State of the Art Review: Colorectal Cancer Screening

Associate Professor of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Brown University Center for Primary Care and Prevention at Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, 111 Brewster Street, CPCP bldg- 2 Floor, Pawtucket, RI 02860,
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 05/2012; 6(3):196-203. DOI: 10.1177/1559827611413243
Source: PubMed


Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., the burden of this disease could be dramatically reduced by increased utilization of screening. Evidence-based recommendations and guidelines from national societies recommend screening all average risk adults starting at age fifty. However, the myriad of screening options and slight differences in screening recommendations between guidelines may lead to confusion among patients and their primary care providers. This goal of this review is to briefly summarize the colorectal cancer screening guidelines issued by three major organizations, compare their recommendations, and address emerging issues in colorectal cancer screening.

Download full-text


Available from: Teresa Slomka, Apr 02, 2015
    • "Currently , however , markers for screening and early detection are limited , and mostly do not possess the acquired sensitivity and specificity . An example is hemoglobin detection in the fecal occult blood test ( FOBT ) for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer ( CRC ) ( Diaz and Slomka , 2012 ) . Since proteins are effector molecules influencing signaling pathways , early changes in protein expression might reflect the early transition to malig - nancy which turns proteins into ideal targets in the search for early detection markers . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although genomics has delivered major advances in cancer prognostics, treatment and diagnostics, it still only provides a static image of the situation. To study more dynamic molecular entities, proteomics has been introduced into the cancer research field more than a decade ago. Currently, however, the impact of clinical proteomics on patient management and clinical decision-making is low and the implementations of scientific results in the clinic appear to be scarce. The search for cancer-related biomarkers with proteomics however, has major potential to improve risk assessment, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment selection and monitoring. In this review, we provide an overview of the transition of oncoproteomics towards translational oncology. We describe which lessons are learned from currently approved protein biomarkers and previous proteomic studies, what the pitfalls and challenges are in clinical proteomics applications, and how proteomic research can be successfully translated into medical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in several countries. There is lack of information concerning diagnostic performances of this method in Brazil. Methods. Patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy provided one stool sample one week before colonoscopy. The accuracy of a qualitative FIT for detection of CRC and advanced adenomas was determined. Results. Overall 302 patients completed the study. Among them, 53.5% were high risk patients referred for screening or surveillance. Nine (3%) CRCs and 11 (3.6%) advanced adenomas were detected by colonoscopy. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC were, respectively, 88.9% and 87.6%. For advanced adenomas, sensitivity was 63.6% and specificity 87.6%. Conclusion. Our results showed good sensitivity and specificity of the FIT for detecting advanced neoplasias. This method may be a valuable tool for future screening programs in Brazil.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm. However, highly sensitive, specific, noninvasive tests that allow CRC diagnosis at an early stage are still needed. As circulatory blood reflects the physiological status of an individual and/or the disease status for several disorders, efforts have been undertaken to identify candidate diagnostic CRC markers in plasma and serum. In this review, the challenges, bottlenecks and promising properties of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics in blood are discussed. More specifically, important aspects in clinical design, sample retrieval, sample preparation, and MS analysis are presented. The recent developments in targeted MS approaches in plasma or serum are highlighted as well.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Expert Review of Proteomics
Show more