Prevalence of symptoms and risk of sleep apnea in Dubai, UAE

Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Medicine, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
International Journal of General Medicine 03/2013; 6:109-14. DOI: 10.2147/IJGM.S40001
Source: PubMed


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) ranks 18th on the 2007 Forbes list of fattest countries with 68.3% of its citizens with an unhealthy weight and it is well known that weight gain and obesity are important determinants in the progression of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of symptoms and risk of OSAS in the primary health care setting in Dubai, and the relationship between obesity and sleep apnea.
In this prospective survey, a trained medical nurse administered the Berlin Questionnaire to a consecutive random sample of patients in the age group older than 14 years, who attended the primary health care center in Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE, from September 2011 to March 2012. Based on the questionnaire answers, individuals were classified into high risk and low risk groups for OSAS.
Based on the responses and measurement of the Berlin Questionnaire of 1214 subjects studied, 58% (n = 704) of the respondents were female, while 42% (n = 510) were male. Two-hundred-fifty-four respondents met the criteria for the high risk scoring. This gives a prevalence rate of 20.9% (out of which 22.9% of the male respondents were high risk for OSAS, while 19.5% of the females were high risk for OSAS), while the remainder of the participants were classified as low risk. The overall mean age of the high risk for OSAS female respondents was 39.95 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.73 years) and was 41.18 years (SD 14.95 years) for male respondents The highest prevalence was observed between age 51 to 60 in both genders. Seventy percent of the high risk group had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and nearly 75% of the low risk group had a BMI < 30 kg/m(2), and the mean BMI was 32.06 kg/m(2) (SD 5.67 kg/m(2)) for males and 33.59 kg/m(2) (SD 6.44 kg/m(2)) for females.
In the primary health care setting, the prevalence of symptoms of OSAS among adult UAE citizens is very high, and UAE patients are at risk for OSAS and may benefit from proper evaluation for OSAS.

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Available from: Bassam Mahboub, Sep 26, 2014
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    • "The prevalence of symptoms, risk of OSAS and associated factors are noticeable (Amra et al., 2011a; Khazaie et al., 2011; Akintunde, 2013; Leong et al., 2013; Mahboub et al., 2013; Mirrakhimov et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2014). In a clinical survey, almost 30% of subjects in samples from general population appeared to be at high risk for OSAS and 50% reported signi¯cant snoring (Khazaie et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present review attempts to put together the available evidence and potential research paradigms at the interface of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleep micro- and macrostructure, cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive neuroscience. Besides the significant health-related consequences of OSAS including hypertension, increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events, notable neurocognitive lapses and excessive daytime somnolence are considered as potential burdens. The intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and hypercapnia which occur in OSAS are known to affect cerebral circulation and result in brain hypoperfusion. Arousal instability is then resulted from altered cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) reflected in sleep EEG. In chronic state, some pathological loss of gray matter may be resulted from obstructive sleep apnea. This is proposed to be related to an upregulated proinflammatory state which may potentially result in apoptotic cell loss in the brain. On this basis, a pragmatic framework of the possible neural mechanisms which underpin obstructive sleep apnea-related neurcognitive decline has been discussed in this review. In addition, the impact of OSAS on cerebral autoregulation and sleep microstructure has been articulated.
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    • "In the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a 10% weight gain was associated with approximately 32% increase in AHI as assessed by polysomnography [38]. In their study of patients at primary health care centers in Dubai, Mahboub et al. found that approximately 70% of those at high risk for OSA had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 while about 75% of the low risk group had BMI < 30 kg/m2 [41]. Likewise, Blondet et al. found in a study of middle-aged Puerto Ricans that among men with BMI < 30 kg/m2, 98% had high risk for OSA compared to 50% among nonobese men. "
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42-22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43-5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity.
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