PS8 - 38. Protein intake in relation to risk of hypertension and microalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

aDivision of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research Centre bTop Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands cDepartment of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Germany dInternational Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London eDepartment of Epidemiology and Public-Health, University College London, London, UK.
Journal of Hypertension (Impact Factor: 4.72). 03/2013; 10(3). DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328360418e
Source: PubMed


A beneficial association between dietary protein intake (especially from plant sources) with incident hypertension, being strongly correlated to microalbuminuria, has been suggested in healthy populations. Evidence from diabetic populations, in which the prevalence of these diseases is high, is lacking. We examined the associations of total, animal and plant protein intake with incident hypertension (n = 1319) and microalbuminuria (n = 1045) in patients from 16 European countries with type 1 diabetes from the clinic-based EURODIAB Prospective Complications study.

Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident hypertension after 7 years of follow-up were calculated in tertiles of protein intake (energy%) with adjustments for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, total energy, total fat and carbohydrate intake.

After adjustment for potential confounders, total, animal and plant protein intakes were not related to incident hypertension (298 cases). OR's (95% CI) across increasing tertiles of total protein were 1.00 (ref), 0.86 (0.60-1.25) and 0.91 (0.59-1.43). Furthermore, no relation was observed with incident microalbuminuria (135 cases), with ORs (95% CI) across increasing tertiles of total protein being 1.00 (ref), 0.88 (0.53-1.48) and 1.08 (0.57-2.04).

Results from our study did not provide evidence that a protein intake commonly consumed by European patients with type 1 diabetes is associated with incident hypertension or microalbuminuria. Prospective studies with more detailed information on dietary intake (including mineral intake) are needed to confirm these findings, and to investigate the impact on vascular and renal complications of a long-term very high protein intake in patients with type 1 diabetes.

13 Reads

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Hypertension
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Among 174 participants from whom complete 24-h urine specimens were collected, the estimates from the Tanaka equation resulted in the highest accuracy for the urinary excretion rate of creatinine, sodium, albumin, and UUN. Among 227 participants, the baseline value of estimated urine albumin excretion (eUalb) was positively correlated with the estimated UUN (eUUN) or protein intake according to eUUN (P = 0.012 and P = 0.038, respectively). We were able to calculate the ratios of eUalb and eUUN in 221 participants and grouped them according to the ratio of eUUN during 16-wk trial period. The proportion of patients that achieved a decrement of eUalb ≥25% during 16 wk with an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) medication was 80% (24 of 30) in group 1, with eUUN ratio ≤-25%; 82.2% (111 of 135) in group 2, with eUUN ratio between -25% and 25%; and 66.1% (37 and 56) in group 3, with eUUN ratio ≥25% (P = 0.048). The probability of a decrease in albuminuria with ARB treatment was lower in patients with an increase of eUUN or protein intake during the 16 wk of ARB treatment, as observed in multiple logistic regression analysis as well. The estimated urine urea excretion rate showed a positive association with the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. The increase of eUUN excretion ameliorated the antiproteinuric effect of ARB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diet and lifestyle advice for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients is based on little evidence and putative effects on glycaemic control. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal relation between dietary and lifestyle variables and HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. A 7-year prospective cohort analysis was performed in 1659 T1DM patients (52% males, mean age 32.5 years) participating in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by 3- day records and physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake by questionnaires. HbA1c during follow-up was centrally assessed by immunoassay. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and restricted cubic spline regression analyses were performed to assess dose-response associations between diet and lifestyle variables and HbA1c levels, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle and body composition measures, baseline HbA1c, medication use and severe hypoglycaemic attacks. Mean follow-up of our study population was 6.8 (s.d. 0.6) years. Mean HbA1c level was 8.25% (s.d. 1.85) (or 66.6 mmol/mol) at baseline and 8.27% (s.d. 1.44) at follow-up. Physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake were not associated with HbA1c at follow-up in multivariable ANOVA models. Baseline intake below the median of vegetable protein (<29 g/day) and dietary fibre (<18 g/day) was associated with higher HbA1c levels. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear associations with HbA1c levels for vegetable protein (P (nonlinear)=0.008) and total dietary fibre (P (nonlinear)=0.0009). This study suggests that low intake of vegetable protein and dietary fibre are associated with worse glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.110.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European journal of clinical nutrition