L74V increases the reverse transcriptase content of HIV-1 virions with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase drug-resistant mutations L100I+K103N and K101E+G190S, which results in increased fitness

University of Rochester.
Journal of General Virology (Impact Factor: 3.18). 03/2013; 94(Pt_7). DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.050914-0
Source: PubMed


The fitness of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug resistant reverse transcriptase (RT) mutants of HIV-1 correlates with the amount of RT in the virions and the RNase H activity of the RT. We wanted to understand the mechanism by which secondary NNRTI resistance mutations, L100I and K101E, and the nucleoside resistance mutation, L74V, alter the fitness of K103N and G190S viruses. We measured the amount of RT in virions and the polymerization and RNase H activities of mutant RTs compared to wild type, K103N and G190S. We found that L100I, K101E and L74V did not change the polymerization or RNase H activities of K103N or G190S RTs. However, L100I and K101E reduced the amount of RT in the virions and subsequent addition of L74V restored RT levels back to those of G190S or K103N alone. We conclude that fitness changes caused by L100I, K101E and L74V derive from their effects on RT content.

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    ABSTRACT: Sequencing of a bulk PCR product to identify drug resistance mutations informs antiretroviral therapy selection but has limited sensitivity for minority variants. Alternatively, deep sequencing is capable of detecting minority variants but is subject to sequencing errors and PCR resampling due to low input templates. We screened for resistance mutations among 184 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naïve subjects using the 454 sequencing platform to sequence two amplicons spanning HIV-1 reverse transcriptase codons 34-245. Samples from 19 subjects were also analyzed using the MiSeq sequencing platform for comparison. Errors and PCR resampling were addressed by tagging each HIV-1 RNA template copy (i.e. cDNA) with a unique sequence tag (Primer ID), allowing a consensus sequence to be constructed for each original template from resampled sequences. In control reactions, Primer ID reduced 454 and MiSeq errors from 71 to 2.6 and from 24 to 1.2 errors/10,000 nucleotides, respectively. MiSeq also allowed accurate sequencing of codon 65, an important drug resistance position embedded in a homopolymeric run that is poorly resolved by the 454 platform. Excluding homopolymeric positions, 14% of subjects had evidence ≥1 resistance mutation among Primer ID consensus sequences, compared to 2.7% by bulk population sequencing. When calls were restricted to mutations that appeared twice among consensus sequence populations, 6% of subjects had detectable resistance mutations. The use of Primer ID revealed 5-15% template utilization on average, limiting the depth of deep sequencing sampling and revealing sampling variation due to low template utilization. Primer ID addresses important limitations of deep sequencing and produces less biased estimates of low level resistance mutations in the viral population.
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