Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability
Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Research in developmental disabilities
(Impact Factor: 4.41).
03/2013; 34(5):1630-1641. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.02.006
Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID.
Available from: Guangming Ran
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ABSTRACT: Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men) were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment). Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.
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ABSTRACT: Both racial and ethnic and disability-related disparities in dental care exist, yet little is known about the cumulative effect of these 2 characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine how the combination of disability and race and ethnicity is associated with dental examinations, delays in receiving needed care, and inability to obtain needed care among noninstitutionalized working-age adults in the United States.
The authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data pooled across the years 2002 to 2012, yielding a sample of 208,548. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of disability (including physical, sensory, and cognitive limitations) and race and ethnicity with each of the dependent variables.
Compared with non-Hispanic whites, other racial and ethnic groups were less likely to receive annual dental examinations. There were significant disparities for people with disabilities in receipt of examinations, delays in obtaining needed care, and being unable to obtain needed care. The combination of disability status and membership in an underserved racial or ethnic group was associated with a greater magnitude of disparity in all 3 areas, especially for American Indian, Alaska Native, and multiracial people with disabilities.
Community-dwelling adults with disabilities in underserved racial and ethnic groups have higher levels of delayed and unmet needs for dental care and lower receipt of routine dental examinations.
As the United States population ages and grows more diverse, the population of people with disabilities in underserved racial and ethnic groups will expand. Dentists need to be aware of, and be prepared to address, the needs of these people.
Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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