Antibacterial activity of essential oils against periodontal pathogens: a qualitative systematic review

Dpt of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco.
Odonto-stomatologie tropicale = Tropical dental journal 12/2012; 35(140):38-46.
Source: PubMed


Periodontal diseases are among the most common infectious diseases that lead to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomecetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum...) isolated from periodontal lesions, have been shown to be related to the onset and progression of periodontal disease. Given the incidence of periodontitis, increased resistance of oral bacteria to antibiotics and adverse effects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry, there is a need for alternative products that are safe and effective, for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Essential oils considered traditional medicines are viewed as good alternatives. In Morocco, a wide producer of essential oils, the high prevalence of aggressive periodontitis, related to virulent periodontal bacteria isolated from pockets in Moroccan adolescents and because of the reasons evoked above, the search of a new natural agent has become a necessity. In this qualitative systematic review, the virulence and increased antibiotic resistance of periopathogens, involved in periodontitis, will be exposed, justifying the use of alternative natural agents such as essential oils-based. Studies that have investigated the efficacy of such plant-derived medicines on periodontal pathogens will be described and discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Leila Lakhdar, Sep 28, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An antibacterial substance from Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) is known to have an inhibitory effect on putative periodontal pathogens, but its inhibitory effect on pathogens of oral candidiasis is unknown. In this study, intracellular and exocrine proteins were extracted from S. sanguinis. The antagonistic effect of the protein extracts on Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) was detected by a well-plate technique, and the effects of the protein extracts on biofilms formed by these bacteria were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The antagonistic effect of the protein extracts on pathogenic fungi was investigated using Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis). The growth curves of C. albicans and C. tropicalis were determined from ultraviolet absorption measurements, their morphological changes following treatment were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the effects of the protein extracts on the thickness of their biofilms and the distribution of dead/live bacteria within the biofilms were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed significant inhibitory effects of the intracellular proteins extracted from S. sanguinis on pathogenic bacteria (P. intermedia and P. gingivalis), fungi (C. albicans and C. tropicalis) and the biofilms formed by them. Furthermore, the growth curves and morphology of C. albicans and C. tropicalis were altered following treatment with the intracellular proteins, resulting in disc-like depressions in the surfaces of the fungal spores and mycelia. By contrast, the exocrine proteins demonstrated no significant inhibitory effect on the pathogenic bacteria, fungi and the biofilms formed by them. Thus, it may be concluded that intracellular proteins of S. sanguinis have antibacterial activity and exert an antagonistic effect on certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi of the oral cavity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of different oils in comparison to antiseptics against oral microorganisms. The antimicrobial effect of tea tree oil (TTO), eucalyptus oil (EO), lemon grass oil (LGO), and a eucalyptus-based oil mixture (MXT) were tested in comparison to chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), povidone-iodine (BTA), and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT). Oral bacterial strains and candida species using the agar diffusion test were used for the antimicrobial study. All tested oils showed antimicrobial potency against the tested biological indicators. In comparison of all tested substances the largest effective zones were measured for LGO, followed from MXT and CHX. TTO and EO were less effective against the tested microorganisms followed from BTA. The results of this study show that some essential oils have better antimicrobial properties than standard oral antiseptics. In a follow-up step, the ideal concentrations, the composition of essential oils, and the mode of application will be evaluated. The antibacterial efficacy of essential oils might be promising for use in clinical and oral hygiene applications. The cost reduction and availability particularly in rural areas with easy access to the originating plants might be advantageous factors to be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical laboratory