Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: Effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease

Dairy Research Institute, Rosemont, Illinois, USA.
Nutrition Reviews (Impact Factor: 6.08). 04/2013; 71(4):209-23. DOI: 10.1111/nure.12007
Source: PubMed


The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrient intake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ≥9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrient intakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

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    • "The authors concluded that the roles of specific dairy products need to be clarified and that mechanistic studies should be conducted to expand on the current research. Another evidence-based review examining studies published just after the 2010 DGA report arrived at essentially the same conclusions [14]. Aune et al. [15] conducted a systematic review and dose– response meta-analysis of 17 cohort studies related to dairy intake and T2D risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence supports an inverse relationship between adequate intake of dairy foods and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The biological mechanisms responsible for this association remain to be established. This review provides a current perspective on proposed mechanisms that may underlie these effects, and highlights how randomized clinical trials can be applied to investigate these relationships. Results from epidemiological studies generally support that consumption of milk and dairy products is associated with a lower incidence of T2D or improvements in glucose homeostasis indices, and studies of animal and cell models support a positive effect of dairy-rich diets or components on metabolic and inflammation factors relevant to T2D and insulin resistance. Emerging evidence indicates that dairy components that alter mitochondrial function (e.g., leucine actions on silent information regulator transcript 1 (SIRT1)-associated pathways), promote gut microbial population shifts, or influence inflammation and cardiovascular function (e.g., Ca-regulated peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP] or calcitonin) should be considered as possible mechanistic factors linking dairy intake with lower risk for T2D. The possibility that dairy-derived trans-palmitoleic acid (tC16:1) has metabolic bioactivities has also been proposed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies focusing specifically on these parameters are needed to validate hypotheses regarding the potential roles of dairy products and their components on the determinants of glucose tolerance, particularly insulin sensitivity, pancreatic endocrine function, and inflammation in individuals at-risk for T2D development. Such experiments would complement epidemiological studies and add to the evidence base for recommendations regarding consumption of dairy products and their individual components.
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    • "Milk is known to contain a number of components that have anticarcinogenic effects when tested in studies with animal biomedical models (e.g., Parodi, 2007). Likewise, epidemiology studies indicate that the consumption of milk and dairy products reduces the risk against many types of cancer including bladder, breast, and colon cancers (e.g., reviews by Kliem and Givens, 2011; Rice et al., 2013). An exception is prostate cancer where an overview of studies suggests a very modest positive association between milk consumption and the risk of prostate cancer; several mechanisms to explain this effect are being actively investigated (e.g., Parodi, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The 20 y of commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in the US provide the backdrop for reviewing the outcome of use on human health issues by the upcoming 78(th) Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. These results and further advancements in scientific knowledge indicate there are no new human health issues related to the use of rbST by the dairy industry. Use of rbST has no effect on the micro- and macro-composition of milk. Also no evidence exists that rbST use has increased human exposure to antibiotic residues in milk. Concerns that Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) present in milk could have biological effects on humans have been allayed by studies showing that oral consumption of IGF-I by humans has little or no biological activity. Additionally, concentrations of IGF-I in digestive tract fluids of humans far exceed any IGF-I consumed when drinking milk. Furthermore, chronic supplementation of cows with rbST does not increase concentrations of milk IGF-I outside the range typically observed for effects of farm, parity, or stage of lactation. Use of rbST has not affected expression of retroviruses in cattle or posed an increased risk to human health from retroviruses in cattle. Furthermore, risk for development of Type I or Type II diabetes has not increased in children or adults consuming milk and dairy products from rbST-supplemented cows. Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary osteoporosis prevention requires healthy behaviours, such as regular physical exercise and adequate dietary intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Calcium and vitamin D can decrease postmenopausal bone loss and prevent fracture risk. However, there is still a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency in women aged 50+ years. Dietary sources of these nutrients are the preferred choice, and dairy products represent a valuable dietary source of calcium due to the high content, high absorptive rate and relatively low cost. Furthermore, dairy products also contain other key nutrients including vitamin D, phosphorus and protein that contribute to bone health. Studies of women's beliefs and behaviours with respect to osteoporosis highlight poor knowledge of the importance of dietary nutrient intakes and low concern regarding bone health. Osteoporosis educational programmes exist to help women change behaviours relevant to bone health. Such programmes can have positive influences on women's knowledge, attitudes, perceived norms, motivation and behaviours. Increased awareness of the consequences of low calcium and vitamin D intakes may promote women's attitudes towards dietary sources, in particular dairy products, and lead to better adherence to health recommendations. Increasing dietary nutrient intakes through educational initiatives should be further developed to aid the prevention of osteoporosis and the efficacy of osteoporosis management.
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