Pituitary Adenoma Nitroproteomics: Current Status and Perspectives

Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2013; 2013:580710. DOI: 10.1155/2013/580710
Source: PubMed


Oxidative stress is extensively associated with tumorigenesis. A series of studies on stable tyrosine nitration as a marker of oxidative damage were performed in human pituitary and adenoma. This paper reviews published research on the mass spectrometry characteristics of nitropeptides and nitroproteomics of pituitary controls and adenomas. The methodology used for nitroproteomics, the current status of human pituitary nitroproteomics studies, and the future perspectives are reviewed. Enrichment of those low-abundance endogenous nitroproteins from human tissues or body fluid samples is the first important step for nitroproteomics studies. Mass spectrometry is the essential approach to determine the amino acid sequence and locate the nitrotyrosine sites. Bioinformatics analyses, including protein domain and motif analyses, are needed to locate the nitrotyrosine site within the corresponding protein domains/motifs. Systems biology techniques, including pathway analysis, are necessary to discover signaling pathway networks involving nitroproteins from the systematically global point of view. Future quantitative nitroproteomics will discover pituitary adenoma-specific nitroprotein(s). Structural biology techniques such as X-ray crystallography analysis will solidly clarify the effects of tyrosine nitration on structure and functions of a protein. Those studies will eventually address the mechanisms and biological functions of tyrosine nitration in pituitary tumorigenesis and will discover nitroprotein biomarkers for pituitary adenomas and targets for drug design for pituitary adenoma therapy.

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Available from: Xianquan Zhan, Sep 02, 2014
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    • "In-depth analyses of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins is needed to clarify biological functions and roles of tyrosine nitration, and several aspects are worth discussing here: (i) quantitative proteomics to quantify a nitrotyrosine-containing protein in a pathological condition and the degree of nitration (Robinson & Evans, 2012), (ii) use of bioinformatics to locate nitrotyrosine sites within important protein domains and motifs (Zhan & Desiderio, 2006, 2011), (iii) use of systems biology methods to clarify important protein system networks that are involved in nitroproteins (Zhan & Desiderio, 2010a; Zhan, Wang, & Desiderio, 2013), (iv) effects of local primary structure on tyrosine nitration (Seeley & Stevens, 2012), structural biology to reveal the three-dimensional crystal structure of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins to address influences of tyrosine nitration on protein functions towards development of a drug against tyrosine nitration (Palamalai & Miyagi, 2010; Zhan, Wang, & Desiderio, 2013), and (v) development of bodyfluid nitroproteomics and nitropeptidomics for discovery of body-fluid biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of a disease (Zhan & Desiderio, 2010b; Zhan, Wang, & Desiderio, 2013). "
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