Penile length and genital anomalies in Egyptian male newborns: Epidemiology and influence of endocrine disruptors

Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 1). 03/2013; 26(5-6):1-5. DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0350
Source: PubMed


Abstract This is an attempt to establish the normal stretched penile length and prevalence of male genital anomalies in full-term neonates and whether they are influenced by prenatal parental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A thousand newborns were included; their mothers were subjected to the following questionnaire: parents' age, residence, occupation, contact with insecticides and pesticides, antenatal exposure to cigarette smoke or drugs, family history of genital anomalies, phytoestrogens intake and history of in vitro fertilization or infertility. Free testosterone was measured in 150 neonates in the first day of life. Mean penile length was 3.4±0.37 cm. A penile length <2.5 cm was considered micropenis. Prevalence of genital anomalies was 1.8% (hypospadias 83.33%). There was a higher rate of anomalies in those exposed to endocrine disruptors (EDs; 7.4%) than in the non-exposed (1.2%; p<0.0001; odds ratio 6, 95% confidence interval 2-16). Mean penile length showed a linear relationship with free testosterone and was lower in neonates exposed to EDs.

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    • "A recent study including a thousand new borns has found a linear correlation between maternal exposure to ED (e.g. pesticides and phytoestrogens) and lower testosterone levels, smaller penile length and higher incidences of reproductive anomalies including hypospadias (140). "
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    ABSTRACT: Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma, and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesize these compounds may disrupt hormonal homeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to review and summarize the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors, integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. The PubMed database was used to search for articles published up to 31st May 2013. Current data suggest that environmental levels of endocrine disruptors may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both genders, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. Endocrine disruptors may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to endocrine disruptors is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to endocrine disruptors is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term "endocrine disruptor" is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods: A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results: Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions: Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 60 healthy pesticide sprayers (smokers and non-smokers) in cotton fields exposed to different classes of pesticides for many years were compared with controls matched for age with respect to serum cholinesterase (ChE), serum total protein, alkaline and acid phosphatases (ALP and AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), blood glucose, serum hormones FSH, testosterone and L-thyroxine (T4). Significant increase was observed in serum ALP, AP, LDH, GGT, CK, serum hormones FSH, testosterone, L-thyroxine and blood glucose. Significant decrease in serum total protein and ChE. The increase or decrease in the tested biomarkers was more pronounced in the smokers than non-smoker workers. These results suggest that the long-term exposure of various pesticides on sprayers of cotton fields affect the normal functioning of different organ systems and may produce characteristic clinical effects.
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