ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Background Eyelash extensions are applied on top of customers' lashes using instant glue containing cyano acrylate, known to cause occupational rhinitis (OR) and occupational asthma (OA). The number of beauty professionals applying these extensions is increasing due to their popularity.AimsTo report on a case of OA with OR and a case of OR attributable to lash extension glue and to evaluate respiratory exposure in lash extension work.Methods Two beauty professionals with suspected OA and/or OR underwent inhalation challenge, including both control challenge and work-mimicking challenges using the lash extension glue, each with a 24-h follow-up. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present were assessed during the lash extension glue challenge. The glues were analysed for their (meth)acrylate content.ResultsBoth beauty professionals (case 1 and case 2) applied lash extensions regularly for several hours per day as part of their work and had work-related rhinitis. Case 1 had a longer history of lash extension work and also had asthmatic symptoms. The first lash extension glue challenge was negative in both cases, but positive OR reactions were detected in the second test. Case 1 also had a late asthmatic reaction. During the lash extension glue challenge, VOC were present in total concentrations below the irritant threshold and ethylcyanoacrylate (ECA) was detected in a concentration of 0.4mg/m(3). Chemical analysis of the glues revealed ECA was the major component.Conclusions Application of eyelash extensions using small amounts of cyanoacrylate-based glues can cause OA and OR.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Occupational Medicine
doi:10.1093/occmed/kqt020
© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by
cyanoacrylate-based eyelash extensionglues
I.Lindström1, H.Suojalehto1, M.-L.Henriks-Eckerman2 and K.Suuronen3
1Control of Hypersensitivity Diseases, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 2Chemical Agents Team,
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 3Occupational Medicine Team, Finnish Institute of Occupational
Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Correspondence to: I. Lindström, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland.
Tel:+358 30 474 2136; fax: +358 30 474 2149; e-mail: irmeli.lindstrom@ttl.
Background Eyelash extensions are applied on top of customers’ lashes using instant glue containing cyano-
acrylate, known to cause occupational rhinitis (OR) and occupational asthma (OA). The number
of beauty professionals applying these extensions is increasing due to their popularity.
Aims To report on a case of OA with OR and a case of OR attributable to lash extension glue and to evalu-
ate respiratory exposure in lash extension work.
Methods Two beauty professionals with suspected OA and/or OR underwent inhalation challenge, including
both control challenge and work-mimicking challenges using the lash extension glue, each with a
24-h follow-up. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present were assessed during the lash extension
glue challenge. The glues were analysed for their (meth)acrylate content.
Results Both beauty professionals (case 1 and case 2)applied lash extensions regularly for several hours per
day as part of their work and had work-related rhinitis. Case 1 had a longer history of lash extension
work and also had asthmatic symptoms. The rst lash extension glue challenge was negative in both
cases, but positive OR reactions were detected in the second test. Case 1 also had a late asthmatic
reaction. During the lash extension glue challenge, VOC were present in total concentrations below
the irritant threshold and ethylcyanoacrylate (ECA) was detected in a concentration of 0.4 mg/m3.
Chemical analysis of the glues revealed ECA was the major component.
Conclusions Application of eyelash extensions using small amounts of cyanoacrylate-based glues can cause OA
and OR.
Key words Asthma; cyanoacrylate; eyelash extension; glue; occupational; rhinitis; specic inhalation challenge.
Introduction
Beauty professionals may handle chemicals that can
cause respiratory symptoms [1]. Little is known about
the sensitizing properties of these although the (meth)
acrylates used in articial nails [2,3] are recognized res-
piratory sensitizers.
In recent years, eyelash extensions have become
increasingly popular worldwide. According to a 2012 sur-
vey by the Finnish Laurea University of Applied Sciences,
about 2000 professionals regularly apply lash extensions
in Finland (population 5.4 million), and the market of
imported lash extension glues has approximately doubled
during the last 2years (personal communication). Lash
extensions are attached to the customers’ lashes with
cyanoacrylate-based instant glues, in the worker’s breath-
ing zone. Cyanoacrylate glues have caused occupational
asthma (OA) in industrial settings [4] and also in one nail
technician [3]. Recently, occupational allergic contact
dermatitis caused by lash extension glue was reported in
a lash beautician [5]. We report one case of OA and occu-
pational rhinitis (OR) and one case of OR attributable to
lash extension glue containing ethylcyanoacrylate (ECA).
Case reports
Both beauty professionals had applied extensions
regularly to the eyelashes of several customers per day
using lash extension glue at 30–50 cm from their faces.
In case 1, symptoms appeared after 4years, in case 2
CASE REPORT
Occupational Medicine Advance Access published April 3, 2013
at Tyoterveyslaitos on April 4, 2013http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from
Page 2 of 4 OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE
after four months. Case 1 also had occupational allergic
contact dermatitis caused by lash extension glue. Skin
prick tests did not show IgE-mediated sensitization to
lash extensionglue.
Inhalation challenge took place in a 6-m3 challenge
chamber on subsequent days, each with a 24-h follow-
up. In the control challenge 2 ml of a control solution was
sprayed into the chamber, in which the patient stayed for
15 min. Both patients underwent the lash extension glue
challenge twice. In case 1, ve drops of the glue were
dripped into a beaker on a warm plate (35ºC) three times
(at 0, 15 and 30 min; total 15 drops), after which the
patient stayed in the chamber for another 15 min. In case
2, the challenge was performed in the same way, but with
three drops of glue dripped up to four times at 15-min
intervals.
Table1. Characteristics of patient cases, measurements during lash extension glue challenge and chemical analysis of the glues
Case 1 Case 2
Demographics
Age 37 22
Gender Female Female
Smoking
Pack-years
Ex-smoker
<1
Current smoker
<1
Atopy No No
Exposure
Exposure to LEG, years 6 1
Duration of application task/day 3–9 h 4 h
Duration of exposure before symptoms 4years 4months
Respiratory protection Paper mask occasionally Paper mask occasionally
Use of protective gloves No No
Lash extensions applied to the patient herself Twice About 20 times
Exposure to methacrylates of articial nails Ye s No
Clinical details
Respiratory symptoms related to LEG Rhinitis, dyspnoea Rhinitis
SPT to LEGaDermographismus Negative (0 mm)
Medication for asthma and rhinitis Inhaled uticasone 500µg/day None
Bronchial hyperresponsivenessbNo No
FEV1, litres/% of predicted 2.97/83 3.38/90
FEV1/FVC, absolute/% of predicted 70.82/85 94.40/106
FENO, ppb 34.2 11.9
Serial PEF monitoring at work and on days off Suggestive worsening at work Not measured
Specic inhalation challenge reactionc
FEV1 decrease −26% (late) −6%
Change in bronchial hyperresponsivenessbNo Not measured
Change in FENO, ppb +25.8 Not measured
Nasal (amount of secretion) Positive (920 mg) Positive (2120 mg)
Diagnosis Occupational asthma
Occupational rhinitis
Contact dermatitisd
Occupational rhinitis
Measurements and chemical analysis
VOC during inhalation challenge (mg/m3) Not measured TVOC: 0.48 ECA: 0.4
Chemical analysis of LEG Glue 1
ECA: >95%eECA: >95%e
MMA: 0.072% MMA: 0.013%
BA: 0.014%
Glue 2
ECA: >95%e
MMA: 0.031%
BA: 0.012%
LEG, lash extension glue; SPT, skin prick test; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC, forced ventilation capacity; FENO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide;
ppb, parts per billion; PEF, peak expiratory ow; TVOC, total concentration of volatile organic compounds; MMA, methylmethacrylate; BA, butylacrylate.
aSPTs were performed with LEG as such.
bIn bronchial challenge with histamine.
cIn both cases, reactions were detected in the 2nd challenges to LEG. In Case 1, uticasone was ongoing during the challenges.
dAn earlier diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (caused by ethylcyanoacrylate and paraphenylenediamine).
ePurity according to GC–MS analysis.
at Tyoterveyslaitos on April 4, 2013http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from
I. LINDSTRÖM ET AL.: OA AND OR CAUSED BY CYANOACRYLATE-BASED EYELASH EXTENSIONGLUES Page 3 of 4
The specic inhalation challenge (SIC) was consid-
ered positive for OA if forced expiratory volume in 1 s fell
by ≥20% of the pre-challenge value in the glue challenge,
without signicant changes in the control challenge [6] . We
evaluated the degree of rhinorrhea and nasal blockage using
anterior rhinoscopy and scored them, both 20 min before
and 20 min after the challenge [7]. A signicant score
change without signicant changes following the control
challenge was considered a positive OR reaction. We also
measured the amount of nasal secretion running out of the
patient’s nose to the vestibulum of the nostrils. An amount
more than 200 mg supported a positive test reaction.
In both cases, the rst glue challenge was negative.
The fact that case 1 used inhaled corticosteroids during
SIC and had stopped lash extension work 9months pre-
viously may have affected the outcome of this challenge.
Moreover, earlier studies have shown that repeated chal-
lenges may be needed to conrm diagnosis [8]. Positive
rhinitis reactions occurred in the second test, and case 1
had a prolonged late asthma reaction with an increase in
fractional exhaled nitric oxide level, conrming the diag-
nosis of OA. This type of reaction caused by cyanoacr-
ylate-based glues has been described before [4].
We assessed the volatile organic compound (VOC)
concentration during case 1’s SIC through Tenax sorb-
ent tube collection and gas chromatography–mass spec-
trometry (GC–MS) analysis [9]. VOC concentrations
were below the irritant level during the lash extension
glue challenge, ECA concentration was about 40%
of its Finnish occupational exposure limit, 1 mg/m3,
and no other (meth)acrylates were detected. We ana-
lysed the beauty professionals’ glues for their (meth)
acrylate contents using GC–MS after extraction using
tert-butylmethylether. ECA was found to be the major
component of theglues.
Table 1 describes the two cases, the results of air
measurements and of chemical analysis of the glues.
Figure1 shows the SIC reaction in case 1.Both patients
gave their written consent to testing and publishing.
Discussion
To our knowledge, this is the rst report of OA and OR
attributable to lash extension glue veried using a SIC,
including a control challenge.
Cyanoacrylates such as ECA bond with even the most
dissimilar materials quickly and rmly and consequently
are used in instant glues for industrial and household pur-
poses and in wound adhesives in health care. In addition
to ECA, which has low volatility, small amounts of other
alkyl-cyanoacrylates or (meth)acrylic derivatives may be
present. Chemical analysis of the glues also revealed small
amounts of methylmethacrylate and/or butylacrylate that,
unlike ECA, evaporate quite easily. Nevertheless, the total
amount of airborne (meth)acrylate derivatives is likely to
be below the irritant threshold during the application of
lash extensions. In the lash extension glue challenge in
case 2, VOCs were found in the air, but their concentra-
tion was clearly below typical industrial levels and below
the recommended limit for Finnish houses and ofces
(0.6 mg/m3). Individual components such as ECA were
present in concentrations unlikely to cause airway irrita-
tion although ECA seems to have evaporated quite effec-
tively considering its poor volatility and the small amount
of glue applied. This supports the hypothesis that the reac-
tions result from sensitization rather than from irritation.
Figure1. SIC of case 1, illustrating the changes in FEV1. The control challenge involved nebulizing 2 ml of the control diluent (solution of 0.5%
NaCl, 0.4% phenol and 0.3% NaHCO3 in sterile water) into the chamber by pressured air. The lash extension glue challenge lasted 45 min and
was carried out twice with the patient’s own glue. Alate reaction was seen in the second challenge with the lash extension glue. *Bronchodilator
medication; **Prednisolone.
at Tyoterveyslaitos on April 4, 2013http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from
Page 4 of 4 OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE
In Finland, the rapid growth of the lash extension mar-
ket in recent years makes the number of exposed work-
ers difcult to estimate. Our cases applied lash extensions
part time, but the number who work exclusively applying
lash extensions seems to be increasing. In another activ-
ity with (meth)acrylate exposure, articial nail applica-
tion, Kreiss etal. reported an almost 3-fold-increased risk
of asthma among beauticians [10]. This risk may also be
increased in lash extension work although respiratory
exposure is likely to be lower than in nail application.
Our results indicate glues containing cyanoacrylates
may cause OA and OR in workers applying lash exten-
sions. Cyanoacrylate glues are unlikely to be substituted
by other glues in the near future because of their techni-
cal properties. The use of effective respiratory protective
equipment in lash extension work would be benecial,
but it is likely to be poorly accepted. Additionally, effec-
tive local exhaust ventilation is not practical as the lashes
may be caught by the airow. Thus to prevent OR and OA
salons offering lash extensions should provide effective
general ventilation. Workers with symptoms should be
evaluated fully and may need to change their worktasks.
Keypoints
Eyelash extension glues for professional use are
usually based on cyanoacrylates.
Applying eyelash extensions may release cyano-
acrylates into the air.
Lash extension glues may cause occupational
asthma and rhinitis.
Acknowledgements
Henna Ylilauri from the Laurea University of Applied
Sciences is kindly acknowledged for the lash extension mar-
ket survey.
Conicts of interest
None declared.
References
1. Tsigonia A, Lagoudi A, Chandrinou S, Linos A, Evlogias
N, Alexopoulos EC. Indoor air in beauty salons and
occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to
chemical substances. Int J Environ Res Public Health
2010;7:314–324.
2. Sauni R, Kauppi P, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML,
Tuppurainen M, Hannu T. Occupational asthma caused by
sculptured nails containing methacrylates. Am J Ind Med
2008;51:968–974.
3. Jurado-Palomo J, Caballero T, Fernández-Nieto M,
Quirce S. Occupational asthma caused by articial
cyanoacrylate ngernails. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
2009;102:440–441.
4. Quirce S, Baeza ML, Tornero P, Blasco A, Barranco R,
Sastre J. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to
cyanoacrylate. Allergy 2001;56:446–449.
5. Pesonen M, Kuuliala O, Henriks-Eckerman ML,
Aalto-Korte K. Occupational allergic contact derma-
titis caused by eyelash extension glues. Contact Derm
2012;67:307–308.
6. Vandenplas O, Malo JL. Inhalation challenges with
agents causing occupational asthma. Eur Respir J
1997;10:2612–2629.
7. Hytönen M, Sala E. Nasal provocation test in the diag-
nostics of occupational allergic rhinitis. Rhinology
1996;34:86–90.
8. Lemière C, Cartier A, Dolovich J etal. Outcome of spe-
cic bronchial responsiveness to occupational agents
after removal from exposure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med
1996;154:329–333.
9. Indoor Air—Part 6: Deter mination of Volatile Organic
Compounds In Indoor and Test Chamber Air by Active
Sampling on Tenax TA Sorbent, Ther mal Desorption and Gas
Chromatography Using MS/FID. Geneva: International
Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2004.
10. Kreiss K, Esfahani RS, Antao VC, Odencrantz J, Lezotte
DC, Hoffman RE. Risk factors for asthma among cos-
metology professionals in Colorado. J Occup Environ Med
2006;48:1062–1069.
at Tyoterveyslaitos on April 4, 2013http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/Downloaded from
... In medicine they are used in dentistry and orthopedics. Dental professionals were one of the most affected occupations, but recently cases with OA caused by acrylates were reported especially in beauty industry (e.g., methacrylate for the sculptured nails, cyanoacrylate for the eyelash extension glue) and for optical laboratory technicians (e.g., methacrylate contained by eyeglasses) [24][25][26]. Usually, they cause respiratory symptoms and contact dermatitis, but rhinitis could be also present [25,26]. Most patients have a late or dual asthmatic reaction on SIC, with an increase in FeNO levels after [24][25][26]. ...
... Dental professionals were one of the most affected occupations, but recently cases with OA caused by acrylates were reported especially in beauty industry (e.g., methacrylate for the sculptured nails, cyanoacrylate for the eyelash extension glue) and for optical laboratory technicians (e.g., methacrylate contained by eyeglasses) [24][25][26]. Usually, they cause respiratory symptoms and contact dermatitis, but rhinitis could be also present [25,26]. Most patients have a late or dual asthmatic reaction on SIC, with an increase in FeNO levels after [24][25][26]. ...
... Usually, they cause respiratory symptoms and contact dermatitis, but rhinitis could be also present [25,26]. Most patients have a late or dual asthmatic reaction on SIC, with an increase in FeNO levels after [24][25][26]. The exposure to acrylates in the beauty industry continues to increase, therefore more and more cases of OA and contact dermatitis could be expected in the future. ...
Article
Full-text available
Occupational asthma (OA) represents one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence, important social and economic burden. The aim of this review is to summarize current data about clinical phenotypes, biomarkers, diagnosis and management of OA, a subtype of work-related asthma. Most studies have identified two phenotypes of OA. One is sensitizer-induced asthma, occuring after a latency period and caused by hypersensitivity to high- or low-molecular weight agents. The other is irritant-induced asthma, which can occur after one or more exposures to high concentrations of irritants without latency period. More than 400 agents causing OA have been identified and its list is growing fast. The best diagnostic approach for OA is a combination of clinical history and objective tests. An important tool is a specific inhalation challenge. Additional tests include assessments of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine/histamine in patients without airflow limitations, monitoring peak expiratory flow at- and off-work, sputum eosinophil count, exhaled nitric oxide measurement, skin prick tests with occupational allergens and serum specific IgE. Treatment of OA implies avoidance of exposure, pharmacotherapy and education. OA is a heterogeneous disease. Mechanisms of its different phenotypes, their diagnosis, role of new biomarkers and treatment require further investigation.
... When stratified for gender, the cumulative incidence was 5.7% (95% CI 4.8, 6.6) for men and 5.3% (95% CI 4.6, 6.0) for women (p-value 0.55). When stratified for age, the five-year cumulative incidence was 7.4% (95% CI 6.0, 8.8) for the ages of [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]4.8% (95% CI 3.8, 5.9) for the ages of 31-40 and 5.0% groups, gender, age, allergy, atopy and smoking, in the same model. When the influence of single exposure was investigated, exposures and baseline characteristics that had a p-value of < 0.05 in the univariate analyses were used in a forward multiple logistic regression model with CRS as the dependent variable. ...
... Our data show that working with hair-care products increases the risk of CRS, which is consistent with previous studies showing an increased risk of respiratory problems in this group (14,15) . Likewise, exposure to glue has previously been reported to contribute to the development of asthma and rhinitis (16,17) . We can only speculate about the specific occupations of subjects who report exposure to hair-care products and glue. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aetiology behind chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the onset of CRS and several common occupational exposures over time. Methodology: An adult random population from Telemark, Norway, comprising 7,952 subjects, who answered a comprehensive respiratory questionnaire including questions on CRS and occupational exposure first in 2013 and again in 2018. Results: New-onset CRS during the five-year follow-up was independently associated with occupational exposure to hair-care products, cleaning agents among women, super glue, strong acids, cooking fumes and wood dust. Conclusion: In this random population cohort from Norway, exposure to several common occupational agents, such as hair-care products, super glue and wood dust, was associated with the onset of CRS. It is important that physicians who see patients with CRS inquire about workplace exposure.
... The HIs generated by the QSAR model 1 are presented in Table I for specific examples of each of the 3 acrylate subgroups. The HI was 1 for all the examples shown of cyanoacrylates and Industrial manufacturing (29) Manufacturing workers (11) Painting, fixing, and gluing to make objects (eg, tires, infusion sets, jewelry, and plastic elements) ...
... In 3 cases an increase was reported. 11,17,21 In another case, FENO did not increase during SIC but was higher during a work period when compared with off work. 10 We also found a trend toward more eosinophilic inflammation in induced sputum after SIC in acrylate-induced asthma, although the small number of cases (n ¼ 9) limited these analyses. Several cases of an increase in sputum eosinophils during SIC in acrylate-induced asthma have been reported, some of them included in the present series. ...
Article
Background: While acrylates are well-known skin sensitisers, they are not classified as respiratory sensitisers although several cases of acrylate-induced occupational asthma (OA) have been reported. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of acrylate-induced OA in a large series of cases and compare those with OA induced by other low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. Methods: Jobs and exposures, clinical and functional characteristics, and markers of airway inflammation were analysed in an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort of subjects with OA ascertained by a positive inhalation challenge to acrylates (n= 55) or other LMW agents (n=418) including isocyanates (n=125). Results: Acrylate-containing glues were the most prevalent products and industrial manufacturing, dental work and beauty care were typical occupations causing OA. Work related rhinitis was more common in acrylate than isocyanate-induced asthma (p<0.001). The increase in post-challenge fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was significantly greater in acrylate-induced OA (26.0, 8.2-38.0 ppb) than in OA induced by other LMW agents (3.0, -1.0-10.0 ppb, p<0.001) or isocyanates (5.0, 2.0-16.0 ppb, p=0.010). Multivariable models confirmed that OA induced by acrylates was significantly and independently associated with a post-challenge increase in FeNO (≥17.5 ppb). Conclusions: Acrylate-induced OA shows specific characteristics, concomitant work-related rhinitis and exposure-related increases in FeNO, suggesting that acrylates may induce asthma through different immunological mechanisms than other LMW agents. Our findings reinforce the need for a re-evaluation of the hazard classification of acrylates, and further investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their respiratory sensitizing potential.
... 40 Cyanoacrylate-based adhesives (Table S5), previously used for biomedical applications, 49 are widely marketed in response to the increasing global demand for eyelash treatment. 50 They are sold under different categories, such as surgical (medical), rubber latex, and sensitive/allergic (e.g., formaldehyde-and latex-free) glues. Each type of artificial eyelash has its own method of removal. ...
Article
Dry eye disease (DED), a multifactorial condition of the tear film and ocular surface, is one of the leading reasons for patients seeking eye care. Despite the multiple toxic ingredients of eye make-up products and their long-term application close to the ocular surface, few studies have analyzed their role in initiating and worsening DED. Females and the elderly experience the highest prevalence of DED and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of eye make-up. The multifactorial nature of DED and common mechanisms behind several ocular surface diseases make it difficult to link a particular ingredient-driven mechanism to DED. Therefore, here, we list potential responses to eye cosmetics that may be involved in DED development. The first part of this review introduces the anatomy of the eye and DED, the second section explains the classification of eye cosmetic products, and the final part discusses the undesired effects under physical, pathogenic, and chemical insults.
... Известно, что клей, применяемый при наращивании ресниц, содержит цианакрилат, который обладает выраженным токсическим воздействием на организм человека. Данные исследования, полученные при изучении воздействия клея, содержащего цианакрилат, на дыхательную систему специалистов, регулярно проводящих наращивание ресниц, свидетельствуют о том, что применение этого клея может провоцировать возникновение астмы и аллергического ринита за счет действия химических веществ, входящих в состав клея для искусственных ресниц [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The environmental factors influence, quite often, negatively affects the state of health. Many of them, such as smoking, deterioration in ecology, uncontrolled alcohol intake, are in detail studied in terms of harm to a human body. Nevertheless, new technologies which action is insufficiently studied, are actively introduced into modern life. So, the use of cosmetology procedures can be a striking example. Now the prevalence of such procedures as eyelash extension, a permanent make-up a century, botulotoxin injections in a periorbital zone, assumes a wide scale. In foreign and domestic literature there are more and more messages about development of the complications which arose owing to use of the above-stated procedures. There are two clinical examples from our practice in this article. They demonstrate the complications which arose after holding a procedure of eyelash extension — acute toxic-allergic conjunctivitis and after a permanent make-up — a chemical burn of a cornea. In these clinical cases of a complication arose due to aggressive action of a chemical basis of the glue applied at eyelash extension and cream-anesthetic which is applied on eyelids before a permanent make-up a century. Treatment of patients included antiinflammatory, antihistaminic, antibacterial therapy and also a long course of the tear replacement therapy applied as keratoproteсtive therapy and for prevention of development of a dry eye syndrome. Considering scales of prevalence of cosmetology procedures in recent years, it is necessary to inform specialists and patients on potential risk of development of the complications connected with the above-stated procedures. The clinical examples given in the article and literature data, demonstrate that in case of cosmetology procedures complications it is necessary to carry out timely rendering the qualified medical ophthalmologic care. It is connected with the fact that, quite often, the cosmetology manipulations, even positioned as harmless, in particular, a permanent make-up of eyelid and eyelash extension can lead to heavy complications, up to vision loss.
... Так, проведенные исследования в области изучения влияния наращенных ресниц на состояние органа зрения показали, что вышеуказанные процедуры могут вызывать кератоконъюнктивит, аллергический блефарит и блефароконъюнктивит [4][5][6][7][8][9]. Однако отсутствуют данные о состоянии слезопродукции и функциональном состоянии мейбомиевых желез, которое в значительной степени влияет на состояние глазной поверхности. ...
Article
Full-text available
Modern ophthalmological practice is inseverable linked with cosmetology and esthetic medicine. Every year, the number of patients, especially women, who received various types of cosmetology procedures (botulinum toxin injections, eyelash extensions, eyelid tattooing, dermal fillers injections, etc.) in facial area increases, in particular in the periorbital zone. Purpose : to conduct a comprehensive assessment of clinical and functional parameters characterizing the state of the ocular surface and the tear-producing system in case applying cosmetic procedures in the periorbital area (Botox injections, eyelid tattooing, eyelash extension). Patients and methods . The study included 106 women (212 eyes). Exclusion criteria: early postoperative period after ophthalmosurgical intervention, acute inflammatory diseases of anterior and posterior eye segment, glaucoma, the presence of intraocular pathological changes (hemophthalmia, detachment of the eye membranes, tumors). The average age of the patients included in the study was 36.37 ± 9.0 years. Results and discussion . The results of a comparative evaluation of two groups of patients — a group with a history of cosmetic procedures (tattooing the eyelids, botulinum toxin, dermal fillers, eyelash extensions) in the periorbital zone and patients who did not use such procedures, has showed that cosmetic procedures affect on the clinical and functional eye surfaces state and on morphofunctional state of meibomian glands. Thus, the frequency of detection of symptomocomplex of dry eye syndrome was on 36 % more often determined in the group of patients received cosmetic procedures. It has been shown that the combined effect of cosmetological procedures (tattooing the eyelids, eyelash extensions, injections of dermal fillers and botulinum toxin in the periorbital region) aggravates the course and prognosis of Dry Eye Syndrome and meibomian glands dysfunction. A direct correlation between the severity of complaints characteristic of Dry Eye Syndrome and the number of procedures was found (r = 0.4982, p = 0.0000); the frequency of detecting complaints of dryness and discomfort and the number of procedures (r = 0.6427, p = 0.0000); compression test indices and the number of procedures (r = –0.4712, p = 0.0000); the frequency of occurrence of inflammatory reactions of ocular surface and the number of procedures (r = 0.3778, p = 0.0001). The risk of tear production disturbance — dry eye syndrome and dysfunction of the meibomian glands is higher in patients using botulinum toxin injections and eyelash extension in comparison with patients using eyelid tattooing and injections of fillers with hyaluronic acid in the periorbital zone.
Article
Full-text available
Hairdressers are at high risk of developing occupational hand eczema. Opinions on the health and safety concerns of non-food consumer products, such as cosmetics and their ingredients, consider the exposure of a 'common consumer', which may not account for occupational exposure of hairdressers. As result, there is a parlous scenario in which serious safety concerns about occupational exposures are present. The purpose of this review is to compare the frequency of exposure to various types of hair cosmetic products among hairdressers and consumers. Database searches for this review yielded a total of 229 articles. 7 publications were ultimately included. The analysis showed that - dependent on the task - hairdressers were exposed 4 to 78 times more than consumers regarding a wide spectrum of hair cosmetic products used in the daily working life ranging from shampoo, conditioner, oxidative and non-oxidative hair colours, and bleaching agents. The highest frequency was found for colouring hair with oxidative hair colour. Consumer usage frequency does not appear to be appropriate for representing hairdresser exposure. The current standards do not effectively address the occupational risks associated with hairdressers' use of cosmetics. The findings of this study should cause current risk assessment procedures to be reconsidered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Allergic contact dermatitisAllergic contact dermatitis from cosmeticsCosmetics is very common, with perfume components, preservatives, hair dyes, but currently also acrylatesAcrylates and methacrylates in nail products as the main culprits. Any other cosmetic ingredient can be involved though, and the literature regarding new cosmetic allergensAllergens is on the rise. Beside the baseline and cosmetic series, patch tests with the personal products used, and if possible, all the ingredients that are present in them, should be performed. These tests do not necessarily allow the identification of the culprit allergenAllergens, which may be due to unsuitable test concentrations or vehicles, especially since nano- or micro-encapsulated ingredients are increasingly used in cosmetic products, thus enhancing skin penetration. In addition, commercially available patch-test preparations do not always contain the responsible sensitizing culprits.
Article
The current state of the cosmetology industry in the field of eyelash extension services is analyzed. It is concluded that the popularity of this type of service, despite the negative impact on eye health, will grow in the near future. The main symptoms that occur when using this procedure are analyzed. Among the most common symptoms should be noted a feeling of heaviness of the eyelids, burning, discomfort associated with a decrease in the field of view. It is noted that despite a number of works in this area to date, there is insufficient research, both from the point of view of the analysis of clinical cases, and from the point of view of developing safer adhesive compositions. An analysis is made of the characteristics of adhesives used in domestic cosmetology rooms. At the same time, attention was paid to the following: country of production, composition, texture and texture, setting speed, wearing time, shelf life, recommended temperature and humidity level. A typical composition of glue for eyelash extension contains the following components: cyanoacrylate and its derivatives (± 90 %); polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) (± 6 %); black pigment - carbon black (± 4 %).
Article
Full-text available
The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100-1,450 microg m(-3)) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 microg m(-3)) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor.
Article
In recent decades, the use of artificial nails including methacrylates (MAs) has increased. This study presents the first two clinical cases of occupational asthma (OA) caused by sculptured nails containing MAs. In both cases, OA was diagnosed on the basis of a work simulation test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms. Both patients developed work-related respiratory symptoms 4-5 years before the current examinations. Previously, the first patient (a 30-year-old female) was diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to MAs; the second patient (a 27-year-old female) had no skin symptoms. In both cases, a dual asthmatic reaction was observed in the bronchial provocation test, in which the patients simulated their work using their own products including MAs. Sculptured nails containing MAs can induce OA in nail technicians. Products not containing MAs should be used to prevent OA and ACD. If MAs are used, they should be handled with appropriate safety measures.
Article
A decrease in specific bronchial responsiveness (SBR) could occur after removal from exposure to an agent causing occupational asthma as a result of loss of immunologic and/or nonspecific bronchial reactivity (NSBR). We studied 15 subjects with occupational asthma (eight to a high- and seven to a low-molecular-weight agent, isocyanate in all instances), proved by specific inhalation challenges (SIC) done 2 yr or more before. Subjects were reexposed in the same way as in the initial SIC: for subjects who did not react, the exposure was increased until either an asthmatic reaction occurred or a maximum of 2 h was reached. NSBR was assessed before and after SIC. Subjects had a decrease in their SBR if the total dose of agent necessary to induce asthmatic reaction was greater by twofold compared with the initial SIC. There was a significant improvement in NSBR in seven of 15 subjects. Nine of 15 subjects (60%) had a decrease in their SBR. Only one had a complete loss of SBR. Changes in NSBR, molecular weight of the offending agent, decrease of antibody level against offending agents, or duration of exposure at work did not explain the decrease in SBR. We conclude that after removal from exposure to the offending agent a majority of subjects (60%) show a decrease but a persistence of SBR to high- and low-molecular-weight agents.
Article
The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis (OR) must be better confirmed than in allergic rhinitis of other aetiology. A provocation test is required to confirm the causality between the disease and the work exposure. The purpose of this study has been to examine the feasibility of active anterior rhinomanometry and visual analogue scale in the diagnostics of OR, and to compare the results of these measurements to a nasal status change score. The study subjects have been 50 consecutive patients suspected of having OR. Altogether 148 bilateral nasal provocation tests (NPTs), 55 placebo- and 93 allergen-NPTs, have been done. Based on the change in the nasal status and change in the nasal airway resistance (NAR), there are 42 positive NPTs. Although overlapping between placebo and allergen provocations exists, an increase of > 50% in NAR is recommended to regard the result as positive in NPT. The evaluation of the nasal reaction in the NPT is mainly based on anterior rhinoscopy and the change in the status score, but OR diagnostics should also include some physiological measurement.
Article
Occupational asthma (OA) is steadily emerging as the principal cause of respiratory disease due to the workplace environment. One of the key means to ascertain diagnosis of OA is specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with occupational agents. This review: 1) describes the methodology of SIC, with a special emphasis on procedures aimed at increasing the safety and validity of these tests; and 2) outlines the roles of SIC in the diagnosis of OA in clinical and medicolegal assessment, epidemiological studies, surveillance programmes and the investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma and OA. We discuss areas of future development, including the development of apparatus which allows exposure of subjects to low and stable concentrations of the occupational agent and the assessment of preventive procedures.
Article
Exposure to acrylates may give rise to rhinitis and asthma in both industrial and domestic environments. The mechanisms underlying these respiratory conditions caused by acrylates remain largely unknown. We studied two assembly operators exposed to cyanoacrylate glue who developed rhinitis and asthma symptoms. The causal relationship of these symptoms to cyanoacrylate glue exposure was investigated by serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring at work and off work. Moreover, inhalation testing was performed by asking the patients to mimic exposure at work with the cyanoacrylate glue in a 7-m3 challenge chamber. Serial PEF monitoring at work and away from work was consistent with occupational asthma in both patients. The methacholine inhalation test was negative in patient 1 (off work) and showed bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patient 2. After 20-min exposure to cyanoacrylate, the patients had late and progressive asthmatic reactions, respectively, and the methacholine test became positive in patient 1. Induced-sputum samples obtained 3 and 24 h after the cyanoacrylate challenge showed a marked increase in sputum eosinophils. Exposure to cyanoacrylate in these patients provoked not only variable airflow limitation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but also pronounced eosinophilia in sputum.
Article
After receiving several reports of occupational asthma among cosmetology professionals, we studied the prevalence, work-attributable risk, and tasks associated with asthma in this industry. We selected a stratified random sample of cosmeticians, manicurists, barbers, and cosmetologists holding licenses in Colorado for a mail survey instrument. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among the 1883 respondents (68% response rate) was 9.3%; of these, 67 (38%) developed asthma after entering the cosmetology profession. Multivariate analyses showed that hairstyling, application of artificial nails, and shaving and honing were significantly associated with asthma arising in the course of employment (P < 0.005) with relative risks of 2.6-2.9. The increased risk of asthma with onset during employment among cosmetologists is probably attributable to their exposure to sensitizers and irritants in tasks demonstrated to be associated with asthma.
Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds In Indoor and Test Chamber Air by Active Sampling on Tenax TA Sorbent, Thermal Desorption and Gas Chromatography Using MS/FID
Indoor Air—Part 6: Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds In Indoor and Test Chamber Air by Active Sampling on Tenax TA Sorbent, Thermal Desorption and Gas Chromatography Using MS/FID. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2004.