Risk of Major Nonemergent Inpatient General Surgical Procedures in Patients on Long-term Dialysis

Division of GI, Tumor, and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
JAMA SURGERY (Impact Factor: 3.94). 02/2013; 148(2):137-43. DOI: 10.1001/2013.jamasurg.347
Source: PubMed


Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death.
Retrospective cohort study.
Academic and private hospitals.
The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days).
Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates.
Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients.
Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to adversely affect cardiac and vascular surgery outcomes. We examined the effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on postoperative outcomes after pancreatic resection. All patients who underwent pancreatic resection between January 2005 and July 2012 were identified. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) was defined as eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m(2). Renal function also was analyzed using serum creatinine (sCr) dichotomized at 1.8 mg/dL. Primary outcomes were any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure. Multivariate models for each endpoint were constructed by including all variables with p value ≤0.10 on univariate analysis. There were 1,061 patients identified; 709 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 307 distal pancreatectomy, and 45 central or total pancreatectomy. Median sCr value was 0.86 mg/dL (range 0.30 to 14.1 mg/dL). Eighteen patients (1.7%) had severe CKD and 31 (2.9%) had sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL. Complications occurred in 622 patients (58.6%), major complications in 198 (18.7%), and respiratory failure in 48 (4.5%). Both severe CKD and sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL were associated with any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, severe CKD was associated with increased complications (odds ratio [OR] 5.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 25.5; p = 0.02) and respiratory failure (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.8 to 20.5; p = 0.03), but not major complications. Using sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL as a surrogate marker for renal insufficiency, patients with sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL had increased risk of any complication (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 9.3; p = 0.01), major complications (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.04 to 4.8; p = 0.04), and respiratory failure (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.8 to 12.6; p = 0.002). Few patients with significant renal insufficiency are candidates for pancreatic resection. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) is associated with increased risk of complication and respiratory failure. Serum creatinine ≥1.8 mg/dL may serve as a useful marker of renal insufficiency and identifies patients at significantly increased risk of any complication, major complication, and respiratory failure after pancreatic resection.
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