Outcomes of Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in the Knee

Toronto Western Hospital and Women's College Hospital, Sports Medicine Program, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: .
Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2013; 29(3):575-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2012.12.002
Source: PubMed


The objectives of this study were (1) to conduct a systematic review of clinical outcomes after osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee and (2) to identify patient-, defect-, and graft-specific prognostic factors.
We searched PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies that evaluated clinical outcomes in adult patients after osteochondral allograft transplantation for chondral defects in the knee were included. Pooled analyses for pertinent continuous and dichotomous variables were performed where appropriate.
There were 19 eligible studies resulting in a total of 644 knees with a mean follow-up of 58 months (range, 19 to 120 months). The overall follow-up rate was 93% (595 of 644). The mean age was 37 years (range, 20 to 62 years), and 303 patients (63%) were men. The methods of procurement and storage time included fresh (61%), prolonged fresh (24%), and fresh frozen (15%). With regard to etiology, the most common indications for transplantation included post-traumatic (38%), osteochondritis dissecans (30%), osteonecrosis from all causes (12%), and idiopathic (11%). Forty-six percent of patients had concomitant procedures, and the mean defect size across studies was 6.3 cm(2). The overall satisfaction rate was 86%. Sixty-five percent of patients (72 of 110) showed little to no arthritis at final follow-up. The reported short-term complication rate was 2.4%, and the overall failure rate was 18%. Heterogeneity in functional outcome measures precluded a meta-analysis; a qualitative synthesis allowed for the identification of several positive and negative prognostic factors.
Osteochondral allograft transplantation for focal and diffuse (single-compartment) chondral defects results in predictably favorable outcomes and high satisfaction rates at intermediate follow-up. Patients with osteochondritis dissecans and traumatic and idiopathic etiologies have more favorable outcomes, as do younger patients with unipolar lesions and short symptom duration. Future studies should include comparative control groups and use established outcome instruments that will allow for pooling of data across studies.
Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.

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    • "Patients with larger defects requiring multiple plugs and patients with lesions of the patella fare particularly badly with this technique. Allograft osteochondral grafting has been used successfully in some centres [27] [28] [29] "
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    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic articular cartilage and osteochondral lesions in the knee are an important source of pain and disability, and may lead to osteoarthritis. There are several surgical treatments for the condition, with emerging data evaluating their clinical effectiveness and longer-term clinical outcome. Health care providers have challenged the indications for the use of expensive techniques and have been reluctant to authorize funding or reimbursement. The UK Cartilage Consensus Meeting was convened, involving clinicians in the UK with experience in the treatment options, decision-making and evaluation of the literature on the subject. This paper reports the consensus of attendees regarding appropriate surgical options for managing articular cartilage defects in the knee, validated by a large cohort of surgeons in the UK who are active in the field of articular cartilage surgery. An evidence-based United Kingdom Consensus of 104 clinicians on the surgical management of symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee. Several techniques may be suitable for small defects. Cell therapy has the best evidence-based outcomes for larger defects. Responsible innovation, pooled data collection and improvement in physical therapies are important. Surgeons should have access to the most appropriate evidence-based therapies for first-line treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Knee
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    • "This study is the largest series ever reported on the use of TruFit plugs. The good short-term results observed were in concordance with the clinical results observed in other osteochondral treatment modalities [5] [7] [8] [27] [34]. However, the long-term effect of the deficient radiological findings remains uncertain and it needs assessment of the radiological and clinical outcomes at a considerable longer follow up. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee with synthetic scaffolds seems to offer a good surgical option preventing donor site morbidity. The TruFit® plug has frequently been shown to not properly incorporate into. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between MRI findings and functional scores of patients with osteochondral lesions of the knee treated with TruFit®. Methods: Patients were evaluated with MOCART score for magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the repair tissue. KOOS, SF-36 and VAS were used for clinical evaluation. Correlation between size of the treated chondral defect and functional scores was also analyzed. Results: Fifty-seven patients with median follow-up of 44.8 months (range 24-73) were included. KOOS, SF-36 and VAS improved from a mean 58.5, 53.9 and 8.5 points to a mean 87.4, 86.6 and 1.2 at last follow-up (p<0.001). Larger lesions showed less improvement in KOOS (p=0.04) and SF-36 (p=0.029). Median Tegner values were restored to preinjury situation (5, range 2-10). Mean MOCART score was 43.2 ± 16.1. Although the cartilage layer had good integration, it showed high heterogeneity and no filling of the subchondral bone layer. Conclusions: TruFit® failed to restore the normal MRI aspect of the subchondral bone and lamina in most cases. The appearance of the chondral layer in MRI was partially re-established. This unfavourable MRI appearance did not adversely influence the patient's outcome in the short time and they restored their previous level of activity. There was an inverse linear relationship between the size of the lesion and the functional scores. Level of evidence: Therapeutic case series; level 4.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Knee
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    ABSTRACT: Given the limitations of current surgical approaches to treat articular cartilage injuries, tissue engineering (TE) approaches have been aggressively pursued. Despite reproduction of key mechanical attributes of native tissue, the ability of TE cartilage constructs to integrate with native tissue must also be optimized for clinical success. In this paper, we propose a "trajectory-based" tissue engineering (TB-TE) approach, based on the hypothesis that time-dependent increases in construct maturation in-vitro prior to implantation (i.e. positive rates) may provide a reliable predictor of in-vivo success. As an example TE system, we utilized hyaluronic acid hydrogels laden with mesenchymal stem cells. We first modeled the maturation of these constructs in-vitro to capture time-dependent changes. We then performed a sensitivity analysis of the model to optimize the timing and amount of data collection. Finally, we showed that integration to cartilage in-vitro is not correlated to the maturation state of TE constructs, but rather their maturation rate, providing a proof-of-concept for the use of TB-TE to enhance treatment outcomes following cartilage injury. This new approach challenges the traditional TE paradigm of matching only native state parameters of maturity and emphasizes the importance of also establishing an in-vitro trajectory in constructs in order to improve the chance of in-vivo success.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Biomaterials
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