Article

Do Team and Individual Debriefs Enhance Performance? A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Debriefs (or "after-action reviews") are increasingly used in training and work environments as a means of learning from experience. We sought to unify a fragmented literature and assess the efficacy of debriefs with a quantitative review. Used by the U.S. Army to improve performance for decades, and increasingly in medical, aviation, and other communities, debriefs systematize reflection, discussion, and goal setting to promote experiential learning. Unfortunately, research and theory on debriefing has been spread across diverse disciplines, so it has been difficult to definitively ascertain debriefing effectiveness and how to enhance its effectiveness. We conducted an extensive quantitative meta-analysis across a diverse body of published and unpublished research on team- and individual-level debriefs. Findings from 46 samples (N = 2,136) indicate that on average, debriefs improve effectiveness over a control group by approximately 25% (d = .67). Average effect sizes were similar for teams and individuals, across simulated and real settings, for within- or between-group control designs, and for medical and nonmedical samples. Meta-analytic methods revealed a bolstering effect of alignment and the potential impact of facilitation and structure. Organizations can improve individual and team performance by approximately 20% to 25% by using properly conducted debriefs. Debriefs are a relatively inexpensive and quick intervention for enhancing performance. Our results lend support for continued and expanded use of debriefing in training and in situ. To gain maximum results, it is important to ensure alignment between participants, focus and intent, and level of measurement.

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... Debriefs, pioneered by the military decades ago, encourage teams to discuss, interpret, and learn from recent team events (Allen et al. 2018). There is robust evidence for the effectiveness of team debriefs, with a meta-analysis revealing a 25% improvement in team performance following the application of appropriately structured debriefs (Tannenbaum and Cerasoli 2013). The meta-analysis recommends that AARs should promote active selflearning, have a developmental intent, focus on specific events, and use multiple information sources in order to have the greatest impact on teamwork and performance. ...
... Collectively, the state of science on TDIs provides meta-analytic evidence that TT improves teamwork and team performance in medical (Hughes et al. 2016), organisational (McEwan et al. 2017, and military contexts (Goodwin, Blacksmith, and Coats 2018). Team debriefs can improve team performance (Tannenbaum and Cerasoli 2013), and LT improves leader capabilities and provides numerous positive outcomes for followers, teams, and organisations (Lacerenza et al. 2017). ...
... The state of science on TDIs provides meta-analytic evidence that TT improves teamwork and team performance across a wealth of domains and contexts. Team debriefs can improve team performance (Tannenbaum and Cerasoli 2013), and LT improves leader capabilities and provides numerous positive outcomes for followers, teams, and organisations. ...
Article
This state of the science review brings together the disparate literature of effective strategies for enhancing and accelerating team performance. The review evaluates and synthesises models and proposes recommended avenues for future research. The two major models of the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) framework and the Big Five dimensions of teamwork were reviewed and both will need significant development for application to future teams comprising non-human agents. Research suggests that a multi-method approach is appropriate for team measurements, such as the integration of methods from self-report, observer ratings, event-based measurement and automated recordings. Simulations are recommended as the most effective team-based training interventions. The impact of new technology and autonomous agents is discussed with respect to the changing nature of teamwork. In particular whether existing teamwork models and measures are suitable to support the design, operation and evaluation of human-nonhuman teams of the future.
... A meta-analysis of 46 samples (N = 2136) showed that compared with the control group, using AARs could improve team or individual performance by 20%-25% (d = .67) in simulated or real situations, and the average effects of teams and individuals are similar (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Ellis et al. (2010) explored the impact of AARs on the posttest performance of college students in a virtual business decision task and found that performing AARs could significantly improve the posttest performance of college students compared with not performing AARs. ...
... However, in addition to the above factors, there are other factors that may also affect the effects of AARs, such as the question types of AARs. AARs guide individuals through a series of questions that enable participants to review current exercises, construct their own meaning from their actions and uncover lessons learned in a nonpunitive environment (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Studies have shown that the question types affect the quantity and quality of online discussions, that is, the limited focal question type was more influential for the word count and degree of answer completion than brainstorming, open focal, and direct link question types (Bradley, Thom, Hayes, & Hay, 2008). ...
... What research exists is typically focused on the effects of AARs on improving individual and group performance (Ellis et al., 2010;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013;Villado & Arthur, 2013), but less research exists on whether individuals have deep cognitive engagement when conducting AARs, which could show whether individuals have performed effective AARs. For example, Ellis et al. ...
Article
Reviewing the completed exercises was essential to mathematical learning, but students often jump to the next exercise after finishing the current one without reviewing. It is not clear how to effectively conduct this learning activity. On the other side, after-action reviews (AARs) have proved to be a good learning practice that has been widely used in military and unmilitary training for decades. It helps students learn through reviewing. This study applied AARs in mathematical learning to improve students’ learning effectiveness through reviewing their completed exercises. In addition, the study further investigated how the question types of AARs influence students’ cognitive engagement. Ninth-grade students (N = 125) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions (AARs of general questions, AARs of specific questions, and no AARs). The results revealed that conducting AARs after solving mathematics problems could significantly improve learning performance (p < .05). Compared with AARs of specific questions, AARs of general questions could significantly improve students’ cognitive engagement (p < .001). The findings provide important implications for mathematical education and learning practice.
... Team debriefs are structured learning experiences that encourage members to reflect on recent action that resulted in success or failure [28]. After discussing past action, uncovering problems, and celebrating successes, debriefs include steps to change future processes, thereby encouraging active self-learning and collaboration to derive specific ways to improve [15]. ...
... After discussing past action, uncovering problems, and celebrating successes, debriefs include steps to change future processes, thereby encouraging active self-learning and collaboration to derive specific ways to improve [15]. A meta-analysis of 46 samples concluded that debriefs increased team performance by 20%-25%, despite an average debrief time of only 18 min [28]. Building on the best practice recommendations from prior studies, debriefs could be expanded to include explicit reflection questions about how well the team coordinated actions to meet deadlines. ...
... Because debriefs are more effective when they are structured [28], a series of time-based questions should be asked after a critical team event (e.g., major deliverable or completed milestone). For example, where did we meet and fail to meet our deadlines? ...
Article
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Temporal challenges are not only contextual in nature but manifest internally in teams when members enter the team with different temporal orientations (e.g., time urgency and pacing style). Researchers have demonstrated that temporal diversity has important implications for key team outcomes (performance, timeliness, and team conflict) across a range of samples and countries. Unfortunately, the practical implications of this research have yet to be unpacked. We respond to this need by developing an approach to translate temporal diversity research studies into actionable, evidence-based team interventions. Because journal articles are often deficient on actionable steps, whereas practitioner-friendly outlets tend to be deficient on scientific rigor, incorporating both criteria necessitates merging these literatures. Specifically, we delineate four main steps: (1) identify significant moderators, (2) match the moderators to scientifically based interventions, (3) design intervention tools with specific, actionable procedures, and (4) evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention tools by designing research studies. We believe the process we outline to marry actionable and evidence-based benchmarks is applicable to other research domains in team science beyond temporal research. It is our hope that this research will be a catalyst for further exploration of interventions that can help team members navigate temporal differences.
... The AAR process is also very easily understood and implemented because it incorporates practices that are common in most organizations and are amenable to distributed administration (i.e., geographically dispersed employees). The practical advantages of the AAR are coupled with considerable evidence to suggest that it is a broadly effective training approach that is comparable to and in some cases more effective than other types of organizational training approaches or methods (Keiser & Arthur, 2021;Salas et al., 2012;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). ...
... Keiser and Arthur (2021) found that the AAR is a broadly, but not summarily effective training approach at improving multiple training evaluation criteria, and thus there are characteristics that contribute to but also others that attenuate its effectiveness. They offered notable contributions in this regard by examining the influence of training characteristics on the effectiveness of the AAR and specifically those characteristics that have garnered the most attention in the AAR literature, termed optimal characteristics (i.e., AAR structure, type of facilitator, and type of review media; Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). However, Keiser and Arthur (2021) did not examine a number of additional aspects of the task and the AAR that are both theoretically and practically relevant. ...
... The aforementioned theoretical rationale is supported by the empirical literature (Keiser & Arthur, 2021;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). For instance, Tannenbaum and Cerasoli (2013) offered an initial effectiveness estimate indicating that the AAR is associated with a 25% improvement in endof-acquisition performance (d = 0.67, k = 46). ...
Article
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This study expands on Keiser and Arthur's (2021) meta-analysis of the after-action review (AAR), or debrief, by examining six additional task and training characteristics that contribute to or attenuate its effectiveness. The findings based on a bare-bones meta-analysis of results from 83 studies (134 ds [955 teams; 4,684 individuals]) indicate that the effectiveness of the AAR (overall d = 0.92) does indeed vary across the pertinent characteristics. The primary impact of this study pertains to the practical implementation of AARs; notably, the findings indicate that the AAR is particularly effective in task environments that are characterized by a combination of high complexity and ambiguity in terms of offering no intrinsic feedback. The types of tasks-often project and decision-making-that more commonly entail these characteristics are frequently used in industries that do not traditionally use the AAR. The results also suggest that more recent variants of the AAR (i.e., a reaction phase, a canned performance review) do not meaningfully add to its effectiveness. These findings are combined with those from prior meta-analyses to derive 11 empirically-based practical guidelines for the use of AARs. In sum, this study highlights the complexity of the AAR that results from the independent and interdependent influence among various components and characteristics, the examination of the effects of novel and ostensibly distinct variants or approaches to AARs, and the extension of AARs to tasks and contexts in which they are less commonly used.
... To provide conceptual clarity, the following section distinguishes the MATM from nomologically similar phenomena already established in the literature (Podsakoff et al., 2016). Specifically, we outline how the MATM stands in relation to post-meeting small talk or chit-chat (Methot et al., 2020), debriefing meetings (Allen et al., 2018b;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2012), and gossip (Brady et al., 2017). An overview based on four relevant characteristics is provided in Table 1. ...
... Debriefs were originally used in the form of after-action reviews in the military and subsequently transferred to other high-responsibility teams (e.g., health care, aviation). However, meta-analytical findings have shown that this form of team learning activity is also suitable for teams outside high-responsibility environments (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2012). Debriefs follow a formal structure, often accompanied by an established protocol, and are typically facilitated by a meeting chair. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article offers initial theorizing on an understudied phenomenon in the workplace: the meeting after the meeting (MATM). As an informal and unscheduled event, the MATM takes place outside managerial control and has potentially far-reaching consequences. However, our current knowledge of the MATM relies primarily on practitioner observations, and conceptual work that integrates the MATM into the larger meeting science literature is missing. This article fills this gap by outlining key defining features of the MATM that can be used to structure future research. Moreover, and based on theorizing concerning the affect-generating nature of meetings, we develop an affect-based process model that focuses on the antecedents and boundary conditions of the MATM at the episodic level and shines light on meetings as a sequential phenomenon. Plain Language Summary This article sheds light on an understudied but rather common phenomenon in the workplace: The meeting after the meeting (MATM). Defined as an unscheduled, informal and confidential communication event, the MATM has the potential to create new structures in everyday organizational life. Yet, our current knowledge of this particular meeting type is very limited and largely based on anecdotal accounts by practitioners. To guide future research, this article first outlines key features of the MATM, focusing on when the MATM occurs, where it takes place, how it takes place, why it takes place, and who is involved in the MATM. Next, this article presents an affect-based process model of the MATM. To this end, antecedents and boundary conditions at the episodic level are outlined, highlighting that meetings should be seen as interconnected, sequential events.
... • Le débriefing : phase primordiale pour l'apprentissage Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013), il s'agit de proposer un temps d'analyse des actions réalisées lors du scénario. ...
... Le débriefing est considéré comme un moment indispensable à l'apprentissage en simulation (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Il s'agit de proposer un temps d'analyse structurée de la mise en situation, afin de comprendre les liens entre les actions, pensées et sentiments ressentis, ainsi que les performances observées (Kolbe et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
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La communication ouverte est un comportement de partage d’informations non-sollicitées visant à améliorer une situation menaçante. Bien que ce comportement soit bénéfique pour les performances techniques des équipes soignantes, une tendance au silence est fréquemment observée. L’objectif de cette thèse de psychologie sociale appliquée est d’examiner les attitudes et comportements de communication ouverte parmi une population d’étudiant·e·s en soins infirmiers (ESI). Deux études portent sur la construction et la validation d’un questionnaire d’attitudes relatives à la communication ouverte auprès d’un échantillon d’ESI et d’étudiant·e·s en médecine. Une structure en trois dimensions est observée : la perception de sécurité, le climat de communication ouverte au sein de l’équipe, et l’efficacité perçue. Trois études évaluent la validité prédictive de cet outil sur les probabilités de communication ouverte autorapportées. Une dernière étude présente une intervention en simulation, permettant l’observation des comportements d’ESI face à des opportunités de communication ouverte. Les résultats mettent en évidence une tendance au silence et l’utilisation de stratégies peu assertives. Le statut d’étudiant·e, la présence d’un·e patient·e et l’appréhension des répercussions sont les barrières à la communication ouverte les plus fréquemment évoquées. Les implications de ces résultats sont discutées dans le cadre de la formation initiale et continue des professionnel·le·s de santé.
... The benefits of a hot debrief can reduce psychological harm and improve team performance, leading to prospective improved patient outcomes (Khpal and Madeline, 2016). A hot debrief can advance knowledge, practice and confidence of the team members involved (Allen et al., 2018) and can lead to greater organisational, individual and team performance by approximately 20%-25% (Tannenbaum et al., 2013). While there is substantial evidence that quality improvement approaches can support the implementation of hot debriefing after cardiac arrest, there is very little evidence that this change can be sustained over time and to what extent leadership contributes to the sustainability of this change. ...
... Debriefing can potentially address these issues at its root. Supporting staff through feedback and reflection is an extremely powerful tool , yet undertaking a "hot" debrief after a cardiac arrest is often rare in clinical practice (Reynolds et al., 2018;Tannenbaum et al., 2013). The guidance from the Resuscitation Council states that a hot debrief should happen after every cardiac arrest and should be led by a health professional who may or may not be the cardiac arrest team leader (Panchal et al., 2018;Resuscitation Council, 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualise the hot debrief process after cardiac arrest as a collaborative and distributed process across the multi-disciplinary team. There are multiple benefits to hot debriefs but there are also barriers to its implementation. Facilitating the hot debrief discussion usually falls within the remit of the physician; however, the American Heart Association suggests "a facilitator, typically a health-care professional, leads a discussion focused on identifying ways to improve performance". Empowering nurses through a distributed leadership approach supports the wider health-care team involvement and facilitation of the hot debrief process, while reducing the cognitive burden of the lead physician. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was taken to evaluate the experiences of staff in the Emergency Department (ED) to identify their experiences of hot debrief after cardiac arrest. There had been some staff dissatisfaction with the process with reports of negative experiences of unresolved issues after cardiac arrest. An audit identified zero hot debriefs occurring in 2019. A quality Improvement project (Model for Healthcare Improvement) used four plan do study act cycles from March 2020 to September 2021, using two questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to engage the team in the design and implementation of a hot debrief tool, using a distributed leadership approach. Findings: The first survey (n = 78) provided a consensus to develop a hot debrief in the ED (84% in the ED; 85% in intensive care unit (ICU); and 92% from Acute Medicine). Three months after implementation of the hot debrief tool, 5 out of 12 cardiac arrests had a hot debrief, an increase of 42% in hot debriefs from a baseline of 0%. The hot debrief started to become embedded in the ED; however, six months on, there were still inconsistencies with implementation and barriers remained. Findings from the second survey (n = 58) suggest that doctors may not be convinced of the benefits of the hot debrief process, particularly its benefits to improve team performance and nurses appear more invested in hot debriefs when compared to doctors. Research limitations/implications: There are existing hot debrief tools; for example, STOP 5 and Take STOCK; however, creating a specific tool with QI methods, tailored to the specific ED context, is likely to produce higher levels of multi-disciplinary team engagement and result in distributed roles and responsibilities. Change is accepted when people are involved in the decisions that affect them and when they have the opportunity to influence that change. This approach is more likely to be achieved through distributed leadership rather than from more traditional top-down hierarchical leadership approaches. Originality/value: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to integrate Royal College Quality Improvement requirements with a collaborative and distributed medical leadership approach, to steer a change project in the implementation of a hot debrief in the ED. EDs need to create a continuous quality improvement culture to support this integration of leadership and QI methods combined, to drive and sustain successful change in distributed leadership to support the implementation of clinical protocols across the multi-disciplinary team in the ED.
... As a post-experience analytic discussion activity, debriefing guides learners to recall, evaluate, and conceptualize their actions and decisions in real or simulated situations (Gardner, 2013;Lederman, 1992), thereby promoting reflection and meaning making (Decker et al., 2013;Savoldelli et al., 2006). It is thus considered a critical strategy in simulationbased learning to improve the overall effectiveness of experiential learning (Dreifuerst, 2009;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Moreover, because debriefing is flexible, it can work in both individual and group learning situations. ...
... The results are consistent with previous studies that emphasized the necessity of debriefing for maximizing learning gains in simulation-based experiential learning (Authors, 2020;Dreifuerst, 2012;Issenberg et al., 2005;Levett-Jones, & Lapkin, 2012;Ryoo & Ha, 2015). Through guided self-evaluation and reflection, debriefing is known to promote learners' J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f conceptualization and meaning making of simulated learning experiences (Dreifuerst, 2009;Gardner, 2013;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). ...
Article
How can students in a large classroom benefit from virtual reality (VR)-based instruction despite limited equipment? Group debriefing based on observed VR experiences provides a potential solution. This study employed a two-by-two factorial design to empirically investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of debriefing and types of VR experiences on enhancing VR learning outcomes. Second and third graders (n = 150) were randomly assigned to one of the four VR learning conditions: (1) performing individually with individual debriefing, (2) performing individually with no debriefing, (3) observing in a group with group debriefing, and (4) observing in a group with no debriefing. Study results reported moderate effect sizes of debriefing on increasing knowledge test as well as performance scores of the VR learners but revealed no significant difference between direct and observed VR learning experiences. The findings reveal that students can benefit from vicarious VR learning experiences if an instructional component of debriefing is provided in educational practice.
... Leaders should provide feedback only after members have had the opportunity to share their perspectives. When applied properly, debriefs can be a powerful tool to facilitate team performance, as one meta-analysis noted a 20% increase in team effectiveness (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). ...
... Therefore, practitioners may want to allocate time devoted specifically to receiving and processing feedback. Given that feedback appears to be particularly helpful when coupled with guided reflexivity (e.g., Gabelica et al., 2014;Konradt et al., 2015), virtual teams could benefit from team debriefs/"afteraction-reviews" (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013; see also sprint retrospectives, as implemented in scrum/agile project management, Schwaber & Sutherland, 2020), where they can collectively reflect upon feedback and discuss possibilities for improving future team-and taskwork. ...
Article
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Feedback is a cornerstone of human development. Not surprisingly, it plays a vital role in team development. However, the literature examining the specific role of feedback in virtual team effectiveness remains scattered. To improve our understanding of feedback in virtual teams, we identified 59 studies that examine how different feedback characteristics (content, source, and level) impact virtual team effectiveness. Our findings suggest that virtual teams benefit particularly from feedback that (a) combines performance-related information with information on team processes and/or psychological states, (b) stems from an objective source, and (c) targets the team as a whole. By integrating the existing knowledge, we point researchers in the direction of the most pressing research needs, as well as the practices that are most likely to pay off when designing feedback interventions in virtual teams.
... During team debriefs, members reflect on a performance episode or experience; however, team members may not always understand what caused the team process or performance to succeed or fail within this episode. Tannenbaum and Cerasoli (2013) note that "multimedia aids may be one way of building in structure and guidance" (p. 240). ...
Article
Organizational processes have been widely recognized as both multilevel and dynamic, yet traditional methods of measurements limit our ability to model and understand such phenomena. Featuring a popular model of team processes advanced by Marks et al. (2001), we illustrate a method to use individuals' communications as construct valid unobtrusive measures of collective constructs occurring over time. Thus, the purpose of this investigation is to develop computer-aided text analysis (CATA) techniques that can score members' communications into valid team process measures. We apply a deductive content validity-based method to construct CATA dictionaries for Marks et al.'s dimensions. We then demonstrate their convergent validity with subject matter experts' (SMEs) hand-coded team communications and different SMEs' behaviorally anchored rating scales based on video recordings of team interactions, using multitrait-multimethod analyses in two samples. Using a third sample of paramedics performing a high-fidelity mass casualty incident exercise, we further demonstrate the convergent validity of the CATA and SME scorings of communications. We then model the relationships among processes across episodes using all three samples. Next, we test criterion-related validity using a longitudinal dual-discontinuous change growth modeling design featuring the paramedic CATA-scored team processes as related to a dynamic performance criterion. Finally, we integrate behavioral data from wearable sensor badges to illustrate how CATA can be scored at the individual level and then leveraged to model dynamic networks of team interactions. Implications, limitations, directions for the future research, and guidelines for the application of these techniques to other collective constructs are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... There is growing evidence that it contributes to improving clinical outcomes [4][5][6]. It contributes to building resilience, strengthening shared mental models and facilitating adaptation to changing circumstances, such as the ones faced in this crisis [7][8][9]. Clinical debriefing (CD) should encourage learning, patient safety and system improvement whilst providing psychological support to the whole team [10,11]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent pressures on healthcare staff and resources have exacerbated the need for clinical teams to reflect and learn from workplace experiences. Surges in critically ill patients, the impact of the disease on the workforce and long term adjustments in work and life have upturned our normality. Whilst this situation has generated a new ‘connectedness’ within healthcare workers, it also continues to test our resilience. An international multi-professional collaboration has guided the identification of ongoing difficulties to effective communication and debriefing, as well as emerging opportunities to promote a culture of dialogue. This article outlines pandemic related barriers and new possibilities categorising them according to task management, teamwork, situational awareness and decision making. It describes their direct and indirect impact on clinical debriefing and signposts towards solutions to overcome challenges and, building on new bridges, advance team conversations that allow us to learn, improve and support each other. This pandemic has brought clinical professionals together; nevertheless, it is essential to invest in further developing and supporting cohesive teams. Debriefing enables healthcare teams and educators to mitigate stress, build resilience and promote a culture of continuous learning and patient care improvement.
... They might be particularly adept at improving multiteam system effectiveness, but likely necessitate alterations to their associated components or characteristics to be most effective in that context. For instance, there has been considerable research attention directed at various characteristics of after-action reviews, including facilitator (self-led versus expert-led), performance review media (objective versus subjective), type of reviewed performance (failure versus success), and source of reviewed performance (personal versus canned; e.g., Boet et al., 2011;Keiser & Arthur, 2021;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013;Villado & Arthur, 2013). Application of the after-action review to multiteam systems will necessitate an understanding of the theoretical processes underlying these characteristics-feedback (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996), observational learning and behavior modeling (Bandura, 1986), and goal setting (Locke & Latham, 1990-and their relative importance in multiteam systems (Keiser & Arthur, 2021;Villado & Arthur, 2013). ...
Technical Report
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Multiteam systems, or “teams of teams,” are common in the U.S. Army, and are expected to become more prevalent in the future operational environment. Indeed, multiteam systems are better capable of accomplishing goals in complex task environments than single teams in part through more diverse specialization and greater flexibility. The literature on multiteam systems is still in its early stages, especially in comparison with the broader study of teams. The empirical research on multiteam systems is particularly lacking, which is understandable considering the difficulty of studying this topic. Researchers have in turn focused on theoretical articulation at the expense of providing empirical research that offers practical implications for improving the effectiveness of multiteam systems. The purpose of this review is to provide a conceptual overview of multiteam systems, with an aim toward identifying areas for research on multiteam systems training in the Army. Fundamental principles from the organizational training literature were used to develop 11 research questions. These questions provide the groundwork for future theoretical articulation and empirical research toward the ultimate goal of improving multiteam system effectiveness in the Army.
... The debriefing is a post-experience analysis and team reflection of some activities or scenario, where it is possible to learn from the experience, allowing an integration between theoretical knowledge and practical experience onboard (Sellberg & Lundin, 2018). It is also noticed that debriefs are designed essentially to serve developmental purposes rather than evaluative or judgmental purposes, which not only yields more accurate feedback, but fosters circumstances that encourages knowledge exchange and perspective taking, maximizing experience learning from what really happened (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). The learning fostered by debriefing is a part of the cycle of continuous improvement in the safety of work activities, providing and recognizing the necessary skills for this. ...
Conference Paper
This article presents a proposal for a debriefing tool developed to support the development of bridge resource management skills of nautical science students. This debriefing tool consists of a set of questions that aim to trigger reflection about the bridge team's performance during simulator exercises. The tool has been tested by students in conjunctions with the ship handling exercises. After this test, feedback from the students has been obtained through a focus group. The results show constrains that may jeopardize the utilization of a debriefing tool, but also encourages discussions regarding undesirable and desirable outcomes, gathering a channel for feedbacks. The study also indorsed this tool as a way of enhancing performance through the understanding, development and training of individual competences needed for a safe onboard work.
... There is substantial and accepted evidence that debriefing is a central component in the learning process for healthcare participants [17][18][19]. Much of debriefing is centred around models with different phases and specific conversational structures [20]. ...
Article
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The current coronavirus pandemic has necessitated rapid intensive care infrastructure expansion with corresponding demand for training healthcare staff. At the NHS Nightingale Hospital, London, the staff underwent a training programme prior to entering the clinical environment with simulation being a core component. This paper describes the rationale for choosing an initial debriefing model which evolved overtime to consider multiple contextual factors: demands of the clinical environment, the diverse participants and their learning needs, the variable experience of faculty, and the dynamic nature of available debriefing time. The new approach, termed here as the Dynamic Plus-Delta model, blends the traditional Plus-Delta approach with specific dynamic elements which considers the unique demands of rapidly training large number of staff. We outline the core features of this model and detail specific considerations around psychological safety. This debriefing approach can be used in similar simulation intervention settings where rapid training of participants is required with multiple and varying contextual factors.
... The institutions included Universities, colleges, prisons and other camps. This ring campaign was conducted from [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] November 2018 plus two additional days for mop up. Experts from partner organizations (WHO, UNICEF, MSF, IRC, AMREF and CDC) had supported government institutions on field to accomplish the vaccination effectively. ...
... The news reports cannot be too complex, but must at the same time provide sufficient information on the subject. Several researchers and practitioners describe the importance of well-functioning internal communications, two of whom are Tannenbaum and Cerasoli (2013), who argue that regular, mutual feedback concerning the handling of group tasks may improve operational efficiency by 25 percent. The feedback must be related to any of the objectives that the group is aiming to meet. ...
Book
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... Reviews investigating the use of debriefing as an educational strategy among health care professionals have highlighted its benefits in improving learning and team performance (Couper et al., 2013;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Research regarding the efficacy of group debriefing with health care professionals and emergency service personnel has also shown it to help alleviate the effects of vicarious psychological distress (Everly & Mitchell, 1999;Mitchell & Everly, 1997). ...
Article
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Health care professionals are more frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events than individuals in other professions. Repeated trauma exposure can significantly impact both physical and mental health. In clinical settings, the term "debriefing" refers to a group meeting during which clinical events and decision-making are reviewed and discussed to improve clinical practice. The present review investigated the use of debriefing for clinical staff in clinical settings following exposure to direct and vicarious trauma. We examined whether the use of posttrauma debriefing impacts symptoms of distress and explored how clinical staff experience debriefing; we also investigated the factors that influence this experience. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted between August 31 and September 2, 2019. Included articles (N = 13) described the use of debriefing in clinical settings with clinical staff following a traumatic event. We assessed methodological quality and performed a narrative synthesis. Four studies found some evidence of the benefits of debriefing for reducing psychological sequelae to traumatic events. Seven studies commented on factors that clinical staff perceived to be important for the debriefing to feel helpful, including the being given the opportunity for reflection, gaining a shared experience, and having the right peer facilitator. Some evidence suggests that debriefing with staff working in clinical settings can reduce posttraumatic distress symptoms, and subjective evidence suggests that clinical staff members perceive debriefing to be useful. Due to the limited literature, no firm conclusions could be drawn, and further methodologically sound research is required.
... But there is still scope for many other didactic techniques and instructions to explore, such as group discussions of the game results, or providing detailed debriefings before replaying. Tannenbaum and Cerasoli (2013) have shown that properly conducted debriefs are highly useful in enhancing learning effects. Players may also benefit differently from the game when playing in small groups while exchanging opinions and discussing alternative ways of behaviors, compared to playing the game alone (Wouters et al., 2013). ...
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Serious games have emerged as a promising new form of education and training. Even though the benefits of serious games for education are undisputed, there is still a further need for research on the efficacy of such games. The main goal of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a serious moral game—uFin: The Challenge—that was designed to promote moral sensitivity in business, a precondition of ethical decision-making and behavior and a core moral competency of moral intelligence. A second goal is to examine the role of metacognitive prompting and prosocial nudging in influencing learning effectiveness. Participants (N = 345) took part in an experimental game-based intervention study and completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire assessing moral sensitivity. The analyses of both questionnaire and game data suggest that merely playing this game is effective in promoting moral sensitivity. Neither self-reflection nor exposure to prosocial nudges, however, were determined to be factors that improve learning effectiveness. In contrast, those interventions even decreased the learning outcome in some cases. Overall, findings demonstrate the potential for game-based learning in the moral domain. An important avenue for future research is to examine others ways of increasing the effectiveness of the game.
... In the present study, the debriefing phase followed the Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation (PEARLS) framework [36], as recommended by the INACSL [37]. Research has identified that the means by which educators facilitate debriefing phases vary greatly [38] and that novice instructors who use a debriefing script are more effective at increasing learners' knowledge acquisition than educators who did not use a script [39]. Moreover, a comparison of debriefing methods identified that nursing students who received facilitated debriefing achieved higher scores on the subsequent simulation when compared with students who only received feedback or self-debriefing [40]. ...
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Background Simulation exercises are increasingly being used as a teaching method in the field of undergraduate nursing education. Thus, the present study sought to identify, describe and discuss enablers of the successful implementation of simulation exercises in undergraduate nursing education. Methods This study had a qualitative descriptive design and involved individual interviews conducted between November and December 2018 with six nurse teachers from three different university campuses in Norway. The transcribed interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative thematic analysis. Results The majority of the interviewees wanted to offer more simulation exercises as part of their respective undergraduate nursing education programmes. Moreover, creating a safe environment, facilitating student-centred learning and promoting reflection were all identified by the interviewees as enablers of the successful implementation of simulation exercises. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that nurse teachers consider simulation to be a valuable teaching method for improving students’ learning outcomes. In addition, the findings could guide the future implementation of simulation exercises in undergraduate nursing education. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT 04063319 . Protocol ID: 52110 Nursing Students’ Recognition of and Response to Deteriorating Patients.
... Post-event debriefing, which offers an opportunity not only to discuss organizational performance in the response, but also an opportunity for staff to discuss their experiences and 'make sense' of emotions after the event, was identified as another common support mechanism and was reported to be useful by participants in this study. For a generation or more, health professionals have had extensive exposure to an educational intervention consisting of simulated clinical practice, followed by a debriefing conversation that has an explicit goal of analysing the event to improve future practice (Eppich, Mullan, Brett-Fleegler, & Cheng, 2016;Fanning & Gaba, 2007;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2012). This practice has further developed into the common practice of post-event debriefing after clinical events (Eppich et al., 2016). ...
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Background Responding to a mass casualty event can cause significant distress, even for highly trained medical and emergency services personnel. Objective The purpose of the study was to understand more about first responders’ perspectives about their participation in major incident responses, specifically how and which individual and system factors contributed to their preparedness or may have enabled or hindered their response. The aim of the work was to improve preparedness and response for future incidents. Methods This study reports a detailed analysis of qualitative interview data from frontline staff who responded to a large mass casualty terrorist incident in the UK in 2017. Data highlighted the psychological distress caused by responding to terrorist events and thus became the focus of further, detailed analysis. Results Participants (n = 21) articulated in their own words the psychological distress experienced by many of the first responders to the event. Participants reported that they were not prepared to deal with psychological impact associated with this mass casualty terrorist incident and their role in the response, and that follow-up support was inconsistent. Multiple factors were identified as potentially increasing psychological distress. Social support provided by peers and organizational debriefs were identified as two most common support mechanisms. Organizational support was identified as inconsistent. Conclusions This research contributes to the literature the voices of first responders to UK terrorist incidents, building on existing findings while further contributing unique contextual perspectives. This research reinforces the importance of psychosocial support for those who respond to these tragic incidents, and offers a number of recommendations for organizational preparedness for future events. Abbreviations A&E: Accident and Emergency; EPRR: Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response; ERD: Emergency Response Department; HEPE: Health Emergency Preparedness Exercise; PHE: Public Health England; PHE REGG: Public Health England Research Ethics and Governance Group; MCI: Mass Casualty Incident; NHS: National Health Service
... TEAM facilitation is informed by existing approaches to facilitation, including external facilitation [52,53,67], practice facilitation [62,64,94,95], and coaching [63,64], in which an outside expert helps providers improve EBP uptake. TEAM also incorporates strategies from team development interventions (i.e., team building [96,97], team training [98,99], debriefing [100,101]) to improve care team functioning and effectiveness. TEAM aims to improve implementation outcomes by targeting provider clinical competencies, team functioning, and team integration/quality. ...
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Background Implementation facilitation is an effective strategy to support the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs), but our understanding of multilevel strategies and the mechanisms of change within the “black box” of implementation facilitation is limited. This implementation trial seeks to disentangle and evaluate the effects of facilitation strategies that separately target the care team and leadership levels on implementation of a collaborative care model in pediatric primary care. Strategies targeting the provider care team (TEAM) should engage team-level mechanisms, and strategies targeting leaders (LEAD) should engage organizational mechanisms. Methods We will conduct a hybrid type 3 effectiveness–implementation trial in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the main and interactive effects of TEAM and LEAD and test for mediation and moderation of effects. Twenty-four pediatric primary care practices will receive standard REP training to implement Doctor–Office Collaborative Care (DOCC) and then be randomized to (1) Standard REP only, (2) TEAM, (3) LEAD, or (4) TEAM + LEAD. Implementation outcomes are DOCC service delivery and change in practice-level care management competencies. Clinical outcomes are child symptom severity and quality of life. Discussion This statewide trial is one of the first to test the unique and synergistic effects of implementation strategies targeting care teams and practice leadership. It will advance our knowledge of effective care team and practice-level implementation strategies and mechanisms of change. Findings will support efforts to improve common child behavioral health conditions by optimizing scale-up and sustainment of CCMs in a pediatric patient-centered medical home. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04946253 . Registered June 30, 2021.
... The briefing refers to a scheduled team meeting prior to the match in which players establish and confirm strategies, role expectations, and vital performance issues, while debriefing refers to the systematic process of sharing observations and interpretations of the match and team processes. In national teams, briefing and debriefing seem to be the key components in the team learning cycle, and a meta-analysis revealed that organizations (outside sport) can improve team performance by approximately 20% to 25% by using properly conducted debriefings (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). ...
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The aims of the study were to explore how national representative handball coaches reflect on the cognitive properties of the team and how these attributes are developed through team practice. A theoretical (shared mental models) thematic analysis was conducted, and five coaches with extensive experience from the national team and elite clubs participated. The data were analyzed with regard to three overarching topics: importance, characteristics, and development of shared mental models. The interviews revealed that measures intended to influence a shared mental model permeate team practice and underpin the assumption of opponent-specific shared mental models. Alignment between briefings and debriefings as well as field practice were emphasized and used to enhance a shared mental model and understood as measures that facilitate pattern recognition and primed decisions. Single-loop as well as double-loop learning were identified as coaching initiatives to promote the development of shared mental models. Systematic practice with the goal of promoting coordination through repetition of the coordinative patterns in critical game situations was emphasized. Implicit communication is a characteristic of teams sharing a mental model, and distinct proactive bodily movements were emphasized as a crucial requirement for coordination. A model was elaborated to show how the categories can be understood in the cyclic relation between matches and the development of shared mental models.
... During this videogame-based training, a screen recording was made of their game to be later viewed and scored as the participant's midtraining performance score. When the training game was complete, participants responded to a survey with the measures listed below and a series of videogame debriefing questions intended to reinforce the learning [74]. This debriefing included reflective questions about the interpretations and emotional reactions participants had to the training [75], based on a process presented by previous researchers [76]. ...
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Virtualized training provides high fidelity environments to practice skills and gain knowledge, potentially mitigating harmful consequences from real life mistakes. Current research has focused on videogames, believed to have characteristics that improve learning. There is conflicting evidence on the benefits of using videogame-based training to improve learning. This study explored the impact of two videogame characteristics (i.e., rules/goals clarity and human interaction), on mid-training scores and post-training scores (i.e., familiar task and novel task). Results from a sample of 513 undergraduates showed that both videogame characteristics significantly impacted mid-training performance but not post-training performance; clear rules/goals and completing the training alone improved mid-training performance. There was also a significant moderation between the two videogame characteristics for post-training scores on the novel task, but not the familiar task, or mid-training performance. Findings suggest videogame characteristics have an immediate but not sustained impact on learning; implications are discussed.
... As the new normal of remote and hybrid work pushes us to adapt our roles within teamsand to experiment and refine team practices-we need to also be mindful of capturing lessons learned across different levels of the organization. One powerful, effective, and easy-to-use tool for capturing lessons learned at the team level is the debrief (Keiser & Arthur, 2021;Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). This technique can be used after any event by simply asking these three simple questions: (1) What worked? ...
Article
A significant practical and ethical challenge that societies, governments, and organizations face in response to COVID‐19 is how to support individual learning and development during times of operational challenge. We address two key challenges the pandemic poses to learning. First, safety measures to mitigate the virus' spread closed physical spaces where most learning traditionally occurs, and significant portions of the workforce have moved to remote work. Taken together, this requires learning to be virtual. Second is how the shift to virtual or hybrid working structures impacts the inherently social nature of learning at work and particularly of informal learning. Thus, as society grapples with ways of supporting student learning, we must not neglect organizations' role in supporting virtual, informal employee learning during the COVID‐19 pandemic and beyond as remote work becomes the new normal. Toward this end, we present five tips to promote informal learning in a virtual world to preserve the socially supported, continuous learning required for an agile workforce post‐pandemic. Tips provide actionable advice on how to create spontaneous connection, support virtual mentoring, be inclusive in offering developmental activities, capture lessons learned, and create a culture of lifelong learning. Future research directions for virtual, informal learning are provided.
... Betegnelsen omfatter en rekke ulike metoder. Utgangspunktet kommer fra militaeret, og blir ofte kalt After Action Review (AAR) (Tannenbaum & Cerasoli, 2013). Teknisk debrief blir også ofte brukt. ...
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Bakgrunn: Ambulansepersonell og intensivsykepleiere står ofte i situasjoner med akutt syke og kritisk dårlige pasienter. Ofte opplever de hendelser som innebærer kontakt med andre menneskers lidelse, smerte og død. Det kan være mennesker med alvorlige skader eller tilstander som trenger akutt medisinsk eller psykisk hjelp. Hvordan blir de fulgt opp? Hensikt: Målet med studien er å få en bedre forståelse av hvilke hendelser helsepersonell synes er mest belastende og hvordan de ser på kollegastøtte og emosjonell førstehjelp. Hvilke tilbud finnes, og hvor tilgjengelig er dette for den enkelte? Blir helsepersonell tilbudt kollegastøtte og emosjonell førstehjelp etter sterke opplevelser og/eller uønskede hendelser? I tilfelle – hvordan blir dette tilbudt, gjennomført og opplevd? I tilfelle ikke –hvordan blir ansatte ivaretatt etter slike hendelser og opplevelser? Metode: Kvalitativ metode ble brukt for å besvare problemstillingen i oppgaven. Det ble gjort en casestudie og gjennomført dybdeintervjuer i to avgrensede avdelinger ved Oslo universitetssykehus HF (OUS), ambulanseavdelingen og medisinsk intensiv. Braun og Clarkes tematiske analyse ble brukt i analysearbeidet. Resultat: Hendelser med barn og unge, identifisering med pasient eller pårørende og pårørendehåndtering viste seg å være mest belastende. Det kom samtidig frem at belastende hendelser også kan gi psykologisk vekst og resiliens. Det viser seg at informantene har høy terskel for å be om hjelp etter belastende hendelser. De stiller høye krav til seg selv, og det er forventninger om at de skal måtte tåle disse belastningene. Uformell kollegastøtte var den viktigste støtten for informantene. Tydeligst forskjell mellom avdelingene gjaldt støtte på organisatorisk nivå. Ambulansepersonellet blir ofte kontaktet etter belastende hendelser og har en organisert kollegastøtteordning som de er fornøyd med. Intensivsykepleierne har ikke systematisk oppfølging og mener sterkt at det er behov for det. Konklusjon: Kollegastøtteordning kan se ut til å ha betydning for opplevd ivaretakelse og trygghet. Et viktig funn er at det ikke ser ut til å holde med en organisert kollegastøtteordning. Siden terskelen for selv å ta kontakt ser ut til å være for høy, bør ordningen også være oppsøkende.
... The concept of blame following a death in the workplace is complex. Formal debriefing processes, audits, and departmental "morbidity and mortality" meetings are essential for learning and quality improvement, and many providers view them as educational and therapeutic [32]. However, discussions about poor outcomes can result in an increased emotional response, from both the providers who cared for the patient who died, as well as colleagues and supervisors, and lead to real or perceived blame [33]. ...
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Background Maternal mortality has a significant global impact, especially in low-resource settings. Little prior research has been conducted on the potential effects of poor maternal outcomes on the personal and professional well-being of healthcare providers. This study explores the in-depth experiences and perspectives of obstetric providers in Ghana who work in a setting with frequent maternal mortalities. Methods This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Participants were obstetric healthcare providers, defined as midwives, house officers currently rotating on the obstetrics/gynecology service, and obstetrician/gynecologists at any training or practice level (residents, fellows, and specialists). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and uploaded into NVivo for qualitative analysis. Using the Attride-Stirling qualitative model, an incremental and iterative process was used to code interviews with keyword phrases and develop a framework of organizing and global themes. Results Interviews were conducted with 27 participants—15 midwives and 12 physicians (three obstetrician/gynecologist residents, six obstetrician/gynecologist specialists, and three house officers), with sample size determined by data saturation. Obstetric providers’ experiences in a setting with frequent maternal mortalities were dependent on their level of preparedness to manage maternal mortalities and the workplace environment. Providers’ level of preparedness was dependent on both the training they had received on the medical management of obstetric emergencies, as well as a lack of training on the mental health aspects of coping with maternal mortality. The impact of the workplace environment was dependent on systems failures and limited resources, blame from colleagues and supervisors, and a lack of support in the workplace. In turn, obstetric providers’ experiences managing frequent maternal mortalities impacted their clinical care performance and mental health. Conclusions Maternal deaths have profound personal and professional impacts on the healthcare providers who manage them. A large need exists for additional institutional training and support for obstetric providers who manage maternal mortality, especially in low-resource settings like Ghana.
Article
Snow avalanches pose a serious threat to people recreating in the mountainous backcountry during the wintertime. To help recreationists manage their risk from avalanches, local avalanche warning services publish daily bulletins to inform the public about the existing hazard conditions. While the correct application of this information is crucial for avoiding potentially deadly accidents, recreationists’ ability to develop their skills through practical experience alone is limited due to the wicked nature of the backcountry learning environment where feedback is not always reliable. The present study explores the idea of improving recreationists’ ability to apply the hazard information to terrain by adding interactive exercises with feedback directly into the daily avalanche bulletins. To examine this idea, we conducted an online survey that included a route ranking exercise. Our analysis dataset included responses from 2278 backcountry recreationists with a variety of backgrounds and avalanche safety training levels. Using a series of generalized linear mixed effects models and conditional inference tree analyses, our results highlight that including interactive self-assessment exercises in avalanche bulletins has potential for enhancing their effectiveness and education value, especially for individuals who might not have the skills to properly understand the hazard information well enough to make informed decisions about personal risk but are willing to learn. Management implications Avalanche warning services should consider integrating application exercises with feedback into their bulletins to give users opportunities to assess their understanding and practice their information processing skills. Integrating such exercises directly into the bulletin takes advantage of recreationists' frequent interaction with the product and provides them with just-in-time education when they use the bulletin for personal trip planning. Enhancing bulletins this way will turn them from pure condition reports into a critical component of the overall avalanche awareness education system. Recreationists’ performance in these exercises can provide warning services with valuable insights into skill levels of their users.
Article
Ein Debriefing im Anschluss an einen Notfall trägt dazu bei, dass Fehler sich nicht wiederholen, und verringert die Belastungsfolgen bei den Teammitgliedern. Das folgende Fallbeispiel zeigt, wie sich ein solches Debriefing im Klinikalltag durchführen lässt.
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Team diversity and resilience play an important role in modern organizations. Although research on resilience in the organizational context has increased in recent years, studies addressing team resilience and its connection to team diversity remain scarce. In this chapter, the following three aspects will be addressed: 1) the definition and conceptualization of resilience and diversity; 2) the relationship between team diversity and resilience; and 3) the way to develop resilience in diverse teams. From a process-oriented perspective, an integrated model along with an overview of resilience-enhancing factors for diverse teams will be presented. This chapter thus provides a conceptual foundation for future research and gives an overview of the useful insights into successful resilience-enhancing practices in organizations.
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Teamarbeit ist eine weit verbreitete Form der Zusammenarbeit in Organisationen, deren Beliebtheit stetig wächst. Dabei werden Begriffe wie (Arbeits)Gruppen und Teams oft synonym verwendet. Doch gerade ein Team ist mehr als die (mitunter nur räumliche) Verbindung von Einzelpersonen und mehr als die Vernetzung ihrer individuellen Fähigkeiten und Fertigkeiten. Teams stellen eine besondere Form der Gruppe dar, die sich insbesondere durch spezifische Aufgaben-, Ziel- und Leistungsorientierung auszeichnen. Auch Leitungskräfte versprechen sich durch Teamarbeit vielfältige Vorteile, so z. B. im Bereich der kompetenzorientierten Arbeitsteilung und Flexibilität, der besseren Steuerung und gegenseitigen Unterstützung sowie der Stärkung von Kooperation, Kommunikation, Kreativität. Damit sollen auch Erfolge im Umgang mit Komplexität, steigender Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit sowie der Förderung von Innovationen erzielt werden. Empirische Forschungsergebnisse zeigen Vorteile von Teamarbeit auf, weisen jedoch zugleich auf einige Problemfelder hin. Denn die Annahme, dass Teams automatisch mehr als die Summe ihrer Einzelteile sind, ist nicht eindeutig belegt. In Teams entstehen Reibungsverluste, u. a. durch notwendige und nicht immer gut funktionierende Abstimmungsprozesse, unterschiedliche bzw. unklaren Ziele, Rollen- und Aufgabenverständnisse oder den Rückzug von Teammitgliedern sowie unzureichender Teamführung. Teams können auch sehr erfolgreich sein, was jedoch nicht selbstverständlich ist und nachhaltig gepflegt werden muss. Neben gemeinsam geteilten Zielen, wirksamer Kommunikation, psychologischer Sicherheit und Teamzusammenhalt, sind vor allem eine gute Teamführung, teamförderliche Rahmenbedingungen sowie bestimmte Eigenschaften der Teammitglieder wichtig für den nachhaltigen Teamerfolg. Das Feld der Teamentwicklung bietet hierzu Gestaltungsansätze im Bereich der Umwelt von Teams, der Arbeitsaufgabe bzw. der Zielsteuerung und insbesondere Aspekte, die das Team selbst wie die Führungskraft betreffen. Wie im individuellen Führungskontext gilt auch hier: humaner Erfolg ist die Basis von Teamerfolg. Für die Führungskraft ist entscheidend, eine angemessene Balance zu finden zwischen integrierendem Coach, Moderator*in und Autonomieunterstützer*in auf der einen Seite und zielorientiertem Teamleader auf der anderen Seite, um die vereinbarten Ziele innerhalb der Organisation zu erreichen und zugleich einen guten, resilienten Teamspirit zu entwickeln bzw. zu erhalten.
Article
Objectives: The capability of a hospital's rapid response system (RRS) depends on various factors to reduce in-hospital cardiac arrests and mortality. Through system probing, this qualitative study targeted a more comprehensive understanding of how healthcare professionals manage the complexities of RRS in daily practice as well as identifying its challenges. Methods: We observed RRS through in situ simulations in 2 wards and conducted the debriefings as focus group interviews. By arranging a separate focus group interview, we included the perspectives of intensive care unit personnel. Results: Healthcare professionals appreciated the standardized use of the National Early Warning Score, when combined with clinical knowledge and experience, structured communication, and interprofessional collaboration. However, we identified salient challenges in RRS, for example, unwanted variation in recognition competence, and inconsistent routines in education and documentation. Furthermore, we found that a lack of interprofessional trust, different understandings of RRS protocol, and signs of low psychological safety in the wards disrupted collaboration. To help remedy identified challenges, healthcare professionals requested shared arenas for learning, such as in situ simulation training. Conclusions: Through system probing, we described the inner workings of RRS and revealed the challenges that require more attention. Healthcare professionals depend on structured RRS education, training, and resources to operate such a system. In this study, they request interventions like in situ simulation training as an interprofessional educational arena to improve patient care. This is a relevant field for further research. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies Checklist was followed to ensure rigor in the study.
Article
Objective We developed a conceptual framework of Team Self-Maintenance (TSM) within long-duration space exploration (LDSE), which we define as the process of monitoring, adjusting, and maintaining the psychological well-being of a team in the absence of external support. Background Specific to LDSE and isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments, periods of routine can have a debilitating effect on the crew’s well-being and performance, and TSM is a critical process for avoiding these detrimental effects. Method Based on themes drawn from nine subject matter expert interviews combined with an extensive literature review on related concepts, we developed an integrative conceptual framework of the key inputs, processes, and outputs involved in TSM within LDSE contexts. Results Our TSM framework suggests team well-being as a key outcome that must be maintained during LDSE and information sharing, self-regulation, resource recovery, and emotional support as the key processes that enable team well-being. We also identify several contextual inputs that can serve as intervention points for enabling effective TSM. Conclusion Our framework suggests that future research and practice aimed at effective LDSE should emphasize team well-being, rather than just performance, and that there are many open questions in terms of how teams will manage their own socio-emotional needs (e.g., conflict, recovery activities, and boredom) without external systems and support. Application This conceptual framework describes the primary inputs, processes, and outcomes involved in the team self-maintenance process. This framework reflects context-specific theorizing most likely to be applicable only to LDSE contexts.
Chapter
Adaptability, the ability to efficiently adapt to new contexts, is necessary for current and future operating forces to successfully achieve their missions in complex arenas where problems are shifting continuously. The Assessment Toolkit for Leader Adaptability Skills (ATLAS) system was the first training system of its kind to aid operating forces as they build adaptive expertise by providing a validated assessment of adaptability skills targeted at Marine infantry squad leaders. The goals for development of the ATLAS system included: (1) operationalizing adaptability where the definition included the adaptive process within a cognitive framework; (2) assessing adaptability in a simulated tactical context; (3) providing diagnostic assessment outcomes of adaptability proficiency that support training plans and remediation activities where developmental needs are identified; (4) delivering a validated, sustainable measurement tool that does not require human raters; and (5) supporting an adaptive training approach for improving adaptability skills. To date the ATLAS effort has achieved these goals through iterative, resource-conscious methods of design and development; close collaboration with our subject matter expert partners; and field testing with end-user community populations. The validated measures of adaptability provide users with real-time performance feedback and assessment of adaptive proficiency. Future capabilities would extend the benefits of automated adaptability measures to provide comparative analysis, robust formative and summative feedback, and support improved adaptability proficiency through training and remediation recommendations during the Warfighter career continuum.
Article
Despite the recent surge of research on leader humility, it is still unclear how and when teams benefit from it. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation model that we test using multisource, time‐lagged data collected from 71 teams in a university‐affiliated hospital. We find that humble leaders indirectly enhance team innovation via greater team reflexivity. Additionally, we consider the average level of proactive personality of team members as a boundary condition of the positive effect of leader humility. Our results show that leader humility prompts team reflexivity only when team mean level of proactive personality is high, which in turn increases team innovation. Bridging research on leader humility with the team domain, our study offers important implications for both theory and practice.
Article
Contexte : Le débriefing dans le secteur de la santé est souvent considéré comme un processus de réflexion centré sur l’apprenant nécessaire pour la construction des connaissances, où le formateur joue un rôle de facilitateur. Cependant, diverses études soulignent l’importance que le débriefing soit explicite pour les apprenants novices. Cet article examine l’efficacité de différents types de débriefing, simulation, pour des apprenants expérimentés qui travaillent dans des équipes d’urgence. Objectif : Cette étude vise à vérifier si le débriefing explicite est aussi efficace pour les professionnels expérimentés qu’il l’a été pour les apprenants novices. Méthodes : Cette étude prospective randomisée monocentrique a été réalisée dans le cadre d’un programme de simulation basé sur des interventions d’urgence lors d’un arrêt cardiaque. Les connaissances déclarées de chaque participant, leur auto-efficacité et l’efficacité de l’équipe ont été mesurées avant et après la formation par simulation. Résultats : Les résultats montrent un effet bénéfique sur les connaissances et l’auto-efficacité pour les deux types de débriefing. Les soins apportés aux patients ont aussi été optimisés pour les deux types de débriefing. Conclusion : Les deux types de débriefing post-simulation sont efficaces pour les équipes d’urgence expérimentées.
Article
OBJECTIVES Clinical event debriefing (CED) can improve patient care and outcomes, but little is known about CED across inpatient settings, and participant experiences have not been well described. In this qualitative study, we sought to characterize and compare staff experiences with CED in 2 hospital units, with a goal of generating recommendations for a hospital-wide debriefing program. METHODS We conducted 32 semistructured interviews with clinical staff who attended a CED in the previous week. We explored experiences with CED, with a focus on barriers and facilitators. We used content analysis with constant comparative coding to understand priorities identified by participants. We used inductive reasoning to develop a set of CED practice recommendations to match participant priorities. RESULTS Three primary themes emerged related to CED barriers and facilitators. (1) Factors affecting attendance: most respondents voiced a need for frontline staff inclusion in CED, but they also cited competing clinical duties and scheduling conflicts as barriers. (2) Factors affecting participant engagement: respondents described factors that influence participant engagement in reflective discussion. They described that the CED leader must cultivate a psychologically safe environment in which participants feel empowered to speak up, free from judgment. (3) Factors affecting learning and systems improvement: respondents emphasized that the CED group should generate a plan for improvement with accountable stakeholders. Collectively, these priorities propose several recommendations for CED practice, including frontline staff inclusion. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we propose recommendations for CED that are derived from first-hand participant experiences. Future study will explore implementation of CED practice recommendations.
Article
Mass casualty events occur on a regular although unpredictable basis within the contexts of both Mèdecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) activities. The frequency of both natural disasters and other mass casualty incidents is increasing with urbanisation and industrialisation, compounded by climate change and conflict. Both organisations have recognised that the historical training focus on full-scale mass casualty simulations has not always been followed through to the resolution of action points and dissemination of learning. Staff training for mass casualty management has been variable. This led MSF and ICRC to develop a multimodal approach to assist development of mass casualty plans and preparedness. Capitalising on our presence in these contexts we are incorporating our experience of quality improvement and change management to complement simulation to ‘stress and test’ systems. We examine the challenges and share our efforts to improve training of staff in field projects across both MSF and ICRC and discussing future innovations.
Article
Background The emergency department witnesses the close functioning of an interdisciplinary team in an unpredictable environment. High stress situations can impact well-being and clinical practice both individually and as a team. Debriefing provides an opportunity for learning, validation, and conversation amongst individuals who may not typically discuss clinical experiences together. The current study examined how a debriefing program could be designed and implemented in the emergency department so as to help teams and individuals learn from unique, stressful incidents. Methods Based on the theory of Workplace Based Learning and a design-based research approach, the evolved nature of a debriefing program implemented in the real-life context of the emergency department was examined. Focus groups were used to collect data. We report the design of the debriefing intervention as well as the program outcomes in terms of provider’s self-perceived roles in the program and program impact on provider’s self-reported clinical practice, as well as the redesign of the program based upon said feedback. Results The themes of barriers to debriefing, provision of perspectives, psychological trauma, and nurturing of staff emerged from focus group sessions. Respondents identified barriers and concerns regarding debriefing, and based upon this information, changes were made to the program, including offering of refresher sessions for debriefing, inclusion of additional staff members in the training, and re-messaging the purpose of the program. Conclusions Data from the study reinforced the need to increase the frequency and availability of debriefing didactics along with clarifying staff roles in the program. Future work will examine continued impact on provider practice and influence on departmental culture.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected gynaecology trainees in the United Kingdom by reducing operating theatre experience. Simulators are widely used for operative laparoscopy but not for practising laparoscopic-entry techniques. We devised a low-cost simulator to help trainees achieve the skill. Our aim was to pilot this low-cost simulator to perform Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) supervised learning events. A single-centre pilot study involving six gynaecology trainees in a structured training session. Interactive PowerPoint teaching was followed by trainees’ demonstration of laparoscopic entry for a supervised learning event and personalized feedback. Participants completed pre- and post-course questionnaires. All the trainees found the training useful to the score of 10 (scale of 1–10) and recommended this to be included in Deanery teaching. Personalized feedback was described as the most useful. The simulator was rated as good as a real-life patient relative to the skill being taught. Gynaecology trainees are affected by lack of hands-on experience in the operating theatre for performing laparoscopic entry. A low-cost abdominal laparoscopy entry simulator can help deliver the RCOG curriculum, enabling trainees to achieve required competencies.
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In this article we examine the meaning of team process. We first define team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork. We then advance a taxonomy of team process dimensions synthesized from previous research and theorizing, a taxonomy that reflects our time-based conceptual framework. We conclude with implications for future research and application.
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The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory’s limitations.
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Introduction: Nursing personnel injury related to patient transfer is epidemic, and reduction of injury rates is a national priority. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) was chosen to address this issue. Method: HTA methods were used to create an optimum task set and protocol which consisted of Internet-based education, simulation practice, and debriefing. Participants (N = 71) were randomly assigned to teams to perform simulated transfers. Pre- to postintervention transfer success was evaluated by ergonomic experts. Results: Each team improved significantly from pre- to postintervention (N = 19), with every protocol step demonstrating improvement (N = 10). Interrater reliability of the evaluation instrument was calculated (43-.83) Conclusion: Simulation was used successfully to improve transfer success. This approach shows promise in reduction of transfer-related nursing injury. © 2012 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning.
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This research investigated the effects of guided team self-correction using an empirically derived expert model of teamwork as the organizing framework. First, the authors describe the process used to define this model. Second, they report findings from two studies in which the expert model was used to structure the process of guided team self-correction. Participants were U.S. Navy command and control teams (25 in Study 1, 13 in Study 2). Results indicated that teams debriefed using the expert model-driven guided team self-correction approach developed more accurate mental models of teamwork (Study 1) and demonstrated greater teamwork processes and more effective outcomes (Study 2) than did teams debriefed using a less participative and chronologically organized approach that is more typical for these teams.
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Examines research on the relation between attitude and behavior in light of the correspondence between attitudinal and behavioral entities. Such entities are defined by their target, action, context, and time elements. A review of available empirical research supports the contention that strong attitude–behavior relations are obtained only under high correspondence between at least the target and action elements of the attitudinal and behavioral entities. This conclusion is compared with the rather pessimistic assessment of the utility of the attitude concept found in much contemporary social psychological literature. (4½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although shared team mental models are believed to be important to team functioning, substantial interstudy differences in the manner in which mental models are operationalized has impeded progress in this area. We use meta-analysis to cumulate 23 independent studies that have empirically examined shared mental models (SMMs) in relation to team process and performance and test three aspects of measurement as potential moderators: elicitation method, structure representation, and representation of emergence. Results indicate the way in which SMMs are measured and represented at the team level of analysis reveal meaningful distinctions in observed relationships. Specifically, shared mental model operationalization impacts the observed relationship between SMMs and team process; importantly, only methods that model the structure or organization of knowledge are predictive of process. Conversely, while the magnitude of the relationship differed across measurement method, SMMs were positively related to team performance regardless of the manner of operationalization. In summary, knowledge structure is predictive of team process, and both knowledge content and structure are predictive of team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Since the beginning of the century, feedback interventions (FIs) produced negative--but largely ignored--effects on performance. A meta-analysis (607 effect sizes; 23,663 observations) suggests that FIs improved performance on average ( d  = .41) but that over one-third of the FIs decreased performance. This finding cannot be explained by sampling error, feedback sign, or existing theories. The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes. The results suggest that FI effectiveness decreases as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and away from the task. These findings are further moderated by task characteristics that are still poorly understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research conclusions in the social sciences are increasingly based on meta-analysis, making questions of the accuracy of meta-analysis critical to the integrity of the base of cumulative knowledge. Both fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) meta-analysis models have been used widely in published meta-analyses. This article shows that FE models typically manifest a substantial Type I bias in significance tests for mean effect sizes and for moderator variables (interactions), while RE models do not. Likewise, FE models, but not RE models, yield confidence intervals for mean effect sizes that are narrower than their nominal width, thereby overstating the degree of precision in meta-analysis findings. This article demonstrates analytically that these biases in FE procedures are large enough to create serious distortions in conclusions about cumulative knowledge in the research literature. We therefore recommend that RE methods routinely be employed in meta-analysis in preference to FE methods.
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We present an in-depth analysis of post-flight reviews in a fighter aircraft squadron of the Israel Defense Force Air Force. Our findings demonstrate how organizations can learn non-metaphorically and highlight the dynamics of learning in a central organizational learning mechanism in this type of after-action review. They also show that learning in the post-flight reviews is a multi-layered process of retrospective sense-making, detection and correction of error, social comparison, social control, socialization, and bonding, where lessons-learned pertain to different domains and different levels — individual, unit, and Force-wide. The process is facilitated by five values specified by the multi-facet model (Lipshitz, Popper and Friedman 2002), and the assumption that learning through critical examination of one's own experience is the key to improvement.
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Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the effectiveness of Web-based instruction (WBI) relative to classroom instruction (CI) and to examine moderators of the comparative effectiveness of the 2 delivery media. The overall results indicated WBI was 6% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge, the 2 delivery media were equally effective for teaching procedural knowledge, and trainees were equally satisfied with WBI and CI. However, WBI and CI were equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge when the same instructional methods were used to deliver both WBI and CI, suggesting media effects are spurious and supporting Clark's (1983, 1994) theory. Finally, WBI was 19% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge when Web-based trainees were provided with control, in long courses, and when trainees practiced the training material and received feedback during training. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
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An unanswered question in employee development is how reflection can be used for improving performance in organizations. Drawing from research and theory on dual-process models, we develop and test a reflection strategy to stimulate deeper learning after feedback. Results of two studies (N = 640 and N = 488) showed that reflection combined with feedback enhanced performance improvement on a web-based work simulation better than feedback alone. Reflection without feedback did not lead to performance improvement. Further analyses indicated that the proposed reflection strategy was less effective for individuals low in learning goal orientation, low in need for cognition, and low in personal importance as they engaged less in reflection. Together, these findings provide a theoretical basis for the future study of reflection in organizations and suggest a practical and cost-effective strategy for facilitating employee development after feedback in organizations.
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Drawing from Marks, Mathieu, and Zaccaro (2001) , we proposed that narrowly focused teamwork processes load onto 3 higher-order teamwork process dimensions, which in turn load onto a general teamwork process factor. Results of model testing using meta-analyses of relationships among narrow teamwork processes provided support for the structure of this multidimensional theory of teamwork process. Meta-analytic results also indicated that teamwork processes have positive relationships with team performance and member satisfaction, and that the relationships are similar across the teamwork dimensions and levels of process specificity. Supplemental analyses revealed that the 3 intermediate-level teamwork processes are positively and strongly related to cohesion and potency. Results of moderator analyses suggested that relationships among teamwork processes and team performance are somewhat dependent on task interdependence and team size. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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To design and implement a demonstration project to teach interprofessional teams how to recognize and engage in difficult conversations with patients. Interdisciplinary teams consisting of pharmacy students and residents, student nurses, and medical residents responded to preliminary questions regarding difficult conversations, listened to a brief discussion on difficult conversations; formed ad hoc teams and interacted with a standardized patient (mother) and a human simulator (child), discussing the infant's health issues, intimate partner violence, and suicidal thinking; and underwent debriefing. Participants evaluated the learning methods positively and a majority demonstrated knowledge gains. The project team also learned lessons that will help better design future programs, including an emphasis on simulations over lecture and the importance of debriefing on student learning. Drawbacks included the major time commitment for design and implementation, sustainability, and the lack of resources to replicate the program for all students. Simulation is an effective technique to teach interprofessional teams how to engage in difficult conversations with patients.
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This study investigated the role of after-action reviews on perceptions of safety climate at the group and organizational levels. Moderated and mediated regression analyses of data from 67 firefighting crews suggest that after-action review frequency positively influenced both levels of safety climate. Safety-oriented group norms fully mediated the relationship between after-action review frequency and group-level safety climate. Fire-station busyness moderated the relationship between after-action review frequency and organizational-level safety climate, such that the relationship was non-existent for highly busy stations. These findings suggest that after-action reviews constitute a specific venue through which managers can promote safety climate in high-risk environments.
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In the current study, we compared the effect of personal and filmed after-event reviews (AERs) on performance, and the role that self-efficacy plays in moderating and mediating the effects of these 2 types of AER on performance. The setting was one in which 49 men and 63 women participated twice in a simulated business decision-making task. In between, participants received a personal AER, watched a filmed AER, or had a break. We found that individuals who participated in an AER, whether personal or filmed, improved their performance significantly more than those who did not participate in a review. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in performance improvement between the personal and the filmed AER, which suggests that the 2 are quite similar in their effect. We also found that the differences in performance improvement between the personal AER group and the control group were somewhat greater than those found in the filmed AER group. Self-efficacy mediated the effect of AER on performance improvement in both types of AER. In addition, the effect of AER on performance improvement was moderated by initial self-efficacy in the personal but not in the filmed AER: The personal AER was more effective, the higher the initial self-efficacy.
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Major theories of team effectiveness position emergent collective cognitive processes as central drivers of team performance. We meta-analytically cumulated 231 correlations culled from 65 independent studies of team cognition and its relations to teamwork processes, motivational states, and performance outcomes. We examined both broad relationships among cognition, behavior, motivation, and performance, as well as 3 underpinnings of team cognition as potential moderators of these relationships. Findings reveal there is indeed a cognitive foundation to teamwork; team cognition has strong positive relationships to team behavioral process, motivational states, and team performance. Meta-analytic regressions further indicate that team cognition explains significant incremental variance in team performance after the effects of behavioral and motivational dynamics have been controlled. The nature of emergence, form of cognition, and content of cognition moderate relationships among cognition, process, and performance, as do task interdependence and team type. Taken together, these findings not only cumulate extant research on team cognition but also provide a new interpretation of the impact of underlying dimensions of cognition as a way to frame and extend future research.
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The use of team training programs is promising with regards to their ability to impact knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about team skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simulation-based team training program called Obstetric Crisis Team Training Program (OBCTT) (based on the original training program of Crisis Team Training) framed within a multilevel team theoretical model. We hypothesized that participation in OBCTT would positively impact 10 variables: individual's knowledge (about team process and obstetric emergency care); confidence and competence in handling obstetric emergencies; and participant attitudes (toward the utility of a rapid response team, simulation technology as a teaching methodology, the utility of team skills in the workplace, comfort in assuming team roles; and individual and team performance). Improvement of objectively measured team performance in a simulated environment was also assessed. Twenty-two perinatal health care professionals (attending physicians, nurses, resident, and nurse midwives) volunteered to participate in this pretest-posttest study design. All participants were given an online module to study before attending a 4-hour training session. Training consisted of participation in four standardized, simulated crisis scenarios with a female birthing simulator mannequin. Team simulations were video recorded. Debriefings were conducted after each simulation by having team members review the video and discuss team behaviors and member skills. Self-report measures of perinatal and team knowledge as well as several attitude surveys were given at the beginning and again at the end of the training session. A postsimulation attitude survey was administered immediately after the first and last simulation, and a course reaction survey was administered at the end of the training program. Objective task completion scores were computed after each simulation to assess performance. There were significant (P<0.004) improvements in three of the outcome variables, after controlling for type I error with Bonferroni's correction; attitudes toward competence in handling obstetric emergencies (t=1.6), as well as individual (t=4.2), and team performance (t=4.1). The remaining 6 variables, attitude toward simulation technology, attitude toward the rapid response team; confidence in handling obstetric emergencies; utility of team skills in the workplace; comfort in assuming various team roles; and knowledge, were not statistically significant. Overall task completion from the first to the last simulation (XF, df=3, n=3, 8.2, P=0.042) substantially improved (P<0.05). The crisis team training model is applicable to obstetric emergencies. Trainees exhibit a positive change in attitude; perception of individual and team performance, and overall team performance in a simulated environment. The ability of individuals to accurately assess their performance improved as a result of training.
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Employee development can take a variety of forms including “developmental interactions” such as coaching, mentoring, apprenticeship, and action learning. The broad literature on approaches to development lacks agreement on what these constructs represent. Rather than impose new construct definitions on the field, the current research addressed the need for construct clarification using existing descriptions of common developmental interactions to create a snapshot of the developmental interaction literature. A qualitative, literature-based approach developed a nomological network of 13 common developmental interaction constructs. A total of 227 construct descriptions were extracted from 182 sources. These were systematically analyzed for the characteristics that help explain construct meanings. A model (i.e., nomological network) was developed to summarize the current understanding of developmental interaction constructs. Analysis of this model provides better understanding of the current state of the literature, identifies gaps in the literature, and informs and directs future research on developmental interaction constructs.
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According to the hypothesis of misperception of feedback, people's poor performance in renewable resource management tasks can be attributed to their general tendency to systematically misperceive the dynamics of bioeconomic systems. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping individuals develop more accurate mental models of renewable resource systems through training using computer simulation-based interactive learning environments (CSBILEs) that include debriefing. A laboratory experiment is reported in which participants managed a dynamic task by playing the roles of fishing fleet managers. One group of participants used a CSBILE with debriefing, and another group used the same CSBILE but without debriefing. A comprehensive model consisting of four evaluation criteria was developed and used. The evaluation criteria were task performance, structural knowledge, heuristics, and decision time. It was found that debriefing was effective on all four criteria: Debriefing improved task performance, helped users learn more about the decision domain and develop heuristics, and reduced decision time in dynamic decision making.
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Meta-analysis is the dominant approach to research synthesis in the organizational sciences. We discuss seven meta-analytic practices, misconceptions, claims, and assumptions that have reached the status of myths and urban legends (MULs). These seven MULs include issues related to data collection (e.g., consequences of choices made in the process of gathering primary-level studies to be included in a meta-analysis), data analysis (e.g., effects of meta-analytic choices and technical refinements on substantive conclusions and recommendations for practice), and the interpretation of results (e.g., meta-analytic inferences about causal relationships). We provide a critical analysis of each of these seven MULs, including a discussion of why each merits being classified as an MUL, their kernels of truth value, and what part of each MUL represents misunderstanding. As a consequence of discussing each of these seven MULs, we offer best-practice recommendations regarding how to conduct meta-analytic reviews.
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The U.S. Army has adopted the After Action Review (AAR) as its primary method of providing feedback after unit collective training exercises. The AAR is an interactive discussion in which unit members decide what happened, why it happened, and how to improve or sustain collective performance in future exercises. other services and organizations outside the military are also beginning to employ the AAR as a feedback tool. This report describes the twenty-five year history of AAR research and development and the major behavioral research areas contributing to AAR development and refinement. In addition, this report defines goals for future AAR research.
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The growing popularity of meta-analysis has focused increased attention on the statistical models analysts are using and the assumptions underlying these models. Although comparisons often have been limited to fixed-effects (FE) models, recently there has been a call to investigate the differences between FE and random-effects (RE) models, differences that may have substantial theoretical and applied implications (National Research Council, 1992). Three FE models (including L. V. Hedges & I. Olkin's, 1985, and R. Rosenthal's, 1991, tests) and 2 RE models were applied to simulated correlation data in tests for moderator effects. The FE models seriously underestimated and the RE models greatly overestimated sampling error variance when their basic assumptions were violated, which caused biased confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. The implications of these and other findings are discussed as are methodological issues concerning meta-analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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explicate four kinds of validity [statistical conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity and external validity] / describe and critically examine some quasi-experimental designs from the perspective of these four kinds of validity, especially internal validity / argue that the quality of causal inference depends on the structural attributes of a quasi-experimental design, the local particulars of each research project, and the quality of substantive theory available to aid in interpretation / place special emphasis on quasi-experimental designs that allow multiple empirical probes of the causal hypothesis under scrutiny on the assumption that this usually rules out more threats to internal validity (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Combining statistical information across studies (i.e., meta-analysis) is a standard research tool in applied psychology. The most common meta-analytic approach in applied psychology, the fixed effects approach, assumes that individual studies are homogeneous and are sampled from the same population. This model assumes that sampling error alone explains the majority of observed differences in study effect sizes and its use has lead some to challenge the notion of situational specificity in favor of validity generalization. We critique the fixed effects methodology and propose an advancement–the random effects model (RE) which provides estimates of how between-study differences influence the relationships under study. RE models assume that studies are heterogeneous since they are often conducted by different investigators under different settings. Parameter estimates of both models are compared and evidence in favor of the random effects approach is presented. We argue against use of the fixed effects model because it may lead to misleading conclusions about situational specificity.
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This paper presents an overview of a useful approach for theory testing in the social sciences that combines the principles of psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. In this approach to theory testing, the estimated true score correlations between the constructs of interest are established through the application of meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), and structural equations modeling is then applied to the matrix of estimated true score correlations. The potential advantages and limitations of this approach are presented. The approach enables researchers to test complex theories involving several constructs that cannot all be measured in a single study. Decision points are identified, the options available to a researcher are enumerated, and the potential problems as well as the prospects of each are discussed.
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Ratings of job performance are widely viewed as poor measures of job performance. Three models of the performance–performance rating relationship offer very different explanations and solutions for this seemingly weak relationship. One-factor models suggest that measurement error is the main difference between performance and performance ratings and they offer a simple solution—that is, the correction for attenuation. Multifactor models suggest that the effects of job performance on performance ratings are often masked by a range of systematic nonperformance factors that also influence these ratings. These models suggest isolating and dampening the effects of these nonperformance factors. Mediated models suggest that intentional distortions are a key reason that ratings often fail to reflect ratee performance. These models suggest that raters must be given both the tools and the incentive to perform well as measurement instruments and that systematic efforts to remove the negative consequences of giving honest performance ratings are needed if we hope to use performance ratings as serious measures of job performance.
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Ongoing learning may be one of the few sustainable competitive advantages for organizations. Historically, research efforts and organizational resources have been primarily directed toward understanding and enhancing learning in formal settings, as in classroom training. Yet most learning at work occurs through more informal means. This research sought to enhance our understanding of informal learning by studying effective and ineffective developmental interactions between two individuals. Capturing stories and using a participant-guided qualitative coding process, the research explored factors that had an impact on the effectiveness of developmental interactions and whether those factors worked differently depending on the topic of the interaction (career advice, work-life support, or job or task guidance). Results suggest that several personal and relationship factors influenced developmental interaction effectiveness, but communication factors had no impact. Furthermore, with just a few exceptions, these same factors were important across all three topics explored in this research.
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More than 40 years ago, Taylor and Wherry (1951) hypothesized that performance appraisal ratings obtained for administrative purposes, such as pay raises or promotions, would be more lenient than ratings obtained for research, feedback, or employee development purposes. However, research on appraisal purpose has yielded inconsistent results, with roughly half of such studies supporting this hypothesis and the other half refuting it. To account for those differences, a meta-analysis of performance appraisal purpose research was conducted with 22 studies and a total sample size of 57,775. Our results support Taylor and Wherry's hypothesis as performance evaluations obtained for administrative purposes were, on average, one-third of a standard deviation larger than those obtained for research or employee development purposes. In addition, moderator analyses indicated larger differences between ratings obtained for administrative and research purposes when performance evaluations were made in field settings, by practicing managers, and for real world subordinates. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
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Two studies (one field, one experimental) found that the more accurately individuals evaluated their performance, the better they performed on a subsequent task. The first study also found that the more individuals overestimated their previous performance, the lower was their performance on the next task. In contrast, the evaluation accuracy of the underestimators was unrelated to their subsequent performance. The second study found that when participants received feedback from an external authority, the effect of the inaccuracy of self-performance evaluation on subsequent performance was reduced. The results of the 2 studies are explained in motivational and cognitive terms.
Conference Paper
NASA Goddard space flight center to adapt and deploy a learning process modeled after the after action review process used by the military. A process was established, early lessons observed, and an approach to roll-out developed. This paper introduces a concept for formalizing learning from NASA projects that is modeled on the Army after action review (AAR) process. While the AAR was developed to learn primarily from training exercises, it has 25 years of experience-base, theoretical foundations and practical tools that make it a valuable methodology for NASA to learn from. NASA has not paid as much attention to learning lessons from successes being instead overly focused on learning only from mistakes. Without a process for learning from every activity regardless of ultimate outcome, the agency risks missing out on the bulk of the learning from project work and potentially not really knowing the reasons behind the spectacular successes in addition to the root causes behind the failures. To distinguish the process at NASA from AAR it was given the descriptive name of "pausing for learning" or PFL. The idea is to create a learning event at the end of selected critical events in the life of a project. End of project or even end of mission reflections are good but are too infrequent for an organization like NASA to learn in a timely manner. Also much intermediate learning is lost between concept and launch. PFLs are integrated into the project life cycle at key points as natural parts of the process. Being facilitated and assembled by outsiders, the key project team members are only required to do a small amount of additional effort. This means that PFLs have the potential to deliver a very high value for a small investment in time and money. In addition to addressing learning needs of NASA, they are an attractive activity that projects have been willing to adopt
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This paper presents a meta-analysis that investigates five moderators (task, tool, the type of group, the size of the group, and facilitation) and their influences on the overall effects of group support systems (GSS). Results show that process satisfaction is higher for idea-generation tasks than for decision-making tasks. The GSS tool (that is, the use of level 1 or level 2 GSS) influences decision quality. Level 1 tools support the exchange of information, whereas, level 2 tools are designed to aid in decision-making. Decision quality is higher when using level 2 tools, however, there is no difference in the number of ideas generated when using level 1 or level 2 tools. Decision quality is lower for virtual teams, but there is no difference in the number of ideas generated between virtual teams and face-to-face teams using GSS. Group size is an important moderator when measuring decision time and satisfaction with process. The former is shorter for larger groups, and the latter is higher for larger groups. Process facilitation leads to higher decision quality and higher satisfaction with the process. These results illustrate the importance of examining the moderators of GSS use and the viability of conducting a meta-analysis to investigate a large body of research with seemingly conflicting or equivocal results.
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Predictions from an information sampling model of group discussion were examined ( Stasser & Titus, 1985, 1987): (a) Groups are more likely to discuss information if it is held by all members than if it is held by 1 member, and (b) this focus on already shared information increases as group size increases. University students read descriptions of candidates for student body president. These descriptions were constructed so that some information (unshared) was read by 1 member before discussion, whereas other information (shared) was read by all members. Three-and 6-person groups discussed the candidates and decided which was best suited for the position. As predicted, discussions contained, on the average, 46% of the shared but only 18% of the unshared information; this difference was greater for 6-person than for 3-person groups. Moreover, structuring discussions increased the amount of information discussed, but this increase was predominately due to discussion of already shared information., (C) 1989 by the American Psychological Association
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The objective of the study was to determine whether a simulation-based educational program would improve residents' and attending physicians' performance in a simulated shoulder dystocia. Seventy-one obstetricians participated in an unanticipated simulated shoulder dystocia, an educational debriefing session, and a subsequent shoulder dystocia simulation. Each simulation was scored, based on standardized checklists for 4 technical maneuvers and 6 communication tasks, by 2 physician observers. Paired Student t tests were used for analysis. Forty-three attendings and 28 residents participated. Residents showed significant improvement in mean maneuver (3.3 +/- 0.9 vs 3.9 +/- 0.4, P = .001) and communication (3.5 +/- 1.2 vs 4.9 +/- 1.0, P < .0001) scores after simulation training. Attending physicians' communication (3.6 +/- 1.6 vs 4.9 +/- 1.1, P < .0001) scores were significantly improved after training. Our program improved physician performance in the management of simulated shoulder dystocia deliveries. Obstetric emergency simulation training can improve physicians' communication skills, at all levels of training, and should be incorporated into labor and delivery quality improvement measures.
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: Our institution recently opened a satellite hospital including a pediatric emergency department. The staffing model at this facility does not include residents or subspecialists, a substantial difference from our main hospital. Our previous work and published reports demonstrate that simulation can identify latent safety threats (LSTs) in both new and established settings. Using simulation, our objective was to define optimal staff roles, refine scope of practice, and identify LSTs before facility opening. : Laboratory simulations were used to define roles and scope of practice. After each simulation, teams were debriefed using video recordings. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index was completed by each participant to measure perceived workload. Simulations were scored for team behaviors by video reviewers using the Mayo High Performance Team Scale. Subsequent in situ simulations focused on identifying LSTs and monitoring for unintended consequences from changes made. : Twenty-four simulations were performed over 3 months before the hospital opening. Laboratory debriefing identified the need to modify provider responsibilities. National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index scores and debriefings demonstrated that the medication nurse had the greatest workload during resuscitations. Modifying medication delivery was deemed critical. Lower Mayo High Performance Team Scale scores, implying less teamwork, were noted during in situ simulations. In situ sessions identified 37 LSTs involving equipment, personnel, and resources. : Simulation can help determine provider workload, refine team responsibilities, and identify LSTs. This pilot project provides a template for evaluation of new teams and clinical settings before patient exposure.