Article

-Arrestin-2 Deficiency Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Mice

1National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, MD C4-09, Durham, New York, 27709, UNITED STATES.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 03/2013; 112(9). DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.280399
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Rationale:
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic inflammatory vascular disease for which pharmacological treatments are not available. A mouse model of AAA formation involves chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII), and previous studies indicated a primary role for the AngII type 1a receptor in AAA formation. β-arrestin (βarr)-2 is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that binds G-protein-coupled receptors such as AngII type 1a and regulates numerous signaling pathways and pathophysiological processes. However, a role for βarr2 in AngII-induced AAA formation is currently unknown.

Objective:
To determine whether βarr2 played a role in AngII-induced AAA formation in mice.

Methods and results:
Treatment of βarr2(+/+) and βarr2(-/-) mice on the hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) background or on normolipidemic C57BL/6 background with AngII for 28 days indicated that βarr2 deficiency significantly attenuated AAA formation. βarr2 deficiency attenuated AngII-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and macrophage infiltration. AngII also increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in apoE(-/-)/βarr2(+/+) aortas, whereas βarr2 deficiency diminished this increase. Furthermore, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation with CI1040 (100 mg/kg per day) reduced the level of AngII-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in apoE(-/-)/βarr2(+/+) mice to the level observed in apoE(-/-)/βarr2(-/-) mice. AngII treatment also increased matrix metalloproteinase expression and disruption of the elastic layer in apoE(-/-)/βarr2(+/+) aortas, and βarr2 deficiency reduced these effects.

Conclusions:
βarr2 contributes to AngII-induced AAA formation in mice by phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated cyclooxygenase-2 induction and increased inflammation. These studies suggest that for the AngII type 1a receptor, G-protein-independent, βarr2-dependent signaling plays a major role in AngII-induced AAA formation.

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    • "In our in vitro cell system (HUVEC) IAXO-102 blocked TLR4 in response to well-known TLR4 specific agonist LPS. Data from the literature indicates that the elevated level of cholesterol is a critical factor for Angiotensin II induced experimental aneurysm, as wild type mice do not develop aneurysms when infused with Angiotensin II[31,32]. It has been demonstrated that artificial Angiotensin II infusion triggers 'sterile' inflammation, the process that is negatively regulated by TGF-b signalling which controls overproduction of proinflammatory proteins, excessive macrophage activation, inhibition of matrix degradation and preservation of smooth muscle cells survival in a wild type mice[33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The toll-like receptors (TLRs), including TLR4, have been shown to play a crucial role in vascular inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm. The main goal of this study was to determine the potential of IAXO-102 (Innaxon, Tewkesbury), a novel small molecule TLR4 antagonist, to modulate non-hematopoietic TLR4 proinflammatory signalling and inhibit experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Angiotensin II-induced experimental AAA development were our in vitro and in vivo models respectively. Western blotting, antibody array and ELISA approaches were used to explore the effect of IAXO-102 on TLR4 functional activity on two levels: modulation of TLR4-induced mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and p65 NF-kB phosphorylation and expression of TLR4 dependent proinflammatory proteins. Following activation of TLR4, in vitro/in vivo data revealed that IAXO-102 inhibited MAPK and p65 NF-kB phosphorylation associated with down regulation of the expression of TLR4 and TLR4 dependent proinflammatory proteins. Furthermore, IAXO-102 decreased Angiotensin II-induced aortic expansion, rupture and incidence of AAA. These results demonstrate the ability of IAXO-102 to negatively regulate TLR4 signalling and to inhibit experimental AAA development, suggesting the potential therapeutic use of this TLR4 antagonist for pharmacological intervention of AAA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    • "Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are also overexpressed in different Ang II infusion induced aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection models [33]. This kind of overexpression is attenuated in β-Arrestin-2 (βarr2) deficiency mice by the interruption of Ang II–AT1a-βarr2- COX2 pathway [34]. Only MMP-9 overexpression is attenuated in AKT2 deficiency mice because AKT2 regulates FOXO1 which bind to the promoters of MMP-9 [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory mechanisms of the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in brain inflammatory conditions remain elusive. To address this issue, we used multiple primary brain cell cultures to study the expression of IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited inflammatory conditions. In neuron-glia cultures, LPS triggered well-orchestrated expression of various immune factors in the following order: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lastly IL-10, and these inflammatory mediators were mainly produced from microglia. While exogenous application of individual earlier-released pro-inflammatory factors (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, or PGE2) failed to induce IL-10 expression, removal of LPS from the cultures showed the requirement of continuing presence of LPS for IL-10 expression. Interestingly, genetic disruption of tnf-α, its receptors tnf-r1/r2, and cox-2 and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in microglia, which suggests negative regulation of IL-10 induction by the earlier-released TNF-α and PGE2. Further studies showed that negative regulation of IL-10 production by TNF-α is mediated by PGE2. Mechanistic studies indicated that PGE2-elicited suppression of IL-10 induction was eliminated by genetic disruption of the PGE2 receptor EP2 and was mimicked by the specific agonist for the EP2, butaprost, but not agonists for the other three EP receptors. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent signal transduction failed to affect PGE2-mediated inhibition of IL-10 production, suggesting that a G protein-independent pathway was involved. Indeed, deficiency in β-arrestin-1 or β-arrestin-2 abolished PGE2-elicited suppression of IL-10 production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that COX-2-derived PGE2 inhibits IL-10 expression in brain microglia through a novel EP2- and β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathway.
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