and health in economically marginalized populations. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate certain positive characteristics (i.e., social resourcefulness, personal resourcefulness, optimism, and meaning in life) as protective factors for people from lower social class backgrounds. Resilience theory (Yates & Masten, 2004) posits that certain positive characteristics may act as protective factors against vulnerability. We tested this theory with a sample of adults in the United States who completed an online survey. Results partially supported our hypotheses. Subjective social status (SSS) moderated the relations from social resourcefulness and personal resourcefulness to life satisfaction. Specifically, social resourcefulness was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction for individuals with lower SSS compared to higher SSS. These results suggest that social resourcefulness may act as a protective factor for individuals with lower SSS. Results also replicated past findings on the positive relationship between optimism, meaning in life, personal resourcefulness, and subjective well-being. Implications for helping professionals and researchers are discussed.
... This shows that while the presence of MiL is clearly higher in patients with lower SI, the search for MiL tends not to be significantly different between patients with high versus low SI. Previous studies have also found a protective effect of searching for MiL against SI [52], but other studies have reported a positive correlation between searching for MiL and SA [28]. Overall, our results support the search for MiL as a factor that can protect against an increased severity of SI; however, less significantly as compared to presence of MiL. ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is associated with an elevated risk of suicidal ideation (SI). OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine if the presence or the search for Meaning in Life (MiL) are associated with less SI and explore whether MiL profiles emerge in our cohort. These profiles can be described as high presence–high search, high presence–low search, low presence–low search, and low presence–high search. METHODS In this observational study, we recruited 70 patients who were referred to the Multidisciplinary Pain Center of the Geneva University Hospitals and who answered positively to question 9 on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition, investigating SI. Patients who agreed to participate in the study were further investigated; they participated in a structured diagnostic interview to screen for psychiatric diagnoses. During this interview, they completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire and the semistructured Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) to assess the characteristics and severity of SI. RESULTS There was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of MiL subscale and the SSI. These 2 scales had a negative and statistically highly significant correlation ( R =–.667; P <.001). The results also showed a negative and statistically highly significant correlation between the score of the search for MiL and the SSI ( R =–.456; P <.001). The results thus pointed to the presence of MiL as a potential protective factor against the severity of SI, while the search for MiL is also a possible resiliency factor, although to a lesser extent. The profile low presence–low search grouped the vast majority (47%) of the patients; in these patients, the mean SSI score was 14.36 (SD 5.86), much higher compared with that of the other subgroups. CONCLUSIONS This study’s results point to MiL as a concept of interest regarding devising psychotherapeutic interventions for chronic pain patients in order to reduce the suicidal risk and more accurately determine patients’ suffering.
... Initially studied as a predictor of academic and professional success (Duckworth et al., 2007), grit has made its way into health and wellbeing studies. For example, grit has a buffering effect for suicidal ideation risk (Kleiman et al., 2013) as well as protective effects against peer victimization and problematic video gaming (Li and Zhu, 2020). Additionally, grit is inversely associated with psychological distress (Datu et al., 2018), substance use (Guerrero et al., 2016), and depression (Musumari et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of ACEs and COVID-19 on grit and whether this effect is mediated by mindfulness. Although current scholarship has found that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have harmful consequences to individuals across the life span, less is known about the relationship between ACEs and grit. Grit is predictive of educational success and subjective wellbeing. A cross-sectional online survey administered to junior and senior students from 12 universities spread across China was conducted from September 20, 2020 to October 5, 2020. The universities were selected from geographically diverse regions of China to ensure a diverse sample. We received 1,871 completed responses from 2,229 invited students. The survey response rate was 83.9%. The results indicated that ACEs had significantly negative effects on grit, while mindfulness had significantly positive effects on grit. Once controlling for level of mindfulness, the effects of ACEs on grit largely reduced and became insignificant. The findings of this research indicate that mindfulness has a significant mediational effect on the relation between ACEs and grit and call for mindfulness-based interventions for enhancing grit for the population at risks.
... As employees observe leaders' optimism, they develop their own optimism. They also learn to develop resilience when working with leaders who convey high Grit-PE because these leaders express resilience, in that they are more likely to persevere following setbacks and adversity (Kleiman et al., 2013). We thus suggest that by conveying Grit-PE to employees, leaders act as a potential PsyCap enhancer of employees. ...
Article
In spite of a growing interest for improvisation in organizations, the microfoundations of improvisation have not been theorized yet. Exploring these microfoundations, we study how employees’ psychological capital (PsyCap) acts as a critical cluster of resources to face improvisational challenges and how leaders who convey grit (operationalized as perseverance of effort: Grit-PE), counterbalanced with humility, create conditions to develop those resources. By building upon the conservation of resources and the dual-systems model of self-regulation theories, our empirical studies suggest that the interaction between two leader-conveyed resources (Grit-PE and humility) creates a contextual resource that helps employees develop PsyCap, thus making them more likely to improvise. The positive effect of high Grit-PE in leaders on employees’ improvisation materializes mainly when leaders also are humble.
... Regarding protective variables against SI, meaning in life has been found to be a protective and mediating factor that can reduce SI (35,36). Meaning in life refers to the fundamental motivational force of the human being and the condition of personal self-realization (37), and it has been described as comprising three main dimensions: purpose, coherence, and significance (38). ...
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Introduction Suicide is a preventable death in young people. It is well known that suicide behavior is a multicausal phenomenon. However, suicidal ideation (SI) commonly underlies suicide, and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) can help us to better characterize it and its risk and protective factors in the short term. We aimed, first, to investigate the estimated prevalence and trajectories of SI in a community sample of Spanish college students using an EMA methodology and, second, explore the associations between risk and protective factors and SI categorized as moderate or low. Materials and Methods A total of 737 participants followed the EMA during a period of 6 months. We estimated the prevalence and trajectories of SI and the associations between depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, cognitive reappraisal, emotional suppression, and purpose in life with the MEmind smartphone App. SI was assessed 14 times during this period. Results Twenty-eight participants referred to SI at least once in longitudinal assessments. We found a lack of curvature and, thus, a relatively stable trajectory of SI. Two groups of latent dimensions were observed related to risk and protective factors of SI. One latent dimension of the risk factors (higher levels of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and emotional suppression) best represented the group with moderate levels of SI, and a second latent dimension of protective variables (positive affect, cognitive reappraisal, and purpose in life) best represented the group with lower levels of SI. Discussion These findings may indicate that students with a sense of having a life worth living, in addition to having the ability to reevaluate their negative beliefs, are less likely to experience high levels of SI. Therefore, purpose in life would be a protective factor against the presence of SI.
... Many scholars have studied and discovered the relationship between gratitude and grit. Kleiman 55 found that grit and gratitude interacted to eventually reduce an individual's suicidal ideation. Therefore, in addition to grit, gratitude can also reduce the risk of depression, both of which are protective factors against depression. ...
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Purpose: COVID-19 has been exerting tremendous influence on an individual's physical behavior and mental health. In China, prolonged isolation may lead to depression among college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. We conducted this study to explore the relationship among stressful life events, grit, gratitude, and depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: We investigated 953 college students from across China, with an average age of 20.38 (SD=1.39) years. Participants completed four scales (Stressful Life Events Scale, Oviedo Grit Scale, Gratitude Questionnaire, and Patients' Health Questionnaire Depression Scale-9 item). Results: The present study found that (1) stressful life events were positively correlated with depression in college students; (2) grit mediated the positive relationship between stressful life events and depression; (3) gratitude moderated the relationship between grit and depression, and such that there was a stronger association between grit and depression for college students with high gratitude. Conclusion: This study was of great significance for studying the relationship between stressful life events and depression in Chinese college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19. Results indicated that grit and gratitude of college students may be the main targets of depression prevention and intervention. The research conclusion has theoretical and reference value for solving and preventing depression in college students during the recurrent outbreak of COVID-19.
... Daily gratitude. Prior literature has found positive associations between gratitude and MiL both at the state level (e.g., Allan, Steger, & Shin, 2013) and trait level (e.g., Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Lambert, Graham, Fincham, & Stillman, 2009). There are no previous studies that have examined the relationship between meaning salience and daily gratitude, though we anticipated a positive association between the two. ...
Thesis
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A growing body of evidence suggests that meaning in life (MiL) is a predictor of health behaviors and outcomes. However, previous research has relied on self-report ratings of a global sense of MiL (i.e., how meaningful individuals perceive their lives to be in general or overall) to study the relationships between MiL and health. Meaning salience is a recently introduced construct in the literature that allows for more nuanced investigation of the ways in which MiL may influence individuals on a day-to-day or moment-to-moment basis. The purpose of the present study was to continue the development of a measure of meaning salience, the Meaning Awareness Scale (MAS), which assesses for phenomenological salience of MiL in everyday life. Using a cross-sectional design, this study included a nationwide sample of adults (N = 342) to: (a) explore the factor structure of the MAS, (b) conduct item reduction of the MAS, (c) assess the internal consistency of the MAS, and (d) conduct a preliminary analysis of the criterion-related validity of the MAS. Results indicate that the 6-item MAS represents one factor and demonstrates strong internal consistency. Findings provide preliminary evidence in support of the criterion-related validity of the MAS. This study offers a means to measure a new and innovative construct related to MiL (i.e., meaning salience) that may lend itself well to intensive longitudinal methods and a more precise investigation of the relationships between MiL, health behaviors, and outcomes.
... Indeed, qualitative studies indicate that sense of purpose is central to the recovery needs of veterans with prior suicide attempts (Denneson et al., 2021). Dispositional gratitude has similarly been found to bolster subjective well-being (Killen and Macaskill, 2015) and buffer the effects of hopelessness and depression on suicide risk (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan and Riskind, 2013a); and may indirectly confer resilience to suicide risk by bolstering a sense of meaning or purpose in life (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan and Riskind, 2013b). Conscientiousness, which refers to the propensity to be goal-directed and fastidious, is associated with more adaptive health behaviors (Bogg and Roberts, 2004), including lower likelihood of suicide attempts. ...
Article
Suicide is a major public health problem in U.S. military veterans, but little is known about factors associated with remission from suicide attempts in this population. We aimed to identify risk and protective correlates of remission from suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in U.S. veterans with a prior suicide attempt. Data were analyzed from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study survey. A broad range of sociodemographic, military, physical and mental health, and psychosocial variable were assessed. Purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness emerged as independent correlates of STB remission (24.3%-40.3% of explained variance), even after accounting for other relevant risk and protective factors. While the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes the ability to determine whether the identified protective factors are causally related to STB remission, results suggest three potentially modifiable targets for suicide prevention efforts in veterans. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness in promoting remission from STBs in veterans and other populations at risk for suicide.
... Research within these disciplines has indicated that grit significantly contributes to wellbeing [4], (i.e. lower depression [5,6], reduction of risk of suicidal ideation [7,8]) and predicts success in work and personal life [9,10], as well as academic achievement [3,11]. ...
Article
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Although grit is predictive of wellbeing, educational achievement, and success in life, it has been conceptualized as largely distinct from cognitive ability. The present study investigated the link between grit and executive functions since regulation abilities might underlie the expression of grit. A hundred thirty-four people were administered personality questionnaires (grit, impulsiveness, and mindfulness) and four experimental tasks tapping into Miyake's and Braver’s models of executive functioning (including measures of flexibility, inhibition, working memory, and control mode dimensions). Multivariate analyses showed that two composite scores (trait and executive functioning) were reliably predictive of grit, although it was the trait composite (characterized by low impulsivity and high mindfulness) that explained more variance. Importantly, gritty participants did not demonstrate enhanced executive functioning. Instead, they exhibit a different pattern of performance that might be reflecting a cautious profile of control, characterized by paying attention to all available information, less reliance on previous contextual cues but sensitive to conflicting information of the current context. These findings converge with Duckworth’s idea that high grit people do not necessarily have a greater cognitive capacity, rather they use it in a different way.
... There is also evidence linking grit to adults' career-related outcomes such as retention of in-service teachers (Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014), military (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), and surgical residents (Burkhart et al., 2014). Further, grit has been associated with increased psychological wellbeing (Vainio, & Daukantaitė, 2016), life satisfaction (Datu et al., 2016;Jin & Kim, 2017;Li et al., 2018), positive emotions (Singh & Jha, 2008), authenticity (Vainio, & Daukantaitė, 2016), positive academic emotions (Datu & Fong, 2018), meaning in life (Datu et al., 2019;Kleiman et al., 2013), psychological well-being (Salles et al., 2014), and school satisfaction (Ivcevic & Brackett, 2014). Yet, all these studies relied on the two-factor model of grit with perseverance and consistency as core dimensions (Duckworth et al., 2007) with typically developing students. ...
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Passion and perseverance for long-term goals (often referred to as grit) has been found to be associated with well-being in typically developing students and adults. However, previous studies primarily relied on a two-factor model of grit, underpinned by perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. This model has received considerable theoretical and methodological criticisms. The research examined the association of an alternative model of grit underpinned by perseverance of effort and adaptability to situations as key dimensions, with students’ life satisfaction in Chinese gifted adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation approach demonstrated that perseverance was linked to higher levels of life satisfaction. Adaptability was indirectly linked to increased life satisfaction via the intermediate variable – career development self-efficacy. Results indicate that perceived confidence in career-related activities might serve as a mechanism through which grit may be linked to higher well-being in gifted students.
... Moreover, it can effectively buffer the adverse effects of external pressures on the individual, form an adaptive response to negative events, expand the individual's timely thinking and behavior paradigm to efficiently trigger positive reactions, seek self-worth, and gain more happiness (Wood et al., 2008;Li, 2016). Gratitude, as a protective factor, plays a regulatory role in enhancing the sense of life meaning and reducing the risk of suicide; additionally, it can be utilized as a valuable intervention to enrich the sense of life meaning (Kleiman et al., 2013b;Tongeren et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
... Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), and work performance (Lechner et al., 2019, Suzuki et al., 2015. Additionally grit has been linked with specific positive outcomes including academic achievement (Crede et al., 2017), academic diligence (Galla et al., 2014) academic engagement (Datu et al., 2015;Datu et al., 2016), goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015), lower risk of depression (Datu et al., 2018;Salles et al., 2017), lower risk of burnout (Jumat et al., 2020), metacognitive awareness (Arslan et al., 2013); positive affect towards difficult tasks (Lucas et al., 2015), psychological well-being (Wyszynska et al., 2017), self-regulation (Wolters & Hussain, 2015), and resiliency to suicide (Kleiman et al., 2013). However, only a few studies to date have examined grit's relationship with foreign language learning (Giordano, 2019;Robins, 2019;Wei et al., 2019;Teimouri et al., 2020). ...
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Chapter
Στο κεφάλαιο αυτό καταδεικνύονται, τόσο σε θεωρητικό επίπεδο όσο και σε επί- πεδο κλινικής πράξης, οι κοινοί τόποι ανάμεσα στην ψυχαναλυτική ψυχοθεραπεία και τη Θετική Ψυχολογία, προκειμένου να επιτευχθεί μία δημιουργική και ωφέλι- μη για το κλινικό έργο σύζευξη ανάμεσα στην πλέον παραδοσιακή μέθοδο ψυχοθε- ραπείας και τις σύγχρονες κλινικές παρεμβάσεις της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας. Ειδικό- τερα, εξετάζεται η συνάντηση της ψυχανάλυσης με το σύγχρονο πεδίο της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας μέσα από την ανάδειξη της «θετικότητας» στην ψυχαναλυτική προσέγ- γιση, τη συγκριτική σύνθεση βασικών ψυχαναλυτικών εννοιών με συναφείς έν- νοιες της Θετικής Ψυχολογίας, καθώς επίσης με την παρουσίαση συγκεκριμένων μεθόδων παρέμβασης, οι οποίες προάγουν το «θετικό» σε μία ψυχαναλυτική ψυχο- θεραπεία. Στόχος ενός τέτοιου εγχειρήματος είναι να εμπλουτίσει αμοιβαία τις δύο προσεγγίσεις του ανθρώπινου ψυχισμού, προσφέροντας ένα πλαίσιο απαρτιωτικό.
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