Article

Validation of various adaptive threshold methods of segmentation applied to follicular lymphoma digital images stained with 3,3’-Diaminobenzidine&Haematoxylin

Diagnostic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 03/2013; 8(1):48. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-8-48
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The comparative study of the results of various segmentation methods for the digital images of the follicular lymphoma cancer tissue section is described in this paper. The sensitivity and specificity and some other parameters of the following adaptive threshold methods of segmentation: the Niblack method, the Sauvola method, the White method, the Bernsen method, the Yasuda method and the Palumbo method, are calculated. Methods are applied to three types of images constructed by extraction of the brown colour information from the artificial images synthesized based on counterpart experimentally captured images. This paper presents usefulness of the microscopic image synthesis method in evaluation as well as comparison of the image processing results. The results of thoughtful analysis of broad range of adaptive threshold methods applied to: (1) the blue channel of RGB, (2) the brown colour extracted by deconvolution and (3) the ’brown component’ extracted from RGB allows to select some pairs: method and type of image for which this method is most efficient considering various criteria e.g. accuracy and precision in area detection or accuracy in number of objects detection and so on. The comparison shows that the White, the Bernsen and the Sauvola methods results are better than the results of the rest of the methods for all types of monochromatic images. All three methods segments the immunopositive nuclei with the mean accuracy of 0.9952, 0.9942 and 0.9944 respectively, when treated totally. However the best results are achieved for monochromatic image in which intensity shows brown colour map constructed by colour deconvolution algorithm. The specificity in the cases of the Bernsen and the White methods is 1 and sensitivities are: 0.74 for White and 0.91 for Bernsen methods while the Sauvola method achieves sensitivity value of 0.74 and the specificity value of 0.99. According to Bland-Altman plot the Sauvola method selected objects are segmented without undercutting the area for true positive objects but with extra false positive objects. The Sauvola and the Bernsen methods gives complementary results what will be exploited when the new method of virtual tissue slides segmentation be develop.

Virtual Slides
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: slide 1: http://diagnosticpathology.slidepath.com/dih/webViewer.php?snapshotId=13617947952577 and slide 2: http://diagnosticpathology.slidepath.com/dih/webViewer.php?snapshotId=13617948230017.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ramon Bosch
  • Source
    • "Segmentation of stained tissue images is a complex problem, because of a large variability of the tissue samples (shape, size, color and architecture) [32]. Growing numbers of virtual slides that must be processed, transmitted and analyzed create a clear need of additional image correction and standardization algorithms [33]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibrosis disrupts the normal myocardial structure and has a direct impact on heart function and survival. Despite already available digital methods, the pathologist’s visual score is still widely considered as ground truth and used as a primary method in histomorphometric evaluations. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital image analysis tools and the pathologist’s visual scoring for evaluating fibrosis in human myocardial biopsies, based on reference data obtained by point counting performed on the same images. Endomyocardial biopsy material from 38 patients diagnosed with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy was used. The extent of total cardiac fibrosis was assessed by image analysis on Masson’s trichrome-stained tissue specimens using automated Colocalization and Genie software, by Stereology grid count and manually by Pathologist’s visual score. A total of 116 slides were analyzed. The mean results obtained by the Colocalization software (13.72 ± 12.24%) were closest to the reference value of stereology (RVS), while the Genie software and Pathologist score gave a slight underestimation. RVS values correlated strongly with values obtained using the Colocalization and Genie (r > 0.9, p < 0.001) software as well as the pathologist visual score. Differences in fibrosis quantification by Colocalization and RVS were statistically insignificant. However, significant bias was found in the results obtained by using Genie versus RVS and pathologist score versus RVS with mean difference values of: -1.61% and 2.24%. Bland-Altman plots showed a bidirectional bias dependent on the magnitude of the measurement: Colocalization software overestimated the area fraction of fibrosis in the lower end, and underestimated in the higher end of the RVS values. Meanwhile, Genie software as well as the pathologist score showed more uniform results throughout the values, with a slight underestimation in the mid-range for both. Both applied digital image analysis methods revealed almost perfect correlation with the criterion standard obtained by stereology grid count and, in terms of accuracy, outperformed the pathologist’s visual score. Genie algorithm proved to be the method of choice with the only drawback of a slight underestimation bias, which is considered acceptable for both clinical and research evaluations. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9857909611227193
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Diagnostic Pathology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Automated analysis of multi-dimensional microscopy images has become an integral part of modern research in life science. Most available algorithms that provide sufficient segmentation quality, however, are infeasible for a large amount of data due to their high complexity. In this contribution we present a fast parallelized segmentation method that is especially suited for the extraction of stained nuclei from microscopy images, e.g., of developing zebrafish embryos. The idea is to transform the input image based on gradient and normal directions in the proximity of detected seed points such that it can be handled by straightforward global thresholding like Otsu's method. We evaluate the quality of the obtained segmentation results on a set of real and simulated benchmark images in 2D and 3D and show the algorithm's superior performance compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. We achieve an up to ten-fold decrease in processing times, allowing us to process large data sets while still providing reasonable segmentation results.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed a simulation model for three-channel luminescent images of cancer cells. We do a comparative analysis of two methods for segmentation of objects within three-channel luminescent images, employed in the CellProfiler and CellDataMiner software packages, using simulated and experimental data as examples. We have studied the functional efficiency of the segmentation algorithms under high photoelectron multiplier noise conditions. Our simulation model allows us to simplify selection of the algorithm for analysis of the data during biophysical studies, with the aim of automating procedures for processing luminescent images.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Applied Spectroscopy
Show more