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Influence of Antigen Insertion Site and Vector Dose on Immunogenicity and Protective Capacity in Sendai Virus-Based Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Vaccines
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105-3678.Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 03/2013; 87(10). DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00227-13
Recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV) was used as a live, attenuated vaccine vector for intranasal inoculation and mucosal expression of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) surface glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3). Two vaccine candidates rSeV-HPIV3HN(P-M) and rSeV-HPIV3(F-HN) were constructed in which the HPIV3 HN open reading frame and an additional gene junction was inserted in the P-M and F-HN gene junctions of rSeV, respectively. The rSeV-HPIV3HN(P-M) virus was attenuated compared with rSeV-HPIV3(F-HN) in LLC-MK2 cells, yet both vaccine candidates grew to similar extents in NHBE cells and in the respiratory tracts of cotton rats. These results suggest that in vitro vector growth in NHBE cells more accurately predicts growth in cotton rats than does growth in LLC-MK2 cells. Both vaccine vectors elicited similarly high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection from HPIV3 challenge in cotton rats. Compared with vaccination with a high dose (2,000,000 PFU), intranasal inoculation with a low dose (200 PFU) resulted in a 10-fold decrease in vector growth in the nasal cavity and trachea and a 50-fold decrease in the lungs. However, low-dose vaccination resulted in only modest decreases in anti-HPIV3 antibodies in sera and was sufficient to confer complete protection from HPIV3 challenge. Varying the HPIV3 antigen insertion site and vector dose allowed fine tuning of the in vivo growth and immunogenicity of rSeV-based vaccines, but all four vaccination strategies tested resulted in complete protection from HPIV3 challenge. These results highlight the versatility of the rSeV platform for developing intranasally administered respiratory virus vaccines.