Article

The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 03/2013; 131(4). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0627
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:
We investigated the relationship between parental incarceration history and young adult physical and mental health outcomes using Wave 1 and Wave 4 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

Methods:
Dependent variables included self-reported fair/poor health and health diagnoses. The independent variable was parental incarceration history. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were run.

Results:
Positive, significant associations were found between parental incarceration and 8 of 16 health problems (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, cholesterol, asthma, migraines, HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health) in adjusted logistic regression models. Those who reported paternal incarceration had increased odds of 8 mental and physical health problems, whereas those who reported maternal incarceration had increased odds of depression. For paternal incarceration, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, larger associations were found for mental health (odds ratios range 1.43-1.72) as compared with physical health (odds ratios range 1.26-1.31) problems. The association between paternal incarceration and HIV/AIDs should be interpreted with caution because of the low sample prevalence of HIV/AIDs.

Conclusions:
This study suggests exposure to parental incarceration in childhood is associated with health problems in young adulthood. Extant literature suggests underlying mechanisms that link parental incarceration history to poor outcomes in offspring may include the lack of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and exposure to violence. To prevent poor health in offspring of the incarcerated, additional studies are needed to (1) confirm the aforementioned associations and (2) assess whether adverse experiences and violence exposure in childhood mediate the relationship between parental incarceration history and offspring health problems.

1 Follower
 · 
13 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the introduction to a series of articles, this Article summarizes the state of the art in a field that has advanced enormously in the past ten years: parental incarceration. On the heels of a summer 2013 workshop held in the White House Executive Office Building, entitled “Parental Incarceration in the United States: Bringing Together Research and Policy to Reduce Collateral Costs to Children,” we here summarize five key lessons from this research, and then consider new directions for the next generation of research and policy. In this way, this Article lays the foundation for a series of important forthcoming articles in the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation) of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers' stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To analyze 3-year recidivism after release from a prison nursery, a secure unit that allows imprisoned women to care for their infants. Descriptive study of 139 women who co-resided with their infants between 2001 and 2007 in a New York State prison nursery. Administrative criminal justice data were analyzed along with prospective study data on demographic, mental health, and prison nursery policy-related factors. Results reflect a sample of young women of color with histories of clinically significant depressive symptoms and substance dependence, who were convicted of nonviolent crimes and had multiple prior arrests. Three years after release 86.3% remained in the community. Only 4% of women returned to prison for new crimes. Survival modeling indicated that women who had previously violated parole had a significantly shorter mean return to prison time than those who were in the nursery for a new crime. Women released from a prison nursery have a low likelihood of recidivism. Innovative interventions are needed to address incarceration's public health effects. Nurses can partner with criminal justice organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs to ensure the health needs of criminal justice involved people and their families are met.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Public Health Nursing
Show more