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Background Lymphomas of the orbit and orbital adnexae are rare tumors, comprising only 1% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The majority of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the orbit are extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Because of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, some diagnostic delay may occur. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic approach in orbital lymphomas and to analyze their treatment outcome. Methods In the period from 2005 to 2012, from a group of 135 patients with tumors of the orbit, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with orbital lymphoma. This patient cohort was reviewed retrospectively. Results The patient group consisted of 11 patients (seven females, male males) with a median age of 57.7 years (range 42 to 88 years). Orbital swelling, pain and motility impairment were the leading clinical symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy. Depending on the anatomic location of the tumor, a surgical biopsy was taken using a blepharoplasty incision, a lateral orbitotomy or a navigation-guided biopsy. The predominant histology was extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (82%). All patients underwent complete clinical staging. These were clinical stage IEA in seven patients, and stages IIEA (n = 2) and IIIEA (n = 2) in four patients . Patients in stage IEA were treated with radiation therapy alone, with radiation doses between 25 and 40 Gy, and patients with stage IIEA received systemic chemotherapy with bendamustin/rituximab. Those two patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma received systemic chemotherapy according to the R-CHOP protocol. Conclusions Owing to unspecific clinical symptoms, some diagnostic delay may occur in orbital lymphoma. If unspecific orbital symptoms are present, adequate imaging studies followed by early surgical biopsy will contribute to early diagnosis. Once diagnosis is established and staging is complete, radiation therapy is the recommended treatment for stage IEA patients. Systemic chemotherapy is indicated in selected stage IIEA patients and in patients with stage IIIEA disease.
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... Lymphoma is one of the most prevalent adult orbital malignancies, representing 10% of all orbital tumors, and around 2% of all nodal and extra-nodal lymphomas [1,2]. Of all childhood systemic lymphomas, no more than 2% are pediatric-type follicular lymphoma [3]; this type is seen infrequently in young adults. ...
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Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma is a disease that affects the lymph nodes of the head and neck in the adult and pediatric patient groups. Ocular involvement is exceedingly rare, especially in the pediatrics age group; therefore, keeping a high clinical suspicion is warranted. Here, we report a rare conjunctival pediatric-type follicular lymphoma in a 15-year-old boy presenting with progressive swelling over the medial aspect of the left bulbar conjunctiva for two months. On examination, the mass was firm, mobile, well encapsulated, wide-based, and had a negative transillumination. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry studies revealed lymphoid tissue that was positive for CD20, CD79a, BCL6, and CD10; and negative for BCL2 and MUM1. The CD21 and CD23 positivity highlighted the presence of an expanded follicular dendritic cell meshwork. The patient was diagnosed with conjunctival pediatric-type follicular lymphoma and referred to an oncology center for further examination and treatment. This lymphoma is rare, requiring high clinical suspicion, and thus, reporting the case detail is important and valuable for ophthalmologists and general pediatrics practitioners alike.
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Article
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Übersichtsartikel stellt eine Zusammenstellung seltener Erkrankungen der Orbita dar. Es werden angeborene Fehlbildungen und strukturelle Läsionen, entzündliche Erkrankungen, gutartige und bösartige epitheliale sowie nicht epitheliale Tumoren erörtert. Da in der Orbita zahlreiche Gewebetypen auf engstem Raum beieinanderliegen, kommen dort besonders viele Erkrankungen vor, sodass der Vollständigkeit und dem Tiefgang bei den einzelnen Abhandlungen natürliche Grenzen gesetzt sind. Die Kapitel beinhalten eine Übersicht über das jeweilige klinische Erscheinungsbild, wichtige Stichpunkte zur Diagnostik, Therapie und gegebenenfalls zur Prognose der Erkrankung. Dabei wurde versucht, die besonders charakteristischen Merkmale der einzelnen Erkrankungen herauszuarbeiten, sodass trotz der kurzen Darstellung die relevanten Aspekte enthalten sind.
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As illustrated in the two cases described in this paper close morphologic and immunohistochemical similarities exist between Mediterranean lymphoma (MTL) and primary gastrointestinal lymphoma of follicle center cell (FCC) origin as it occurs in Western countries. Similarities between the two conditions include a dense noninvasive monotypic lamina propria plasma cell infiltrate, present in all cases of MTL and in some cases of Western gastrointestinal FCC lymphoma, and an invasive infiltrate of FCCs morphologically distinct from the plasma cells. A distinctive lesion produced by individual gland invasion characterizes both types of lymphoma. A clonal relationship between the lamina propria plasma cells and the invasive FCCs, long suspected but never proved in MTL, can be demonstrated in Western cases. Many of the histologic and clinical features common to these lymphomas can be explained in the context of the normal maturation sequences of gut associated lymphoid tissue. It is suggested that MTL and Western cases of primary FCC gastrointestinal lymphoma share a common histogenesis from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue.
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BACKGROUND—The histological characteristics of ocular adnexal lymphomas have previously provided only a limited guide to clinical outcome for affected patients. This clinicopathological relation was re-examined using the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) system to classify the tumours in a large cohort of patients. METHODS—The biopsies and clinical follow up data for 192 patients with ocular adnexal lymphoma were reviewed, the biopsies being regraded in accordance with the REAL classification. For each of five histological groups, logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratios (OR) for the presence of systemic disease at the time of orbital diagnosis and Cox regression analysis was used to assess the hazard ratios (HR) for disseminated disease and lymphoma related death. For 108 patients in whom extraorbital spread occurred, the histological category of lymphoma was compared with the sites of dissemination. RESULTS—At presentation, the frequency of previous or concurrent extraorbital disease increased from marginal zone lymphoma (OR 1.0), diffuse lymphoplasmacytic/lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma (OR 2.3), follicle centre lymphoma (OR 3.8), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (OR 4.0) to other histological lymphoma variants (OR 26.8). For all histological types, the estimated risk of extraorbital disease and lymphoma related death continued for many years and the proportion of patients with at least one extraorbital recurrence after 5 years was 47% for MZL, 48% for LPL, 64% for FCL, 81% for DLCL, and 95% for other lymphoma variants. The corresponding estimated rates for 5 year lymphoma related mortality were 12%, 19%, 22%, 48%, and 53% respectively. CONCLUSIONS—Patients with ocular adnexal lymphoma can be classified by REAL into five distinct groups, which show a progressive increase in the risks of extraorbital disease at diagnosis, of disease dissemination with time, and of tumour related death.
Article
As illustrated in the two cases described in this paper close morphologic and immunohistochemical similarities exist between Mediterranean lymphoma (MTL) and primary gastrointestinal lymphoma of follicle center cell (FCC) origin as it occurs in Western countries. Similarities between the two conditions include a dense noninvasive monotypic lamina propria plasma cell infiltrate, present in all cases of MTL and in some cases of Western gastrointestinal FCC lymphoma, and an invasive infiltrate of FCCs morphologically distinct from the plasma cells. A distinctive lesion produced by individual gland invasion characterizes both types of lymphoma. A clonal relationship between the lamina propria plasma cells and the invasive FCCs, long suspected but never proved in MTL, can be demonstrated in Western cases. Many of the histologic and clinical features common to these lymphomas can be explained in the context of the normal maturation sequences of gut associated lymphoid tissue. It is suggested that MTL and Western cases of primary FCC gastrointestinal lymphoma share a common histogenesis from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue.
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We newly diagnosed 131 patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma between 1998 and 2010. We retrospectively studied 124 patients for whom complete clinical data were available at presentation and who had minimally undergone tumour staging by physical examination, computed tomography (CT), bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy. A slight female predominance (men, 58; women, 66) was observed in the study population; the median age was 67 years. The primary locations at presentation were the stomach (38%), orbita (20%), lung (12%), intestinal tract (8%), thyroid gland (6%), others (14%), and unknown (2%). Seventy per cent of patients had localized disease. Of the 124 patients, 14 (11%) had lymph node involvement, and 5 (4%) had bone marrow involvement. Five (4%) patients had both lung and gastric involvement. The 5-year overall survival rate for the 124 patients was 96.1%. The overall vital prognosis was excellent. Moreover, gastro-intestinal fiberscopic examination is essential, especially in cases with lung involvement at presentation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade ≥2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). POML responds favorably to moderate doses of RT but results in significant late morbidity. The majority of late effects were successfully managed. Lens shielding reduced the risk of cataracts and other late sequelae.
Article
An interventional pilot study to assess the tolerability and activity of the intralesional injection of rituximab, a chimeric mAb that targets the CD20 antigen, in patients with orbital B-cell lymphoma. Five patients received four intralesional injections (one injection a week) of rituximab together with ropivicaine 2%. Side-effects and tumor response were assessed after each injection and during the follow-up (20 months). Two patients obtained complete remission of the intraorbital lesion. Two patients showed incomplete response after induction therapy and received planned escalating rituximab doses, obtaining regression of subjective symptoms. One patient did not achieve tumor regression after the first injection and underwent systemic treatment. This small exploratory study suggests that intralesional rituximab is a well-tolerated treatment for patients with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma. These preliminary findings suggest that intralesional rituximab is a well-tolerated strategy in anterior intraorbital lesion localization of lymphoma.