Should Pancreatectomy with Islet Cell Autotransplantation in Patients with Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis Be Abandoned?

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Surgery, Birmingham, AL.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 04/2013; 216(4):591-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.12.043
Source: PubMed


Pancreatectomy or drainage has been advocated for pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Islet cell autotransplantation (IAT) may improve quality of life (QOL); optimal patient selection has not been established.
Outcomes of 100 patients who underwent pancreatectomy with islet isolation between 2005 and 2012 were assessed by etiology (alcoholic pancreatitis [AP] 30%, and nonalcoholic pancreatitis [NAP] 70%). Insulin requirement, Short Form-36, and McGill Pain Questionnaires were assessed. Data were analyzed using SASv9.2.
Of the 100 patients, isolation was unsuccessful in 9 patients due to fibrosis. Alcoholic pancreatitis was associated with 7 of 9 failed isolations (23% vs 3%, p < 0.01), and all of these patients are now diabetic. Ninety-one patients (age 44 years, follow-up 19 months, 23% AP) underwent resection with IAT. Total islet yield (islet cell equivalents [IEQ]) and IEQ/kg body weight were less for patients with AP (81,000 vs 150,000, p < 0.01; 1,260 vs 2,190, respectively, p = 0.01) overall and more specifically, for total pancreatectomy (92,000 vs 188,000, respectively, p = 0.02). Twenty-eight (34%) of all patients who had resections and 15% of those undergoing total pancreatectomy are insulin free. Multivariate analysis identified AP as an independent predictor of insulin units/day (p = 0.01). Complete pre- and postoperative QOL and pain surveys were available on 69 patients. Patients with AP had less QOL improvement (1 of 8 vs 5 of 8 domains, p < 0.01) and "present pain" improvement at 2 years from preoperative levels in those with NAP; no improvement in QOL was seen in those with AP (NAP 2.7 to 1.2, p < 0.01; AP 2.7 to 2.2, p > 0.05).
After pancreatic resection with planned IAT, AP resulted in failed isolations, lower yields, higher insulin requirements, poor long-term QOL improvement, and no improvement in pain scores compared with NAP. Further studies should define criteria for resection and IAT for patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

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    ABSTRACT: Description Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a surgical procedure used to treat severe complications of chronic pancreatitis or very high risk of pancreatic cancer while reducing the risk of severe diabetes mellitus. However, clear guidance on indications, contraindications, evaluation, timing, and follow-up are lacking. Methods A working group reviewed the medical, psychological, and surgical options and supporting literature related to TPIAT for a consensus meeting during PancreasFest. Results Five major areas requiring clinical evaluation and management were addressed: These included: 1) indications for TPIAT; 2) contraindications for TPIAT; 3) optimal timing of the procedure; 4) need for a multi-disciplinary team and the roles of the members; 5) life-long management issues following TPIAP including diabetes monitoring and nutrition evaluation. Conclusions TPIAT is an effective method of managing the disabling complications of chronic pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic cancer in very high risk patients. Careful evaluation and long-term management of candidate patients by qualified multidisciplinary teams is required. Multiple recommendations for further research were also identified.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Pancreatology
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of IAT is the preservation of beta-cell mass at the time of pancreatectomy. The majority of recipients have significant endogenous beta-cell function with positive blood C-peptide after surgery, even if only approximately one third achieve insulin independence. In appropriately selected patients, total pancreatectomy combined with IAT achieves relief of pain and improves quality of life with relatively easier-to-manage glycemic control and avoidance of hyper- and hypoglycemic episodes. Current research is focused on improving techniques of islet isolation and engraftment as well as long-term survival of autografted islets.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Advances in Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Total pancreatectomy and islet cell autotransplantation (TPIAT) has been increasingly utilized for the management of chronic pancreatitis (CP) with early success. However, the long-term durability of this operation remains unclear. Methods: All patients undergoing TPIAT for the treatment of CP with 5-year or greater follow-up were identified for inclusion in this single-center observational study. End points included narcotic requirements, glycemic control, islet function, quality of life (QOL), and survival. Results: Between 2000 and 2013, 166 patients underwent TPIAT; 112 of these patients had 5-year follow-up data to analyze. All patients underwent successful IAT with a mean of 6027 ± 595 islet equivalents per body weight. There was no perioperative mortality and actuarial survival at 5 years was 94.6%. The narcotic independence rate at 1 year was 55% and continued to improve to 73% at 5-year follow-up (P < 0.05). The insulin independence rate declined over time (38% at 1 year vs 27% at more than 5 years), but insulin requirements remained similar (21.4 vs 24.3 units per day, P = 0.6). All patients achieved stable glycemic control with a median hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C) of 6.9% (range: 5.85%-8.3%). The short form 36-item QOL assessment of a subset of patients available for contact demonstrated continued improvements in all tested modules in patients with at least 5-year follow-up. Two patients developed diabetic complications requiring whole organ pancreas transplant for salvage. Conclusions: This represents one of the largest series examining long-term outcomes after TPIAT. This operation produces durable pain relief and improvement in QOL parameters. Insulin independence rates decline over time, but most patients maintain stable glycemic control.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Annals of Surgery
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