The Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75390-8883, USA.
Thrombosis 02/2013; 2013(8):762310. DOI: 10.1155/2013/762310
Source: PubMed


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication after total hip and total knee arthroplasty. Currently used methods of VTE prophylaxis after these procedures have important limitations, including parenteral administration, and unpredictable plasma levels requiring frequent monitoring and dose adjustment leading to decreased patient compliance with recommended guidelines. New oral anticoagulants have been demonstrated in clinical trials to be equally efficacious to enoxaparin and allow for fixed dosing without the need for monitoring. Rivaroxaban is one of the new oral anticoagulants and is a direct factor Xa inhibitor that has demonstrated superior efficacy to that of enoxaparin. However, the data also suggest that rivaroxaban has an increased risk of bleeding compared to enoxaparin. This paper reviews the available data on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban for VTE prophylaxis after total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

Download full-text


Available from: Robert Donald Russell, Feb 23, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We discuss the first ever case of rivaroxaban causing major intra-abdominal hemorrhage found in a patient during emergency hernioplasty. The source of bleeding was not identified either intra- or postoperatively. This is on a background of treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with rivaroxaban, a complication that resulted from a total knee arthroplasty performed four weeks prior. Rivaroxaban is a new generation of anticoagulants that directly inhibits factor Xa and is used for DVT treatment in major orthopaedic surgery. Here we discuss the major side effects of rivaroxaban, namely, the increased risk of major bleeding as well as the irreversibility of this anticoagulant, should such bleeding occur. We advise caution in the use of rivaroxaban even in patients that are at low risk of bleeding given the discovery of hemorrhage as presented in this case.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is thought to be an uncommon but serious problem after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Rates of VTE after ACL reconstruction are not well documented. To determine the rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and symptomatic pulmonary emboli (PE) after ACL reconstruction. Five publicly available databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, Embase, and CINAHL Complete) were utilized. All studies that screened patients for DVT and reported rates of DVT and PE after ACL reconstruction were eligible for inclusion. Level 5 evidence, cadaver, biomechanical, and basic science studies; studies reporting only multiligament reconstruction outcomes; studies where rates of DVT and PE could not be separated out from patients undergoing other types of arthroscopic knee procedures; and classification studies were excluded. Systematic review. Level 4. All study, subject, and surgical data were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, with a mean Modified Colman Methodology Score of 30 ± 8.22. A total of 692 patients (488 men [70.5%]; mean age, 31.6 ± 2.82 years; mean follow-up, 7 ± 18.4 months) underwent ACL reconstruction using either semitendinosus-gracilis autograft (77.6%), bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft (22%), or allograft (0.4%). No patient received postoperative pharmacological anticoagulation. Fifty-eight patients (8.4%) had a DVT (81% below knee and 19% above knee), while only 1 patient (0.2%) had a symptomatic PE. When reported, 27% of DVT episodes were symptomatic. The rate of DVT after ACL reconstruction in patients who did not receive postoperative pharmacological anticoagulation is 8.4%, while the rate of symptomatic PE is 0.2%. Of the DVT episodes that occurred, 73% were asymptomatic.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methods: A 63-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation presented clinical symptoms and signs of acute ischemia in the right lower extremity on the 17th postoperative day after revision total hip arthroplasty of the left hip for aseptic loosening of femoral component. Aspirin was discontinued 7 days before surgery. Both computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the right common iliac artery. An emergency catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase combined with balloon angioplasty was performed to obtain complete patency of the right common iliac artery.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015