Inability of S100B to Predict Postconcussion Syndrome in Children Who Present to the Emergency Department With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury A Brief Report
Objective: This study aimed to explore the ability of the serum marker S100B to predict the development and severity of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) at 3 months in children after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study conducted in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Children were eligible for the study if they were between the ages 5 and 18 years, presented within 6 hours of injury, met the case definition of mTBI from American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of greater than 13, consented to have blood drawn for S100B levels, and completed the 3-month telephone follow-up. At the follow-up, the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire was conducted to determine the development and severity of PCS. Results: A total of 76 children were included in this cohort. The children had a mean (SD) age of 14.0 (3.1) years, 60.5% were male, and 89.5% had a Glasgow Coma Scale of 15. Twenty-eight (36.8%) developed PCS. For the children who developed PCS, the mean (SD) S100B level was 0.092 (0.376) µg/L. For children who did not develop PCS (n = 48), the mean (SD) S100B level was 0.022 (0.031) µg/L. The analyses did not support an association between initial S100B levels measured in the ED and development of PCS or severity of PCS symptoms. Conclusions: In this small sample, S100B, measured immediately after injury in the ED, did not seem to predict those children with mTBI who will go on to develop PCS.