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Background Enhancing athletic performance is a great desire among the athletes, coaches and researchers. Mint is one of the most famous natural herbs used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and vasoconstrictor effects. Even though inhaling mint aroma in athletes has been investigated, there were no significant effects on the exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy male students every day consumed one 500 ml bottle of mineral water, containing 0.05 ml peppermint essential oil for ten days. Blood pressure, heart rate, and spirometry parameters including forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) were determined one day before, and after the supplementation period. Participants underwent a treadmill-based exercise test with metabolic gas analysis and ventilation measurement using the Bruce protocol. Results The FVC (4.57 ± 0.90 vs. 4.79 ± 0.84; p < 0.001), PEF (8.50 ± 0.94 vs. 8.87 ± 0.92; p < 0.01), and PIF (5.71 ± 1.16 vs. 6.58 ±1.08; p < 0.005) significantly changed after ten days of supplementation. Exercise performance evaluated by time to exhaustion (664.5 ± 114.2 vs. 830.2 ± 129.8 s), work (78.34 ±32.84 vs. 118.7 ± 47.38 KJ), and power (114.3 ± 24.24 vs. 139.4 ± 27.80 KW) significantly increased (p < 0.001). In addition, the results of respiratory gas analysis exhibited significant differences in VO2 (2.74 ± 0.40 vs. 3.03 ± 0.351 L/min; p < 0.001), and VCO2 (3.08 ± 0.47 vs. 3.73 ± 0.518 L/min; p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of the experiment support the effectiveness of peppermint essential oil on the exercise performance, gas analysis, spirometry parameters, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in the young male students. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles, increase in the ventilation and brain oxygen concentration, and decrease in the blood lactate level are the most plausible explanations.
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R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Open Access
The effects of peppermint on exercise
performance
Abbas Meamarbashi
*
and Ali Rajabi
Abstract
Background: Enhancing athletic performance is a great desire among the athletes, coaches and researchers. Mint is
one of the most famous natural herbs used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and
vasoconstrictor effects. Even though inhaling mint aroma in athletes has been investigated, there were no
significant effects on the exercise performance.
Methods: Twelve healthy male students every day consumed one 500 ml bottle of mineral water, containing
0.05 ml peppermint essential oil for ten days. Blood pressure, heart rate, and spirometry parameters including
forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) were determined one day
before, and after the supplementation period. Participants underwent a treadmill-based exercise test with metabolic
gas analysis and ventilation measurement using the Bruce protocol.
Results: The FVC (4.57 ± 0.90 vs. 4.79 ± 0.84; p < 0.001), PEF (8.50 ± 0.94 vs. 8.87 ± 0.92; p < 0.01), and PIF (5.71 ± 1.16
vs. 6.58 ±1.08; p < 0.005) significantly changed after ten days of supplementation. Exercise performance evaluated
by time to exhaustion (664.5 ± 114.2 vs. 830.2 ± 129.8 s), work (78.34 ±32.84 vs. 118.7 ± 47.38 KJ), and power (114.3
± 24.24 vs. 139.4 ± 27.80 KW) significantly increased (p < 0.001). In addition, the results of respiratory gas analysis
exhibited significant differences in VO
2
(2.74 ± 0.40 vs. 3.03 ± 0.351 L/min; p < 0.001), and VCO
2
(3.08 ± 0.47 vs. 3.73
± 0.518 L/min; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: The results of the experiment support the effectiveness of peppermint essential oil on the exercise
performance, gas analysis, spirometry parameters, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in the young male students.
Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles, increase in the ventilation and brain oxygen concentration, and decrease
in the blood lactate level are the most plausible explanations.
Keywords: Peppermint essential oil, Exercise performance, Respiratory gas analysis, Spirometry
Background
Until now, many researches have been done on the ef-
fectiveness of various kinds of natural products in the
improvement of sport performances. Mint (mentha) is a
herb which is well known for its antispasmodic, painkill-
ing [1-3], anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, decongest-
ant, and antioxidant effects [4]. Peppermint is one of the
mentha species (i.e., mentha piperita, peppermint oil,
mentha arvensis, cornmint oil) [5]. Menthol (29%) and
menthone (20-30%) are the major components of the
peppermint essential oil.
External application of peppermint extract raised the
pain threshold in human [6]. Peppermint aroma was
also effective on perceived physical workload, temporal
workload, effort, and anxiety [7]. Another research
demonstrated the effectiveness of peppermint aroma
administered through the nose or by mouth on the
augmenting cognitive performance [8]. Peppermint
aroma caused improvement on the tasks related to at-
tentional processes, virtual recognition memory, work-
ing memory, and visual-motor response [8]. Moreover,
peppermint aroma improved the typing performance
[9]. In a study under four conditions (peppermint, jas-
mine, dimethyl sulfide, or a non-odorous), athletes
performed a 15-minute treadmill exercise stress test,
then mood and exercise performance were evaluated
* Correspondence: a_meamarbashi@yahoo.com
Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of
Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 56199-11367, Iran
© 2013 Meamarbashi and Rajabi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of
the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Meamarbashi and Rajabi Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:15
http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/15
[10]. Perceived physical workload, temporal workload, and
self-evaluated performance reported to have a significant
difference in peppermint group. In an animal study,
intraperitoneal injection of different components of
peppermint into mice, significantly increased the ambu-
latory activity. Therefore, author suggested peppermint
components are serving as a central nervous system
stimulant [11].
The effect of supplementation with oral peppermint
extract was also studied on the perceived lower leg mus-
cular pain and blood lactate levels one hour before a
400-m running test [12]. In this study, the peppermint
had a significant effect on the blood lactate level, but not
on the muscle pain. Besides, the combination of pepper-
mint oil and ethanol [13] reported to have a significant
analgesic effect.
Using a Peak Flow Meter device showed an improve-
ment in the lung capacity and inhalation ability after in-
halation of peppermint aroma [14]. After inhalation of
peppermint aroma, the nasal airflow force increased,
thus the author speculated this effect supply more oxy-
gen to the brain, which could be effective for continuing
physical performance. On the other hand, menthol the
main component of the peppermint essential oil investi-
gated in a four-week randomised, placebo-controlled
study on 23 patients with chronic asthma. Menthol
group shown no significant differences in the vital cap-
acity, forced expiratory volume or change in the peak ex-
piratory flow rate [15]. Moreover, previous study on the
athletic performance by using peppermint essential oil
had no significant effect on the blood oxygen saturation,
pulse rate, blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure
(MAP) [16].
The possible ergogenic effect of aromas, has certainly
received much publicity in recent years. However, there
is very little scientific evidence to support or refute the
claims made by merchants, practitioners, and manufac-
turers [17]. Hence, due to equivocal findings and lack of
good-quality evidences on the effectiveness of pepper-
mint essential oil in the exercise performance, the aim of
this study was to assess the effects of oral supplementa-
tion with peppermint essential oil on the exercise per-
formance, physiological and respiratory parameters.
Methods
Subjects and study design
Twelve (12) healthy male university students (M
age
=
25.9 ± 1.38 yrs; M
weight
= 69.9 ± 5.58 kg; M
height
= 177.0 ±
4.2 cm) randomly selected among 40 volunteers to take
part in a quasi experiment by using the one-group pre-
test, post-test design. Participants tested before, and after
ten days of peppermint essential oil consumption. Eth-
ical approval to conduct this study obtained from the
University Human Ethics Committee.
Methodology
All participants signed a consent form. The subjects
were familiarized with the laboratory setting and the
measurement techniques two days before the study.
Blood pressure, breath rate, and resting heart rate were
recorded. The chest circumference was measured by pla-
cing the flexible measuring tape around the chest at the
level of the xipho-sternal junction. Pulmonary function
tests performed using a handheld electronic turbine spir-
ometer (Microlab spirometer, Micro Medical Limited
of Rochester, England) and the best of three forced
efforts such as forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expira-
tory flow rate (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF)
were recorded.
Finally, participants underwent a standard treadmill ex-
ercise test (Bruce protocol), controlled by a computer pro-
gram. A heart rate transmitter belt (Polar, Polar Electro,
Finland) was attached to the chest to transmit the heart
rate signals to the receiver. Respiratory gas and ventilation
were measured with calibrated PowerCube Gas Analyzer
(Ganshorn Medizin Electronic GmbH, Nie derlauer,
Germany). Gas exchange variables including: oxygen
uptake (L/min), carbon dioxide production (L/min), venti-
lation (L/min), breathing rate (min
-1
), respiratory gas-
exchange ratios, and other parameters recorded every ten
seconds. Exercise performance parameters consist of time
to exhaustion (TE), total work (W
total
), maximal power
(P
max
), vertical distance, and horizontal distance computed
by the treadmills software considering the slope angle,
speed and duration of each stage.
Each participant consumed one bottle of mineral water
(500 ml) per day, containing 0.05 ml peppermint essen-
tial oil for ten days. All the tests repeated after ten days
of supplementation. Participants were asked to refrain
from any medium to vigorous exercise and their diet
was controlled during the study.
Statistical analyses
Normal distribution was tested using the Kolmogorov-
Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Paired t-test used to
examine differences between pre-test and post-test. To
calculate the magnitude of the difference between pre-
test and post-test, a Cohens d calculated, using the fol-
lowing formula [18]:
Choen0sd¼m1m2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
n11ðÞSD2
1þn21ðÞSD2
2
n1þn2þ2ðÞ
q
Cohens d of 0.20 considered a minor, 0.50 a medium,
and 0.80 a major difference. The statistical analysis
performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sci-
ences software (SPSS Version 16, SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL).
Meamarbashi and Rajabi Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:15 Page 2 of 6
http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/15
Results
After ten days of supplementation with peppermint essen-
tial oil, the exercise performance evaluated by changes in
the physiological parameters (spirometry and gas analysis)
and functional indicators of exercise performance. The
Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilks tests revealed
the normality of the data. The parameters obtained from
the gas analyzer during Bruce test presented in the
Table 1 .
Functional parameters significantly improved in post-
test as compared with pre-test. A substantial increase in
the respiratory ventilation, respiratory rate (RR), VO
2
/Kg,
VCO
2
/Kg, MET, and energy expenditure were observed
showing enhancement in the respiratory efficiency and
energy expenditure during the exercise. An increase in
the breathing rate, normally leads to a lower alveolar and
arterial PCO
2
and therefore, decrease in the end-tidal car-
bon dioxide tension (PETCO
2
) and fractional end-tidal
CO
2
concentration (FETCO
2
) expected (Table 1).
Time to exhaustion, vertical distance, horizontal dis-
tance, maximum work, and power compared and
presented in the Table 2.
Functional indicators of exercise performance showed
significant increase in the time to exhaustion and distance
(Table 2). In the Tables 3 and 4, the lung function
indicators and other physiological parameters compared
between pre-test and post-test.
Lung function tests significantly increased after ten
days of supplementation. Peak inspiratory flow (PIF)
shows maximum changes whereas forced vital capacity
(FVC) had least changes and effect size.
Both resting and exercise heart rates were significantly
decreased during post-test. Similarly, the chest circum-
ference during maximum exhale and blood pressure in
the post-test significantly decreased.
Discussion
Previous studies have shown that various kinds of mint
were effective in reducing muscle pain [19,20], muscle
relaxation, and reduce fatigue [21]. However, previous
studies showed inhaling peppermint aroma has no effect
on the lung function tests and physical performance
during acute and intensive exercise [18]. In a research
on the effect of peppermint aroma during 15-minute
low intensity treadmill exercise among male and female
college students [22], no significant difference seen in
the resting or exercise heart rate, oxygen consumption,
ventilation, and perceived physical workload.
In the current research, improvement in the spiromet-
ric measurements (FVC, PEF, and PIF) and ventilation
Table 1 Physiological parameters obtained by gas analyser in Pre-test and Post-test
Parameter Pre-test (n = 12) Post-test (n = 12) Changes% T P value Effect size
VO
2
[L/min] 2.74 ± 0.40 3.03 ± 0.351 10.5 6.757 p < 0.001 0.775
VCO
2
[L/min] 3.08 ± 0.47 3.73 ± 0.518 21.1 5.594 p < 0.001 1.319
VE [L/min] 84.60 ± 17.74 116.80 ± 22.44 38 4.790 p < 0.001 1.592
RR 39.26 ± 9.24 50.53 ± 7.33 28.7 5.683 p < 0.001 1.352
PETO
2
[mmHg] 88.87 ± 4.19 96.25 ± 4.02 8.3 5.869 p < 0.001 1.798
PETCO
2
[mmHg] 40.86 ± 4.28 35.16 ± 3.78 16.2 7.270 p < 0.001 1.412
DFCO
2
/DFO
2
1.109 ± 0.053 1.233 ± 0.072 7.4 4.233 p < 0.005 1.962
RER 1.147 ± 0.052 1.247 ± 0.066 8.7 3.873 p < 0.005 1.690
VO
2
/Kg [ml/kg/min] 39.25 ± 3.69 43.63 ± 3.78 11.1 5.912 p < 0.001 1.174
VCO
2
/Kg [ml/kg/min] 44.95 ± 4.61 54.29 ± 6.45 20.7 4.769 p < 0.005 1.666
VE/Kg [ml/kg/min] 1229.9 ± 212.13 1692.6 ± 296.5 37.6 4.306 p < 0.005 1.795
EQO
2
30.60 ± 4.65 38.80 ± 4.13 26.7 4.984 p < 0.001 1.865
EQCO
2
26.20 ± 3.65 31.20 ± 2.78 19 6.578 p < 0.001 1.542
VT [L] 2.165 ± 0.489 2.536 ± 0.404 17.1 6.770 p < 0.001 0.827
VA [L] 86.00 ± 19.22 117.31 ± 22.22 36.4 4.492 p < 0.005 1.507
METS 11.21 ± 1.06 12.48 ± 1.07 11.3 6.054 p < 0.001 1.192
EE [kcal/h] 847.60 ± 123.64 955.10 ± 116.98 12.6 6.138 p < 0.001 0.893
FETO
2
[%] 14.95 ± 0.70 16.35 ± 0.55 9.3 6.917 p < 0.001 2.232
FETCO
2
[%] 6.681 ± 0.679 5.800 ± 0.507 15.1 6.102 p < 0.001 1.470
CHO [kcal/h] 1276.7 ± 232.39 1721.4 ± 327.85 34.8 4.170 p < 0.005 1.565
FAT [kcal/h] 323.38 ± 124.04 691.06 ± 223.77 13.6 4.834 p < 0.001 2.032
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
Meamarbashi and Rajabi Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:15 Page 3 of 6
http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/15
during treadmill exercise, as well as an increase in the
maximum chest circumferences observed. These results
can be justified by decreasing the airway and bronchial
smooth muscle tonicity with or without effect on the
pulmonary surfactant. Previously, reported a significant
increase in the respiratory muscle strength after four-
week inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on the
respiratory muscle strength and time to exhaustion in
healthy people [15]. In the current study, PIF, which is
dependent on strength and speed of shortening of the
inspiratory muscles, significantly improved. Therefore,
an increase in the inspiratory muscle strength after
peppermint consumption is conceivable.
In an in-vitro study, menthol vapour lowered the sur-
face tension on synthetic surfactant films [23]. It may
change the lung surface tension and its function [23].
Bronchodilatory effect of peppermint is unlikely be-
cause previous research [24] investigated the effect of
salbutamol as a β
2
-adrenergic receptor agonist and with
bronchodilator effect on the cycling performance.
However, there was no significant difference in any
variables related to aerobic endurance or cycling per-
formance [24]. In yet another four-week randomised
placebo controlled study, 23 subjects with chronic mild
asthma received either nebulised menthol (10 mg twice
a day) or placebo. No effect on the forced expiratory
volume reported in the experimental group. However,
the menthol group significantly decreased their bron-
chodilator medicines and had fewer wheezing episodes
[15]. It can be speculated that oral supplementation in
the current study is preferred to longer time nebulised
menthol administration. We suggest further investiga-
tions on the hepatic metabolism of the peppermint
essential oil components to elucidate the pharmacokin-
etics of peppermint absorbed through the nose, mouth
or intestine.
The result of the current study supports the theory
that delaying fatigue may be related to physiological
changes by decreasing blood lactate level similar to the
recent finding [25]. Furthermore, significant increase in
the carbohydrate metabolism after ten days of supple-
mentation (Table 1) is implying that peppermint can im-
prove the muscular energy metabolism. Further studies
are needed to elucidate the possible effects of pepper-
mint in the cellular energy metabolism.
The stimulating effect of peppermint on the CNS [11]
may also be responsible. Extensive research on the ef-
fectiveness of aromas on cognitive performance, per-
ceived physical workload, and pain responses were
conducted based on possible changes in the brain activ-
ity [3,7,16,18,22,26-28].
Table 1 demonstrated significant changes in the gas
analysis results after ten days of supplementation with
peppermint essential oil. In the supplementation phase,
subjects kept their physical activity in minimum level,
therefore; plausible explanation would be a positive ef-
fect of supplementation on the cardiovascular and re-
spiratory efficiency. Positive changes in carbohydrate
and fat oxidation in accordance with enhancement of
energy expenditure and MET may be related to some
unknown effects on the cellular level. Although reported
that peppermint may accentuate energy by stimulating
the adrenal cortex [29], it is unclear what dosage and
how this increased energy may affect the exercise per-
formance. In other studies [22,28], aroma had no signifi-
cant effects on the oxygen consumption in both low-
intensity 15-minute treadmill task and sub-maximal
treadmill running test.
It seems peppermint has a lowering effect on the heart
rate and the systolic blood pressure. Reduction in the ar-
terial smooth muscle tonicity is a possible explanation
for these effects. One study administered peppermint
Table 2 Changes in the exercise performance parameters
Parameter Pre-test (n = 12) Post-test (n = 12) Changes% T P value Effect size
Horizontal distance (m) 843.5 ± 234.6 1187.6 ± 309.2 40.7 6.890 p < 0.001 1.254
Vertical distance (m) 113.4 ± 40.09 172.8 ± 59.41 52.3 6.262 p < 0.001 1.173
Work (KJ) 78.34 ± 32.84 118.7 ± 47.38 51.5 5.746 p < 0.001 0.992
Power (KW) 114.3 ± 24.24 139.4 ± 27.80 21.9 6.764 p < 0.001 0.962
Time to exhaustion (S) 664.5 ± 114.2 830.2 ± 129.8 24.9 7.255 p < 0.001 1.355
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
Table 3 Spirometry parameters in the Pre-test and Post-test
Parameter Pre-test (n = 12) Post-test (n = 12) Changes% T P value Effect size
FVC (L) 4.57 ± 0.90 4.79 ± 0.84 4.8 6.336 p < 0.001 0.258
PEF (L/s) 8.50 ± 0.94 8.87 ± 0.92 4.35 3.446 p < 0.01 0.401
PIF (L/s) 5.71 ± 1.16 6.58 ± 1.08 15.1 4.505 p < 0.005 0.776
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
Meamarbashi and Rajabi Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:15 Page 4 of 6
http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/15
aroma by nose and failed to find any significant effect in
both heart rate and blood pressure. The differences in
the peppermint essential oil method of administration
and supplementation period, can justify the effectiveness
of peppermint in the current study.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first study that explored
the effect of oral supplementation with peppermint es-
sential oil on the exercise performance. Our results
strongly support the effectiveness of peppermint essen-
tial oil on the exercise performance, respiratory function
variables, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and respira-
tory gas exchange parameters. Differences in duration of
study and oral supplementation instead of inhalation of
peppermint aroma could be the important characteris-
tics of this study compare to the previous researches.
Further investigations are required to unravel the mech-
anism underlying the effectiveness of peppermint on the
exercise performance and respiratory parameters.
Abbreviations
FVC: Forced vital capacity; PEF: Peak expiratory flow rate; PIF: Peak inspiratory
flow; W
total
: Calculated total work; P
max
: Maximal power output; CNS: Central
nervous system; VO
2
: Oxygen uptake; VCO
2
: Carbon dioxide elimination;
VE: Minute ventilation; RR: Respiratory rate; PETO
2
: End-tidal oxygen tension;
PETCO
2
: End-tidal carbon dioxide tension; RER: Respiratory exchange ratio;
EQO2: Ventilatory equivalents for O
2
; EQCO
2
: Ventilatory equivalents for CO
2
;
VT: Tidal volume; VA: Alveolar ventilation; METS: Metabolic equivalent;
EE: Energy expenditure; FETO
2
: Fractional end-tidal O
2
concentration;
FETCO
2
: Fractional end-tidal CO
2
concentration; CHO: Carbohydrate.
Competing interests
Authors of this paper have not received any financial remuneration for
preparing this paper. The authors declare that they have no competing
interests.
Authorscontributions
The authorsresponsibilities were as followsA.M. is responsible for research
design, conducting laboratory tests, statistical analysis and manuscript
preparation. A.R. was responsible for subject recruitment and laboratory tests
assistance. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Authorsinformation
Dr. Abbas Meamarbashi is Associate Professor and Head of the Department
of Physical Education and Sport Science at the University of Mohaghegh
Ardabili. He has been published in many peer-reviewed journals. Sport
nutrition is one of his fields of interest. Mr. Ali Rajabi is an MSc student in
sport physiology.
Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiastic support of the subjects who
volunteered to participate in this study. No external funding was provided
for this study.
Received: 22 February 2012 Accepted: 7 March 2013
Published: 21 March 2013
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Table 4 Cardiopulmonary parameters obtained from the Pre-test and Post-test
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Maximum heart rate 173.4 ± 14.35 187.4 ± 15.17 8 3.777 p < 0.005 0.954
Systolic blood pressure 11.99 ± 0.87 11.28 ± 0.85 6.2 5.440 p < 0.001 0.824
Diastolic blood pressure 6.645 ± 0.503 6.164 ± 0.566 7.8 7.831 p < 0.001 0.900
Chest circumference at max. inhale 89.41 ± 4.59 89.95 ± 4.66 0.6 2.782 p < 0.05 0.118
Chest circumference at max. exhale 83.73 ± 5.28 82.41 ± 5.14 1.6 4.342 p < 0.005 0.253
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
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doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-15
Cite this article as: Meamarbashi and Rajabi: The effects of peppermint
on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports
Nutrition 2013 10:15.
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Meamarbashi and Rajabi Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:15 Page 6 of 6
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... Sönmez et al. (2010) confirmed that oral intake supplemented with a water solution soaked in mint leaves offered no improvement in running speed on a 400-metre test, but lactic acid in the blood and muscular pain level significantly decreased as compared to other treatments. Meamarbashi and Rajabi (2013) found that subjects who drank 50uL MP aqueous solution for 10 consecutive days enhanced FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and time to exhaustion, maximal workload, and VO 2max . Moreover, direct oral administration of 50uL MP oil increased grip strength, standing vertical jump, standing long jump, FVC 1 , PIF, PEF, and reaction times (Meamarbashi, 2014). ...
... MP essential oil was selected from the products manufactured by the U.S. dealer FBI, and the products had qualified production and safety certificates (Name: Mentha piperita; No: 31060). The amount of MP essential oil in this study was determined according to previous studies and confirmed the dosage was lower than the daily uptake recommended by the U.S. FDA (Meamarbashi, 2014;Meamarbashi & Rajabi, 2013;Nair, 2001). The experimental design of this study is shown in Figure 1. ...
... The results of this study are similar to those of Shepherd and Peart, who found that the uptake of 50uL of MP essential oil for 10 consecutive days did not improve maximal performance or aerobic capacity (Shepherd & Peart, 2017). However, Meamarbashi and Rajabi (2013) recruited 12 healthy male subjects for the uptake of 50 uL of MP essential oil for 10 consecutive days and found that the maximum oxygen uptake increased by 10.5%, exhaustion exercise time increased by 24.9%, and work volume increased by 51.5%. Although the results of Meamarbashi and Rajabi (2013) determined that the uptake of MP essential oil was helpful for aerobic capacity and athletic performance, the experimental design lacked a control group, and thus the supplementary benefit may be the learning effect of the subjects after two exercise tests. ...
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This study compares the effects of the uptake or inhalation of 50uL Mentha piperita (MP) essential oil for 10 days on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiopulmonary regulation during various exercise intensities. Forty-eight healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to MP uptake (MPU; n=16), MP inhalation (MPI; n=16), and control group (C; n=16). All participants were measured resting HRV, respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters during aerobic, anaero- bic, and graded exercise tests (GXT) before and after treatment. There were significant increases in the low-frequency area (LFa; 1.8±0.1 vs 2.2±0.2 ms²), the ratio of low frequency to respiration frequency area (LFa/RFa; 0.9±0.1 vs 1.3±0.1) at resting and carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ; 41.2±4.0 vs 49.2±6.8 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), ventilation per minute (V E ; 80.2±4.3 vs 97.5±5.5 L/min -1 ), and respiratory rate (RR; 38.2±1.9 to 44.3±2.1 breath/min -1 ) in an anaerobic test following MPU inter- vention. In GXT, maximal carbon dioxide production (VCO 2max; 51.9±3.5 to 59.1±6.4 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), maximal ventilation per minute (V Emax ; 126.4±6.5 to 138.4±5.4 L/min -1 ) and maximal respiratory rate (RR max ; 52.7±3.6 to 60.1±2.3 breath/min -1 ) significantly increased in MPU. The correlations of ΔLFa with ΔVCO 2max , ΔV Emax , and ΔRR max in the MPU group were signifi- cant. Continuous uptake or inhalation of 50uL MP oil for 10 days does not improve aerobic capacity and maximal exercise performance, but 10 days’ uptake of MP essential oil increased sympathetic activity at rest and may relate to respiratory regulation under high-intensity exercise.
... The odor environment created by essential oils is often considered pleasant and popularly used in commercial facilities to engender a particular mood in customers. Essential oils affect not only occupants' mood but also their cognitive performance [47][48][49][50]. For instance, Moss and Oliver [51] found that rosemary essential oil has a positive influence on attentional performance. ...
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Indoor environment has an appreciable impact on occupants' mood, health and performance. Among numerous indoor environmental components, indoor air quality is often considered to be one of the most crucial ones. While odor is a decisive factor for evaluating perceived indoor air quality, its effects - particularly the positive effects of pleasant aromas - on human responses and performance have yet to be revealed. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of indoor aroma on students' mood and learning performance. Participants comprised 76 university students and they performed two learning tasks under one of the four odor conditions: “control (aromaless)”, “rosemary”, “lemon”, and “peppermint.” First, the way in which students sense the indoor aroma in a study space was investigated using several mood scales, including odor intensity, pleasantness, preference, acceptability, and impression. Second, the influence of indoor aroma on learning and memory performance was quantitatively assessed using a reading task and a verbal memory task. Lastly, the impacts of odor preference on subjective evaluation and performance were explored. This experiment showed that subjective evaluations were significantly different before and after olfactory adaptation, particularly in the rosemary condition. Of all three aroma conditions, the lemon aroma had the highest preference and led to the highest scores in the memory task. Although the significant impact of indoor aroma on learning performance was not detected, our results indicated that pleasant aroma has the potential to enhance students’ mood and learning performance.
... Therefore, there have been tendencies for the cultivation of this plant; however, further studies are needed to establish the use of this plant and its preparations. 99,100 Rezgui et al. investigated the anti-pathogenic, anti-dermatophytes, and antifungal effects of Marrubium vulgare in the forms of acetone extract, methanol extract, and essential oil on the different pathogens in animals and plants. They also investigated the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of these extracts, finding that acetone (272.90 μmol TE/g) and methanol (261.41 μmol TE/g) extracts had remarkable antioxidant activity, while essential oil had relatively low antioxidant activity. ...
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Free radicals are a group of damaging molecules produced during the normal metabolism of cells in the human body. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoking, and other environmental pollutants enhances free radicals in the human body. The destructive effects of free radicals may also cause harm to membranes, enzymes, and DNA, leading to several human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, coronavirus disease (COVID‐19), rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative illnesses. This process occurs when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant defenses. Since antioxidants scavenge free radicals and repair damaged cells, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high antioxidant values is recommended to slow down oxidative stress in the body. Additionally, natural products demonstrated a wide range of biological impacts such as anti‐inflammatory, anti‐aging, anti‐atherosclerosis, and anti‐cancer properties. Hence, in this review article, our goal is to explore the role of natural therapeutic antioxidant effects to reduce oxidative stress in the diseases. Role of natural products in oxidative stress (Confirmation of publication and licensing light by bio RENDER; Agreement Number: PS238VX2QY)
... [1] PEO has been utilized in a variety of applications, including medicine, [2] drug delivery, [3] wound healing, [4] food science, [5] and even exercise performance. [6] Menthone and menthol, as the main constituents of PEO, are responsible for the oil's pharmaceutical characteristics. [7] PEO possesses anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-oxidant properties against numerous bacteria, pathogens, and yeasts which are mainly ascribed to its bioactive components. ...
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Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) containing various contents of peppermint essential oil (PEO), as a volatile bioactive agent, were prepared in order to investigate the effect of the oil on the anti-bacterial activity of the CS-SA hydrogels. The gelation of the PEC was performed in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Optical microscopic images exhibited uniform dispersion and entrapment of the oil within the PEC matrix. In-vitro evaluation tests of the hydrogels demonstrated the anti-bacterial activity of the PEO, revealing its potential for biomedical applications.
... Moreover, although experimental conditions were designed to preserve a single-blind protocol, it was possible that the aroma from menthol impregnated in the T-shirt fabric would reach the respiratory system through the nasal passages. As inhaled menthol provokes a large increase of ventilation at rest and exercise [39], an additional heat loss could be made through the augmented respiratory process [40]. ...
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