Article

A pilot study of yoga as self-care for arthritis in minority communities

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes (Impact Factor: 2.12). 04/2013; 11(1):55. DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-55
Source: PubMed
ABSTRACT
Background
While arthritis is the most common cause of disability, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevalence of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites. People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis.

Methods/design
In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months.

Discussion
There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic serving minority populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with arthritis.

Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421

Full-text

Available from: Steffany Moonaz
STUD Y PRO T O C O L Open Access
A pilot study of yoga as self-care for arthritis in
minority communities
Kimberly R Middleton
1*
, Michael M Ward
2
, Steffany Haaz
5
, Sinthujah Velummylum
1
, Alice Fike
2
, Ana T Acevedo
4
,
Gladys Tataw-Ayuketah
1
, Laura Dietz
4
, Barbara B Mittleman
3
and Gwenyth R Wallen
1
Abstract
Background: While arthritis is the most common cause of disability , non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience
worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevale nce of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites.
People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of
the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress
management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid
arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine
yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility
and acceptabi lity of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis.
Methods/design: In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either
osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending
yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an
adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors
that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported
outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management.
Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep
disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and
qualitative data regardin g feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/
retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months.
Discussion: There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic
serving minor ity populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that
integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative
modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that
will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with
arthritis.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421
Keywords: Yoga, Complementary and alternative medicine, Minority, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Self-efficacy
* Correspondence: middletonk@cc.nih.gov
1
National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Nursing Department, 10 Center
Drive, Bethesda, MD, USA
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2013 Middleton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Middleton et al. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2013, 11:55
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Background
In order for an intervention to be used, it must be accept-
able to participants, and it must be feasible to administer.
Acceptability can be defined as, that quality which makes
an object, person, event, or idea attractive or satisfactory
[1]. Factors highly likely to be influential in shaping values
and perceptions include ethnicity, nationality, culture, edu-
cation, personality, and experience [2]. The purpose of this
pilot study is to investigate the feasibility and acceptability
of offering a yoga intervention to the urban, minority
population served by the National Institute of Arthritis and
Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease (NIAMS) Community
Health Clinic (CHC) serving the Washington, DC area.
Previous studies using data from the 2002 National
Health Interview Survey (NHIS)-Alternative Medicine
Supplement found that yoga users were predominately
white, female, and college educated with a mean age of
39.5 years [3]. Among those reporting using yoga, 12%
were black or Hispanic, 88% stated place of birth as the
United States, and 27% used yoga for joint pain [4]. There
are a few studies in the literature that examine yoga in mi-
nority or diverse populations but none specifically address
patients with rheumatic disease [5-7].
This study is a follow-up intervention to a descriptiv e,
exploratory study, completed in 2004 by Wallen et al.
(Clinical Trial# N CT00069342) which examined t he di-
verse health beliefs and behaviors among a convenience
sample of primarily African-American and Hispanic
patients enrolled in the NIAMS Natural History of
Rheumatic Disease in Minority Communities protocol
[8-10]. Overall complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) usage was high, with pain relief listed a s the
primary reason. A little more than one-th ird (39%) of
respondents stated that t hey were currently doing
movement activity, and only 4.6% stated they were
doing y oga [11].
Arthritis is highly prevalent in US adults, with approxi-
mately 50 million persons reporting doctor-diagnosed
arthritis [12]. Furthermore, arthritis is the nationsmost
common cause of disability and is associated with consid-
erable activity limitation, work disability and significant
health care costs [13]. The most common form of arthritis
is osteoarthritis (OA), a slowly progressive joint disease
that occurs when the joint cartilage breaks down. OA
symptoms include joint pain, stiffness, knobby swelling,
cracking noises with joint movements and decreased func-
tion. It typically affects the joints of the hands and spine
and weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees
[14,15]. Another form of arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis
(RA), an autoimmune, chronic disease that causes pain,
stiffness, swelling and limitations in the motion and func-
tion of multiple joints. While RA can affect any joint, the
small joints in the hands and feet tend be involved more
frequently than others [15,16].
Arthritis disproportionally affects certain racial/ethnic
minorities. The prevalence of arthritis is lower among
blacks and Hispanics than among whites, but the impact is
worse. Published analysis of racial/ethnic differences from
theNHISshowstheprevalenceofactivitylimitation,work
limitation and severe joint pain are significantly higher
among blacks, Hispanics, and multi-racial or other re-
spondents than among whites [17,18]. People with arthritis
should be moving according to the American College of
Rheumatology, the Arthritis Foundation and the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [19-21]. People
with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more
energy, improved sleep and better day-to-day function.
Yet, arthritis is one of the most common reasons people
give for limiting physical activity and recreational pursuits
[20]. People with arthritis may have a difficult time being
physically active because of symptoms and lack of confi-
dence in knowing how much and what to do [21]. Long-
term studies have shown that people with inflammatory
arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis can benefit from
moderate intensity, weight -bearing activity [22]. According
the CDC, physical activity can reduce pain and improve
function, mobility, mood, and quality of life for most adults
with many types of arthritis and recommends including ac-
tivities that improve balance for people with arthritis who
may be at risk for falling [21]. According to the American
College of Rheumatology, both range-of-motion (ROM)
and stretching exercises help to maintain or improve the
flexibility in affected joints and surrounding muscles. This
contributes to better posture, reduced risk of injuries and
improved function. They recommend activities such as
yoga because it incorporates both ROM and stretching
movements [22]
According to a report using the data from the 2002
NHIS, adults with arthritis are significantly less likely to
engage in recommended levels of physical activity. In both
men and women with arthritis, inactivity has been asso-
ciated with older age, lower education, and having func-
tional limitations. Access to a fitness facility was inversely
associated with inactivity. Among women, inactivity was
also associated with being Hispanic, non-Hispanic black,
having frequent anxiety/depression or social limitations,
needing special equipment to increase functional capacity,
and not receiving physical activity counseling [23].
Yoga is an ancient system of relaxation, exercise, and
healing with origins in Indian philosophy an estimated
5,000 years ago [24,25]. It is regarded as a holistic ap-
proach to health repor ted to increase flexibility, strength,
and stamina while also fostering self-awar eness and feel-
ings of well-being [26-33]. Yoga can be done anywhere,
requires no special equipment, is gentle on the joints
and can be modified for each person. It uses only gravity
and the body itself as resistance, so it is a low-impact ac-
tivity. However it is not just an exercise; it is a mind-
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body intervention. The combination of stress manage-
ment and gentle physical activity is well suited for inves-
tigation in both osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory
immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
(RA) [34].
Yoga is generally low-impact and safe for healthy people
when practiced appropriately under the guidance of a
well-trained instructor. Overall, those who practice yoga
have a low rate of side effects, and the risk of serious in-
jury from yoga is quite low [24]. As with any physical ac-
tivity based on the person undertaking the exercise, there
may be contraindications or side effects which make a
technique (such as postures or breath work) inadvisable
[24,25]. For example poses that put the head lower than
the heart may lead to increases in cerebral and intraocular
pressure; therefore, patients with high myopia or with
hypertension, glaucoma, detachment of the retina, central
retinal vein occlusion, discharging ears, or cervical spon-
dylitis should avoid some inverted poses [24,25]. Adverse
events and case reports found in the literature were
reviewed when preparing the protocol [3,35-37]. However,
related poses and techniques reported are not taught or
encouraged as part of this protocol. All patients for this
study are medically cleared to participate in light to mod-
erate exercise before being recruited to participate.
According to the yogic literature, yoga can help cor-
rect the interconnected factors of dysfunctional move-
ment patterns, lack of body aware ness, and poor posture
[15,26,38]. Yoga takes the whole body through a wide
range of motion [15]. Static stretching is the most com-
mon technique used in Hatha yoga; which includes both
contracting muscles to stretch a target muscle, and when
relaxing into a stretch using only body weight to stretch
muscles [39]. People with arthritis tend to avoid using
sore joints because of the pain involved; inactivity
weakens muscles and further decreases range of motion
in the joints. Gentle movement taught by a skilled yoga
therapist may help by keeping the body moving. Yoga
maybesuitedtohelppreventorminimizetheerosionof
cartilage that causes the joint pain of OA, to create greater
ease of movement and decrease pain within joints that
have already sustained damage [15]. Most descriptions of
the effect of yoga on musculoskeletal disorders point to the
benefits of joint realignment and active stretch producing
traction of muscles during the asanas (or yoga poses) [40].
A growing number of research studies have shown
that the practic e of yoga can imp rove posture, strength,
endurance and flexibility [31,41,42]; improve balance,
gait, and fear of falling [43-45], and hand grip strength
[46]. Other studies have shown that practicing yoga
asanas (postures), meditation or a combination of the
two, reduces pain for people with arthritis [47,48]. Yoga
postures and breath work (pranayama) have been shown
to also help with physiological variables such as blood
pressure, respiration, and heart rate [47-57]. For patients
with arthritis, emphasis on stretching, strength, posture,
balance, and the ability to adjust pace and intensity are
important components of a safe activity, all of which
yoga encompasses. Yoga interventions have been shown
to produce improvements in quality-of-life measures
related to sense of well-being, energy, and fatigue [58];
and to beneficially impact mood, depression and anxiety
disorders [28-33]. Yoga has also been demonstrated to
reduce the physical effects of stress [59,60], by reducing
the levels of cortisol [61- 64]; and affecting the neuroen-
docrine system [65]. Stress may play a role in worsening
symptoms of OA, and contribute to flare-ups of inflam-
mation in RA [15]. There is promising evidence that
yoga therapy may help both osteoarthritis and rheuma-
toid arthritis [25,44,66-75]. The most important limita-
tions of the existing research regarding the impact of
yoga are: lack of minority representation, inadequate
sample size, overly broad age range, lack of specification
regarding the tradition of yoga utilized, and lack of a
theoretical model to inform treatment implementation
and assessment of outcomes [76].
There are studies that report an interest of diverse mi-
norities in complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) [7] and that CAM is most often used to treat a
variety of musculoskeletal problems and conditions [77].
The question to ask is, why not yoga? It is possible that
culture plays an importa nt role in the initiatio n of yoga
use and other forms of physical activity. For example,
one study found that Latina womens physical activity
depended on their degree of acculturation, expounding
that for many the concept of leisure time, does not
exist. And that middle-class Latinos work five extra
hours per week compared with Anglo-Americans [78].
Disparities in the use of yoga in minority groups (specif-
ically low-income populations) could be related to the
costs of attending classes. One of the most practiced
CAM mod alities is prayer, a practice that is financially
accessible to all income levels [7,47]. Given that yoga
practice can be a fee-based service, it might be challen-
ging for low-income populations to use this health
modality. Geographical access to yoga classes may also
be problematic for disadvantaged populations. However,
a study by Wilson (2008) suggests that given access to
yoga practices, diverse populations benefit from these
practices, and anticipate using them in everyday life. Al-
most all participants in this study (98%) would recom-
mend yoga practices to others [7].
The primary objective of this study is to determine the
feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an
urban, minority population with arthritis, using a proven
yoga based intervention. The secondary objective is to
determine the appropriateness of specific physical and
psychosocial measures for this population, and
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intervention with a focus on physical function and pa-
tient repor ted measures. The tertiary objective is to de-
termine the feasibility of using computerized self-
interview (with assistance) to capture baseline and final
status.
Assessmen ts will be made from a convenience sample
of 20 participants undergoing an 8-week program of
yoga classes consisting of 60-minute sessions, twice a
week. The yoga classes are designed especially for people
with arthritis.
Methods/design
Research participants will be recruited from English-
speaking or Spanish-speaking patients receiving care from
the NIAMS rheumatology practice located in Silver Spring,
Maryland, a racially diverse area in the Washington DC
metro region. Rheumatology care is provided without re-
gard to medical insurance status and patients are referred
from other neighborhood health centers, clinics, or prac-
tices in the area Potter et al. [79]. Data from the NIAMS
Community Health Center (CHC) shows RA (28%) makes
up the largest percentage of patients seen followed by OA
(11%), and various other rheumatologic diagnoses [80].
Patients must meet all of the following criteria to be
eligible for study admission. The Medical Advisory Inves-
tigator and nurse practitioner on the study will determine
whether subjects meet the medical exclusion criteria:
Inclusion criteria
Adult patients enrolled in the NIAMS Natural
History of Rheumatic Disease in Minority
Communities
Diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid
arthritis (RA)
Willingness and ability to provide informed consent
Age 18 years
Exclusion Criteria
Recent (less than 6 months) or planned joint surgery
Use of assistive ambulatory devices
Other significant medical or psychiatric conditions,
including other inflammatory conditions
Hyper-mobility or unstable disease that could
compromise participation in the study
In attempts to ascertain the initial interest in yoga
classes as part of a research protocol, patients from the
NIAMS CHC were interviewed in September 2010. Re-
spondents requested to have classes available in both
English and Spanish. A common fear expressed about
yoga classes was of being required to do pretzel poses.
Both respondents and NIAMS clinic staff expressed time
commitment may be a barrier for this population, due to
the need to work several jobs. Most respondents pre-
ferred to attend yoga classes from 612 weeks.
The study follows 20 participants over an 8-week series
of yoga classes. Classes that include deep breathing, relax-
ation, meditation, poses for strength, flexibility, and balance
are offered twice a week. Classes are taught by bilingual
(English/Spanish), racially concordant yoga teachers and
held at a yoga studio near the NIAMS CHC.
At ba seline, demographic and clinical data are collected
via a computerized in-person interview, conducted by
trained interviewers (Figure 1). Patient reported outcomes,
captured via a web-based questionnaire, are collected at
both baseline and the end of the study. Physical measure-
ments, also collected at baseline and the end of the study,
are obtained by rehabilitation medicine. Field notes, quan-
titative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and accept-
ability are also collected during the course of the study.
For this pilot intervention, class size is kept small (510
participants) to allow for modifications and explanation of
yoga poses that will encourage greater self and body
awareness. The yoga therapy approach tailors each pose to
the needs and limitations of every individual. Props
(chairs, bolsters, blankets, blocks and straps) are used and
the postures are modified to accommodate the limitations
of the arthritis patients taking the yoga classes.
Participants are encouraged to develop a home practice,
which appears to be critical to the effectiveness of the
intervention [15]. The last section of each class is dedi-
cated to providing guidance on how to do home practice
based on poses taught and information given during each
yoga class. All participants receive a yoga mat, blocks, belt,
and blanket for their home practice. Participants keep a
journal to qualitatively document the frequency of home
practice and their experience of participating in the study.
Journals are open format, allowing respondents to record
their observations/feelings about practicing yoga in their
own words [81-84].
This study focuses on the branch of Hatha yoga that
uses postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayama)
and meditation. Within Hatha yoga, there are numerous
styles each with a slightly different approach to the phys-
ical practice of yoga. This protocol is primarily influenced
by the styles of Integral, Iyengar and Kripalu yoga, each of
which is considered to focus on proper physical alignment
in a gentle and attentive fashion, while also including a
strong component of mindfulness during and between
physical postures [15,85].
The yoga classes are formatted so that every class builds
on the previous class. The contents of class 1 are repeated
with additional poses added during each successive class
(Table 1).
This format follows that of the previous randomized
research study Yoga for Arthritis, conducted through
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Johns Hopkins University, which explored mediators of
yoga practice and health related quality of life measures
and disease symptoms in RA and OA patients. Results
from the study found benefits of this sixteen-class yoga
series created specifically for those with arthritis included:
A statistically significant improvement in overall
physical health, flexibility, and balance.
A significant reduction in symptoms of depression
and improvement in positive affect.
A significant improvement in pain symptoms and,
for those with RA, a significant difference in the
number of tender and swollen joints when
compared with control subject s receiving the usual
medical care [86,87].
Dr. Steffany Haaz, a researcher on the Hopkins study
and an advanced yoga teacher trained in yoga therapy
provided yoga for arthritis training to bilingual yoga
instructors recruited to teach for this study. In order to
optimize treatment fidelity, all instructo rs use the same
training manual of 16-class sequence used in the Haaz
study and all classes are videotaped. Class attendance,
the name of yoga instructor, home practice, and reported
side effects are recorded during each class session.
The primary aim of this pilot study is to attempt to
quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will
be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the
study of yoga in this population. There are a number of
challenges in recruiting and retaining study participants in
a community setting. We hypothesize that by providing
bilingual materials, racially concordant images for recruit-
ment materials, culturally similar investigators and yoga
instructors, as well as an intervention created specifically
for persons with arthritis; participants will be more willing
to enroll, attend classes, and report a positive experience
after completing the 8-week series.
The second aim of this study is to determine if the mea-
sures of well-being selected for this minority population
are appropriate to discern facilitators and impediments for
participants to view yoga as a viable option for self-care.
Self-care has become increasingly important in being able
to self-manage chronic disease states; however, many
patients with chronic disease do not integrate self-
*No allocation because study uses a convenience sample instead of randomized sample.
Study Period
Enrollment*
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 8
Final
Time point
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
6
t
8
Eligibility Screen
Informed Consent
X
Height
X
Weight
X
Oxygen Saturation Level
X
Heart Rate
X
Interventions
Yoga Class
Assessments
Baseline
Health History
Questionnaire
X
ICAMP
X
REALM-SF
X
SAHLSA
X
Baseline/Outcome
Rehab Assessment
X
X
Health Promoting
Lifestyle Profile (HPLP II)
X
X
PROMIS-29
X
X
Self Efficacy Exercise
Regularly
X
X
Self Rated Health
X
X
Exit Interview
X
3-month follow up
X
Other data variables
Home Journals
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Figure 1 Protocol flow.
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management behaviors into their lives [88]. The concept
of well-being integrates mental health (mind) and physical
health (body) resulting in more holistic approaches to
disease prevention and health promotion [89]. Well-being
includes the presence of positive emotions and moods
(e.g., contentment, happiness), and the absence of negative
emotions (e.g., depression, anxiety), as well as a spect s of
physical, social, e motional, psychological well-being
[89]. It is a ssociated with: self-perceived health, healthy
behaviors, mental and physical illness, and social connect-
edness [89]. For this study, self-care is defined as adopting
behaviors (such as continuing to practice yoga) that
improve physical and mental well-being and may decrease
arthritis symptoms and side effects.
A revised model based on Banduras social cognitive
theory (Figure 2) shows the paths of influence believed
to be rele vant for this study . Banduras ( 2004) th eory
suggests that self-efficacy plays an important role in
motivating behavior change [90]. Self-efficacy is the
confidence in ones personal ability to perform a ta sk or
behavior or to change a specific cognitive state,
regardless of circumstances or contexts [91,92]. Social
cognitivetheoryspecifiesacoresetofdeterminants,
among which perceived self-efficacy and knowledge of
perceived facilit a tors and i mpe diments may lead to be-
havior changes [ 90,93]. Ways to influence self-efficacy
include learning a new behavior, seeing people similar
to oneself succeed; social persua sion; reducing negative
emotional states; and correcting misinterpretations of
physical ability [90,93]. The potential facilitators and
impediments ar e measured at baseline and again at the
end of the study to see if there are any changes after
completing the intervention.
The third aim is to determine the feasibility of using
computerized self-interview (with assistance) to capture
baseline and final health status outcomes. The previous
study in this population by Wallen was completed using
an in-person paper-and-pencil interview questionnaire
[9,10]. In attempts to determine the feasibility for using a
computerized system, this study uses a computer-assisted
interview method with both the interviewer collecting
baseline background information; and the respondent
entering patient reported outcome measures directly into
a web-based system, with assistance as needed.
Acceptability of this study will be evaluated ba sed
on the r esponse rate, percent of classes completed,
exit interview comments and the percent of patient s
continuing yoga after three months. Feasibility will be
determined based on exit inter view (see Appendix)
comments and qualitative data. Qualitative field notes
are kept to monitor/document related issues such a s
location, personnel, equipment, and the amount of
modifications needed during yoga classes. Records are
kept of eligible patients who decline and reasons for
declining. Field notes are maintained by study investi-
gators during re cruitment, onsite yoga clas ses , and
when interacting with study participants outside of
completing questionnaires. An exit inter view is com-
pleted afte r the last class. Those who m ay have
dropped out of the study prior to the last cla ss will
Table 1 Overview of yoga poses
Description Yoga poses
Laying foundation:
Classes 1-2 Warm-up: Upper body stretches, staff with leg lifts
Sun Salutations (one side): Forward fold, mountain (two sides for class 2)
Standing poses: Tree, warrior II
Sitting poses: Head to knee, spinal twist, yogic seal
Relaxation: Sivasana, tense and release, progressive body scan
Closing: Side lying, cross-legged
Class 3 Discussion of balance poses Tree, king dancer
Classes 4-5 Arm balancing and reclining poses Inverted plank, (lying) extended leg pose, (lying) spinal twist
Classes 6-7 Arm/leg extensions and hip openers Table and cat/cow-extend arm & opposite leg,
downward facing dog-extending one leg, bridge with
leg extension, butterfly
Classes 8-9 Intro to gentle back bends Sphinx, locust, bow, camel
Classes 9-10 Stamina building Four sun salutations
Class 11 Poses for sciatica
Class 12 Pose modifications using the wall
Class 13 Restorative poses
Classes 14-16 Review, practice, wrap up
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be contacted by phone in attempts to complete the
exit interview.
The feasibility of using a computerized self-interview
method is ba sed on the estimated amount of assistance
needed to complete questionnaires (measured in incre-
ments from 0-100%), comments collected from the
interviewer offering assistance, any technical problems
encountered, and comments solicited from the partici-
pants during the exit interview.
Baseline assessment
Self-reported demographic variables include: gender, age,
marital status, race/ethnicity, educational level and occu-
pational status. Clinical variables related to arthritis and
current practices include: rheumatic diagnosis, other diag-
noses, weight, height, duration (years) of rheumatic dis-
ease and location current joint stiffness and pain location
[94], current medications, heart rate and oxygen satur-
ation level, exercise, diet and an Inventory of Complemen-
tary and Alternative Medicine Practices (ICAMP) created
during the Wallen study [9]. Acculturation is measured by
obtaining the proxy measures of spoken English language
proficiency, country of origin, and length of time in United
States.
Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have
the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic
health information and services needed to make appropri-
ate health decisions. This study uses the Rapid Estimate of
Adult Literacy in Medicine Short Form (REALM-SF) and
Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults
(SAHLSA-50) tools [95-98]. The REALM is an assessment
tool using word recognition tests, which has high criterion
validity when correlated with other literacy tests and has
high test-retest and reliability 0.97 (p < .001) [96-98]. The
REALM-SF is a 7-item word recognition test with scores
that were highly correlated with the REALM in develop-
ment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) and validation (r = 0.94, p <
0.001) samples [99]. The SAHLSA-50 is a validated health
literacy assessment tool containing 50 items designed to
assess a Spanish-speaking adults ability to read and under-
stand common medical terms, based on REALM [100].
The SAHLSA-50 correlated with the Test of Functional
Health Literacy in Adults(r = 0.65); and displayed good
internal reliability (Cronbachs alpha = 0.92) and test-retest
reliability (Pearsons r = 0.86) [101].
Patient reported outcomes and psychosocial concepts
Patient reported outcomes are assessed at baseline and
at the end of the 8-we ek yoga intervention, with bilin-
gual staff available to help complete documentation and
computer usage. In attempt s to reduce participant bur-
den, instead of using legacy measures, this study is using
the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System
(PROMIS). The item databanks for PROMIS have been
tested for reliability and comparability using Item-Response
Theory; short forms were developed and compared with
other well-validated and widely accepted (legacy)mea-
sures [102-104]. The PROMIS 29-profile was selected as a
domain framework for self-reported health to look at eight
domains: physical function, anxiety, depression, fatigue,
sleep disturbance, satisfaction with social roles, pain inter -
ference, and pain intensity.
Self -care and well-being are evaluated using the
Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), self-
Facilitators
small yoga classes
arthritis-based yoga
intervention
Bilingual/minority
instructors
familiar community
setting
Impediments
physical limitations
emotional distress
(anxiety/depression)
fatigue, pain, sleep
disturbance and social
participation
Self Efficacy
Behavior
Increased self-care
activities, including yoga
practice
Figure 2 Self care model.
Middleton et al. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2013, 11:55 Page 7 of 14
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efficacy, self-rated health, class attendance, report s of
continued practice yoga after completing the study inter-
vention, as well as qualitative data (participant com-
ments). The HPLP-II is a self-a dministered 52-item
instrument that measures the frequency of self-reported
healthy behaviors. It consists of 6 subscales: physical ac-
tivity, spiritual growth, health responsibility, interper-
sonal relations, nutrition, and stress managemen t. This is
a 4-point Likert type scale with responses ranging from 1
(never) to 4 (routinely). The higher scores indicate the
more frequent engagement in health behaviors [105].
Callaghan (2003) reported the following Cronbachs
alpha coefficients of internal consistency reliability: total
scale 0.93, health responsibility 0.83, physical activity
0.87, nutrition 0.76, spiritual growth 0.84, interpersonal
relations 0.82, and stress management 0.75 [106]. A ran-
domized study of bilingual Hispanic individuals found
the English- and Spanish-language versions of the HPLP
II to have statistically acceptable levels of reliability and
equivalency [107].
Self-efficacy is measured using Lorigs self-efficacy in
exercise, a 3-item scale used to measure confidence in
exercising regularly based on a scale from 1 (not at all
confident) to 10 (totally confident) [108]. Higher scores
indicate more confidence. Lorig et al. [109] and Wallen
[9], have validated the 8-item Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale
(ASES) with similar populations, however the Haaz Yoga
for Arthritis study [110] found no change when using
the same ASES measure. For this pilot, the decision was
made to focus specifically on using a measure related to
exercise self-efficacy.
Self-rated health consists of a single response item,
Would you say your health in general is excellent, very
good, good, fair, or poor? [108]. Lorig et al. (1996)
found the mean rating for this item to be 3.29 (SD ±
0.91). In a subset of their sample (n = 51), this item
displayed a test-retest reliability of .92 [108,111]. This
measure has been translated into Spanish [111]. Self-
rated/self-reported health (SRH) has been differentially
reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially
based on their acculturation status [111-114]. Hispanics
are 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health
compared to whites [115].
Physical assessment -Clinical measures were selected
to evaluate domains of balance (single leg stance, func-
tional reach test) and functional mobility (timed up and
go test) that may be responsive to change with an exer-
cise intervention. These measures are evaluated both at
baseline and after completing the series of yoga classes,
by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) rehabilitation
medicine staff associated with the study. The single leg
stance (SLS) determines if the patient can stand on
one leg for 10 seconds [116]. When evaluated mean
criterion-related validity was high (Pearsons r =0.84,
0.83, respectively). Inter-observer reliability was high
(ICC (2,1) = 0.81 at Test 1 and 0.82 at Test 2). Intra-
observer reliability was high (on average ICC (2,1) =
0.88; Pearsons r = 0.90) [117].
The functional reach test is a dynamic measure of sta-
bility during a self-initiated movement [118]. Functional
reach is the difference (in inches) between a persons
arm length and maximal forward reach with the shoul-
der flexed to 90 degrees while maintaining a fixed base
of support in standing. In a study by Duncan (1990), it
was found that functional reach measures were strongly
associated with measureme nts of the center of pressure
excursion. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.71
and the R2 using linear regression was 0.51. Analysis of
the test-retest reliability of the three primary measures
of postural control suggests that functional reach is
highly reproducible. The intracla ss correlation coeffi-
cient (ICC 1, 3) for center of pressure excursion was
0.52, electronic functional reach 0.81, and yardstick
reach 0.92. [119].
The timed Up and Go test (TUG) measures, in sec-
onds, the time taken by an individual to stand up from a
standard arm chair, walk a distance of 3 meters, turn,
walk back to the chair, and sit down [120]. A history of
arthritis increases the risk of falling, sensitivity of the
TUG for predicting falls was 0.80 and specificity was
0.934 [121,122]. Inter-rater reliability for the TUG is
high with a same day, three-rater intra-class correlation
coefficient (ICC) of various studies has ranged from
0.99 - 0.992. For validity, moderate to high correlations
have been observed with scores on Berg Balance Scale,
gait speed, stair climbing, and the Barthel Index of
Activities of Daily Living Scale [121].
A timed floor transfer is a clinical test of strength,
flexibility, function, and problem solving; it measures the
time necessary to transfer from standing to the floor and
return to standing in any way that participants are able
[123]. The time needed is recorded in seconds, then
standardized by using body height to determine the
speed of this task. Higher values indicate better scores
[124]. The interrater reliability for three timed tests (50-
ft walk, five-step, and floor transfer) between various
pairs of two testers was determined to be excellent
(r = .99) [124]. The calculated ICCs were moderately
high (ICC
2,1
= .79, p = .0001) on the timed data to deter-
mine testretest reliability in a community-based, pre-
dominantly Hispanic population some of whom were
diagnosed with arthritis [125].
Upper body ability is measured using the Disabilities
of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Outcome
Measure. The DASH is a 30 item self-report question-
naire designed to measure physical function and symp-
toms in patients with any or several musculoskeletal
disorders of the upper limb. The DASH has been shown
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to have acceptable reliability and validity when assessing
upper limb functional ability in RA populations [126]. A
study undertaken to evaluate the reliability, validity, and
responsiveness of the DASH found it to correlate with
other measures (r > 0.69) with a test-retest reliability of
(ICC = 0.96) [127].
Thestudyisapilotconveniencesampleof20partici-
pants. Yoga classes will be held for as few as 5, or as many
as 10 participants per class depending on how long it takes
to accrue participants onto the study. Research participants
are recruited from English-speaking or Spanish-speaking
patients receiving care from the NIAMS CHC rheumatol-
ogy practice.
Racially concordant images were used to develop pam-
phlets to be displayed in clinic and used for recruitment.
All recruitment materials are available in both English and
Spanish due to the large percentage (57%) of Latino/His-
panic patients seen by the NIAMS CHC (personal commu-
nication: Alice Fike MSN). Because of clinicians concern
regarding literacy, all documents are read to patients in ei-
ther English or Spanish, when needed. Patients are referred
to the Principal Investigator by the NIAMS rheumatology
clinicians who are already familiar with their care. After full
study explanation, either the Principal Investigator or Lead
Associate Investigator obtain written informed consent in
person at the rheumatology clinic.
Participant information will be collected using a com-
puterized questionnaire during one-on-one sessions with
either the Principal Investigator or Associat e Investiga-
tors. Data will be collected electronically using the Clin-
ical Trials Database (CTDB). CTDB is a web based
application that is hosted at the NIH therefore data are
housed on a dedicated in-house server protected
according to federal standards. The security framework
of CTDB and the clinical trials survey system (CTSS)
permit only the Principal Investigator and designated
Associate Investigators to have access to identified data
in the database.
This pilot stud y evaluates the acce ptability of offering
yoga as an integrative intervention for self-care using the
response rate, percent of classes completed, exit inter-
view comments and the percent of patients continuing
yoga after three months. Barriers and reasons for con-
tinuing/discontinuing yoga are assessed in a brief ques-
tionnaire either in person or by telephone, three (3)
months after completing yoga classes. Results from the
Haaz study were used to determine reasonable measure
and time frames for this study. The study found of 102
patients screened, 52% of randomized persons com-
pleted the 8-week yoga session [128]. Those who actu-
ally started the intervention were very likely to complete
it, as attrition was highest prior to the first class [129].
Based on these results , the decision was made to de-
crease the time from enrollment to start of yoga classes;
and to decrease the class size to 510 participants per
class.
Acceptability of this study will be evaluated based on
the response rate, percent of classes completed, exit
interview comments and the percent of patients con-
tinuing yoga after 3 months. Feasibility will be deter-
mined based on exit interview comme nts and qualitative
data. Qualitative field notes will be kept to monitor/
document related to issues such as site capability (loca-
tion/space), personnel (bilingual yoga teachers/investiga-
tors), equipment (computers/yoga props), and the
amount of modifications needed. A record will be kept
of eligible patients who decline and reasons for
declining.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Ver-
sion 20.0 will be used to analyze outcome measure data.
Descriptive statistics (mean and median) will be used to
describe the profiles of the subje cts from demographic
data gathered. Wilcoxon tests will be used to test differ-
ences between baseline and final assessments, for those
who complete the study. Pre- and post- changes will be
identified; however, no attempt will be made to evaluate
statistical significance given the small sample size of the
pilot study. An attempt will be made to complete an exit
interview for all participants, even those who discon-
tinue participation in the study prior to full completion.
Missing data will be managed according to the recom-
mendations of selected measures used in the protocol,
or omitted from analyses.
The feasibility of using a computerized self-interview
method (with assistance) will be based on the perce nt of
assistance needed to complete questionnaires, comments
collected from the interviewer offering assistance and
comments solicited from the participants during the exit
interview.
The Medical Advisory Investigator (MAI) will be re-
sponsible for the patient safety monitoring. The Princi-
pal Investigator will provide a regular report of all
protocol activities to the MAI and discuss any concerns.
No invasive treatments are provided as part of this
protocol. This population will not be exposed to yoga
poses (i.e. headstands and shoulder stands) that are most
commonly associated with injury. Adverse events and
serious adverse events will be monitored at all times
during yoga classes and if reported by subjects by tele-
phone. Specific safety instructions will be given as part
of every class and pose modifications will be taught to
individuals as needed. Participants will be instructed to
report side effects immediately should they occ ur.
Investigators will attend all yoga classes and will ask
subjects about side effects during each class session.
Subjects will also be instructed to report side effects im-
mediately, to the study PI; by telephone should they
occur while practicing at home. Any reported side
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Page 9
effects will be documented by the investigators using the
weekly flow sheet and reviewed daily by the PI. The PI
will report adverse events to the MAI for recommenda-
tions and follow-up, and record in the patient record.
For research related injury, the subje ct will be e valuated
by NIAMS rheumatology at either the NIAMS CHC or
the NIH Clinical Center.
A serious adverse event is defined as any untoward med-
ical occurrences that 1) result in death, 2) are life-threaten-
ing, 3) require hospitalization, 4) cause persistent or
significant disability/ incapacity, 5) result in congenital
anomalies or birth defects, 6) are other conditions which
in the judgment of the Investigators represent significant
hazards. All serious adverse events will be reported to the
IRB and to the Clinical Director, within 7 days for death or
life threatening adverse event and within 15 days for all
others. All adverse events reported under this protocol will
be limited to those events which are possibly, probably or
definitely related to the research described in this protocol.
Under the Natural History protocol (Clinical Trial#
NCT00024479), the reporting of adverse e vents will
focus on adverse events that are related to the diagnostic
and therapeutic interventions where the NIH is involved
either directly or indirectly by recommending certain in-
terventions. Adve rse events associated with the natural
history of rheumatic disease will not be reported. Ad-
verse events associated with the yoga intervention will
be monitored by the PI, serving as safety officer, and will
be reported to the IRB as appropriate and as part of the
annual report/renewal.
Approval to conduct the study was obtained through the
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
Disease/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal
and Skin Diseases intramural Institutional Review Board.
Since the protocol approval, an amendment was submitted
to include a Spanish consent, to obtain approval for a
change in the location for offering the yoga classes and to
add a yoga student manual for participants on the study.
This amendment was approved on 6/4/2012. A second
amendment was submitted during the continuing review
process to remove one associate investigator and add three
new investigators. This amendment was approved on ap-
proved 2/20/2013.
Consent is obtained by the Principal Investigator or Lead
Associate Investigator. Once the study has been explained
to subjects, including the objectives, time commitment and
process, subjects are given the informed consent/assent
document to review. Subjects are encouraged to ask ques-
tions prior to enrolling in this study. Subjects are reassured
that participation in this study is entirely voluntary and
that they may withdraw from the study at any time. Sub-
jects are informed that their decision to participate in or
withdraw from this study will impact neither their partici-
pation in other protocols for which they may be eligible,
nor their ability to receive services at the Clinical Center
that they may require.
Patient data including the results of physical function
tests and responses to questionnaires are entered into an
NIH-authorized and controlled research database. Any
future research use will occur only after appropriate hu-
man subject protection institutional approval as pro-
spective NIH IRB review and approval an exemption
from the NIH Office of Human Subjects Research Pro-
tections. The Principal Investigator is responsible for
overseeing entry of data into an in-house password
protected electronic system and ensuring data accuracy,
consistency and timeliness. The Principal Investigator,
Associate Investigators and/or a contracted data man-
ager will assist with the data management efforts.
All human subjects personally identifiable information
as defined in accordance to the Health Insurance Port-
ability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) will be separated
from individual subject data. Protocol eligibility and con-
sent verification will be tracked and separated from indi-
vidual subject data. Primary data obtained during the
conduct of the protocol will be kept in secur e network
drives that comply with NIH security standards. Primary
and final analyzed data will have identifiers so that re-
search data can be attributed to an individual human
subject participant required for subject identification, e.
g., study-specific identifying number generated by Prin-
cipal Investigator and/or Associate Investigators for sub-
ject identification. The protocol and all primary and
analyzed data will be stored in the NIH Clinical Centers
secure network. Clinical data will be colle cted using sub-
jects names in the source document. However, clinical
report forms will be coded. Research survey responses,
will be maintained in a secure network password-
protected database (Clinical Trials Database (CTDB)).
Any printed records with identifier information will be
kept in a locked file cabinet within a secure file cabinet
of the PI.
Investigators will be responsible for collecting the
questionnaires from subject s and ensuring the delivery
of the data to the secure office of the Principal Investi-
gator. Data from consenting subjects will be stored
until they are no longer of scientific value or if a sub-
ject withdraws consent for their continued use, at
which time they will be destroyed. Should we become
aware that a major breach in our plan for tracking
and storage of data has occurred, the IRB will be
notified. Each NIH protocol undergoes a yearly depart-
mental independent audit in addition to yearly con-
tinuing reviews by the IRB.
Since this protocol is federally funded, any manuscript
to be published in a peer-reviewed journal will be sub-
mitted to PubMedCentral or public access upon accept-
ance for publication.
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Discussion
There are a number of challenges in recruiting and
retaining participants from a community clinic serving
minority populations. Few studies have examined offer-
ing integrative modalities to this population. This pilot
was undertaken in order to quantify measures of feasibil-
ity and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating
future plans for expanding the study of yoga in an urban,
minority population with arthritis.
Previous studies of patients with arthritis suggest
that taking yoga classes helps to improve measures of
physical health, flexibility, bala nce, affect, and pain
symptoms as well as redu ces measures of depression.
It is unclear what aspect s of yoga as an intervention
may or may not be acceptable to populations such as
those served by the NIAMS CHC.
Knowledge gained from this pilot study will contribute
to the understanding of the feasibility of this study de-
sign and the acceptability of yoga as self-care modality
for minorities with arthritis. The design of the study will
also add to the body of work related to the use of patient
reported outcome measures and the use of computerized
data collection methods within this population.
Appendix: yoga study exit interview
Thank you for participating in our study. We would like
to ask you some questions as you are finishing the study.
Please give your honest answers to help us improve our
study. Your comment s are very important to us.
1. We would like to ask about your experience using the
laptop computer to complete the surveys throughout the
study.
a. How comfortable were you using the laptop com-
puter? Please circle the appropriate number below:
Very Comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 Very Uncomfortable
Comfortable
b. Do you think we should continu e use computers in
this way?
Yes
No
c. Is there anything else you would like us to know about
your experience using the computer to complete the
surveys in this study?
2. Please give us your opinion on the yoga classes and
location:
a. Overall, how satisfied were you with the yoga classes?
Check one:
Completely satisfied
Mostly satisfied
Equally satisfied and dissatisfied
Mostly dissatisfied
Completely dissatisfied
Unsure
b. How satisfied were you with the classroom where the
classes were offered? Check one:
Completely satisfied
Mostly satisfied
Equally satisfied and dissatisfied
Mostly dissatisfied
Completely dissatisfied
Unsure
3. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the
following statements? Please circle one of the choices
below.
(SA).....Strongly agree
(A).......Agree
(N).......Neither agree nor disagree
(D).......Disagree
(SD).....Strongly Disagree
a. Yoga classes should be offered in English only
SA......A......N………D...SD
b. Yoga classes should be offered in both English and
Spanish
SA......A......N………D...SD
c. I feel mor e comfortable taking yoga classes from
teachers with diverse racial/ethnic bac kgrounds
SA......A......N………D...SD
d. prefer taking yoga classes with others who have
arthritis
SA......A......N………D
...SD
e. The yoga poses offered in class work well for people
with arthritis
SA......A......N………D...SD
4. What did you like most about the yoga classes?
5. What did you like least about the yoga classes?
6. What changes would you make in the classes to make
them more helpful to your arthritis?
7. Would you recommend yoga classes to a friend with
arthritis?
Yes
No
8. Now that you have completed the study, do you see
yoga as a way to care for your arthritis? Please check one
of the circles below and answer the following questions .
Yes please tell us why you see yoga as a way to care
for your arthritis.
No please tell us why you do not see yoga as a way
to care for your arthritis.
9. How likely do you think it is that you would take an-
other yoga class? Check one:
Extremely likely
Fairly likely
Somewhat likely
Slightly likely
Not at all*
Unsure
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*If you answered not at all above, please tell us why
(for example: cost too much, too far away, dont have
time , no longer interested in yoga).
10. How likely do you think it is that you would practice
yoga on your own now? Check one:
Extremely likely
Fairly likely
Somewhat likely
Slightly likely
Not at all*
Unsure
*If you answered not at all above, please tell us why
(for example: do not have time, no longer interested in
yoga).
Abbreviations
ASES: Arthritis self-efficacy scale; CAM: Complementary and alternative
medicine; CDC: Centers For Disease Control And Prevention; CHC:
Community health center; DASH: Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and
hand; HPLP-II: Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II; ICAMP: Inventory of
complementary and alternative medicine practices; ICC: Intraclass correlation
coefficients; NIH: National Institutes Of Health; NHIS: National Health
Interview Survey; NIAMS: National institute of arthritis and musculoskeletal
and skin diseases; OA: Osteoarthritis; PROMIS: Patient-Reported Outcomes
Measurement System; RA: Rheumatoid arthritis; REALM-SF: Rapid estimate of
adult literacy in medicine - short form; SAHLSA-50: Short assessment of
health literacy for Spanish adults 50; ROM: Range-of-motion; SLS: Single leg
stance; SRH: Self rated health; TUG: Timed Up and Go test.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors contribution
KM and GW and are accountable for data acquisition and preparation of the
manuscript. KM, GW and MW designed the study. All authors contributed to
the writing and preparation of the study protocol, excerpts of which were
used in creating this manuscript. All authors have read and approved the
final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The study was supported in part by the National Institute of Arthritis and
Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Many thanks to Regina Andrade,
BA; Li Yang, MS; NIAMS Community Health Center staff; and research
participants.
Author details
1
National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Nursing Department, 10 Center
Drive, Bethesda, MD, USA.
2
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of
Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 31 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD,
USA.
3
National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Policy, Office of the
Director, Building 1, Bethesda, MD, USA.
4
National Institutes of Health, Clinical
Center, Rehabilitation Medicine, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, USA.
5
Yoga
for Arthritis, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Received: 19 December 2012 Accepted: 22 March 2013
Published: 2 April 2013
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doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-55
Cite this article as: Middleton et al.: A pilot study of yoga as self-care for
arthritis in minority communities. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
2013 11:55.
Middleton et al. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2013, 11:55 Page 14 of 14
http://www.hqlo.com/content/11/1/55
Page 14
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to be considered as viable care options integrative studies need to offer a comprehensive design and include clinicians familiar with the disease process of the study populations. A review of the literature reveals a dearth of information related to the collaboration between yoga and physical rehabilitation medicine. This article discusses the collaboration with physical rehabilitation medicine to collect relevant pre- and post-intervention measures for an on-going pilot acceptability/feasibility yoga study for minority patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. An interdisciplinary clinical research team selected psychosocial and physical measures for a community sample of bilingual minority patients, not typically identified as practicing yoga. Sixteen female adults aged 40–63 years (mean =51) completed baseline physical assessments using single leg stance, functional reach test, time up and go test, timed up from the floor test and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand measures. Baseline values show an average level of functional ability prior to beginning the intervention. Preliminary results indicate some improvement; however, selected measures may not have the sensitivity and specificity needed to identify significant change. In this study, combining interdisciplinary perspectives enhanced the quality of the research study design. The experience of this interdisciplinary clinical research team opens the discussion for future collaborations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mind-body interaction (MBI) refers the holistic association and interactive process between wisdom, thinking, belief, and physiological reaction, which critically affects health. The main goal of nursing is to maintain mind and body in a healthy state of well being. Few reports in the literatures have addressed the evaluation and application of MBI. Thus, a conceptual analysis of this subject is worth exploring in depth. This paper analyzes the MBI concept step by step based on the procedures of Walker and Avant. The result defines the characteristics of MBI as (1) being aware of psychosomatic effects, (2) interacting between psychology, neurology, immunology and others, and (3) turning out a bio-psycho-social status. Antecedents include geography, culture, race, gender, age, education, profession, values, personality, experience, and health status. Consequences of MBI include well-being, illness, and death. This paper provides new information on MBI that clarifies its meaning, provides comprehensive cognition, and suggests useful applications.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Hu li za zhi The journal of nursing