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Avoidance of meat and poultry decreases intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, selenium and zinc in young women

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Abstract

Background Inadequate nutrient intake and physical inactivity may have adverse health consequences. The present study aimed to describe young female students' dietary intake, food choices and physical activity (PA) patterns, and also to determine the influence of dietary avoidance of meat and poultry on nutrient intake. MethodsA cross-sectional study of female university students was conducted. Questionnaires were used to measure dietary intakes, food habits and PA. Anthropometric measurements of participants included height, weight and calculated body mass index (BMI). ResultsThere were 308 participants with a mean(SD) age of 22.9(3.9)years and a BMI of 21.5(2.8)kgm(-2); 78% were in the BMI range 18.5-24.9kgm(-2). Of those who responded to the PA questionnaire (n=218), 53% reported activity 150min per week, with walking being the largest contributor. Completed food frequency questionnaires were returned by 256 participants. National recommendations for servings of cereals, vegetables, meat, fish and energy-dense extra foods' were not met by the majority of participants. Avoidance of animal foods was reported in 23% of women, and resulted in lower intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, selenium and zinc (P<0.05) compared to non-avoidance. Iron intake from animal sources decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase in meat and poultry avoidance. Conclusions Female students had a healthy weight and reported adequate physical activity. However, in comparison to meat and poultry consumers, the avoidance of these foods was associated with a lower intake of some micronutrients. A sustained low intake of micronutrients may lead to adverse health effects in the longer-term, such as compromised immune function and iron deficiency anaemia.

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... We showed previously in young women that the avoidance of animal foods is reported in 23% of participants, and resulted in lower intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B 12 , selenium and zinc compared to non-avoidance [30]. A high percentage of the young women considered themselves overweight or obese, despite having a BMI in the normal range. ...
... Assessment of their eating behavior showed that 27% were classified in the high-restraint category, that is, individuals who avoid specific foods in order to maintain their body-weight [31]. Iron intake from animal sources was significantly lower with the increase in avoidance of meat and poultry [30]. The present findings show that the recommendation for young women to consume one serving from the meat and alternatives group daily was exceeded. ...
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Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women's diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of "extra" foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants' dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of "serve". The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor "extra" foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety.
... Young females are at risk of nutrient deficiencies due to poor diets and higher requirements for micronutrients, such as iron and folate especially in the periconceptional period and during pregnancy [1]. Some young women's dietary patterns which include the avoidance of micronutrient-rich meat and poultry [2], and social influences such as the desire to have a lower BMI despite having a BMI in the normal range [3] resulting in chronic dieting, could further negatively impact their nutrient status and related health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies is a worldwide problem, and extends to a range of population groups including young and apparently healthy women [4]. ...
... There are limited biochemical data on the micronutrient status of young women in Australia. We have undertaken a cross-sectional study in which we collected dietary data, anthropometric parameters and behavioural characteristics of young female university students [2,3]. The aims of the present study are to determine (i) the concentrations of selected micronutrients in women of childbearing age; (ii) the prevalence of deficiency; and (iii) the relationships between micronutrient biomarkers that may exist in this population. ...
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Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18-35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation.
... 5). Lower intake of protein from animal source may unfavorably affect the bioavailability of Fe, Zn, Se, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fat [12] . ...
... If we consume fruit and vegetable below the USDA recommended serving then it may cause Zn deficiency [29]. Lower intake of protein from animal sources contributes to restriction of Zn bioavailability [12]. Statistically analyzed data was explicitly in accordance with results of Singh et al. (1991) indicating that people with high activity level tends to have high Zn deficiency, majorly due to loss of fluids and electrolytes through sweating [30]. ...
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The present study was carried out to assess the nutritional health status of boys with Zn deficiency. For the purpose, one thousand volunteers were selected from Comprehensive Model High School, Sargodha and University of Sargodha, Sargodha-Pakistan. The cross-sectional study design was adopted for research work. The selected volunteers were assessed for their health status in relation to nutrition. Family history, medical history, clinical signs and symptoms and food frequency questionnaire were used to assess the nutritional health status of volunteers. All food groups intake was significantly higher in both Zn deficient according to clinical signs and symptoms and normal volunteers. Zn deficient people have low dietary intake, i.e. fruits and vegetable, etc. while their water and milk intake were high.
... Many studies have reported that diet quality may change in this period resulting into the recommended dietary guidelines not being fulfilled. 1 But owing to their prominent reproductive and productive roles in the society, they demand special nutritional needs. Yet, due to a lack of nutritional knowledge and awareness, some young female's dietary patterns include the avoidance of micronutrient-rich animal foods (i.e. ...
... meat, fish, poultry, milk and dairy products) than they should consume because they might not aware of protein quality of foods. 1 Also, the average intake of calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B 12 , and vitamin C have also found lower than national data. 6 This reason behind less intake of micronutrient rich food might be that they consumed micronutrient rich food but in lesser proportion as a result of lack of awareness on micronutrient rich foods or the benefits of micronutrients in human health. ...
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sufficiency of energy and nutrient consumption, and food diversity through consumption of different food groups among female residential students of a public university of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 180 female residential students, aged 18-26 years, of three female dormitories of a Bangladeshi public university. Dietary information was collected for three consecutive days (two weekdays and one weekend) using a structured Multiple-Pass 24-h recall questionnaire. About 40% of the participants were between 21-23 years of age and most (70%) of them were in normal nutritional status (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2). The mean Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was 4.84 ± 1.02. Starchy staples were the main food group consumed (about 299.31 g/d) by the respondents. The median energy intake of the respondents was 1407 kcal/d and no respondent could meet the reference intake of 2100 kcal/d. It was also observed that none of the respondents fulfilled the standard reference intake for Folate, Vitamin B12 and Calcium. The average Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) of the respondents was 0.58 and had a positive association with DDS (r=0.38; P<0.001). Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) of calorie and other nutrients also had a significant positive association with DDS of the respondents except for fat. The present study findings exhibit that DDS can provide quite a good estimate of the nutrient adequacy of the diet of female residential students of Bangladesh. However, educating the students about the nutritious foods can enable them to make a wiser choice from available foods.
... A meta-analysis of national surveys estimated the prevalence of IDA in women of pre-school and reproductive ages as 9.6% and 10.8%, respectively (Petry et al., 2016). Diet and lifestyle effects, owing to the desire for thinness in young women, and menstrual bleeding have been identified as the causes of IDA (Fayet et al., 2014). In one study, no significant sex difference was observed among older adults, and the prevalence of IDA was 12% (Price et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Background Anemia is a common health issue among adolescents. Anemic conditions could affect physical performance; however, the actual profiles of anemia in adolescent students in sports clubs have not been well documented. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of individuals aged 13–22 years who belonged to sports clubs in schools and visited an outpatient clinic between August 1, 2016, and August 31, 2020. The medical and laboratory records, including serum levels of ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and creatinine kinase at their first visit were assessed. Results A total of 485 individuals (231 male (48%) and 254 female (52%) patients) were eligible for the study. The most common club activity was track and field ( n = 171 (35%)). The overall prevalence of the World Health Organization-defined anemia was 16.5% (95% CI [13.1–20.4]; 9.0% [5.4–13.8] and 23.1% [17.8–29.2] in males and females, respectively) after excluding pre-treated individuals. Hypoferritinemia and elevation of serum creatinine kinase levels were identified as independent contributors to anemia in both sexes (odds ratios: 13.2 (95% CI [4.2–41.1]), p < 0.001 and 14.7 (95% CI [1.8–118.4]), p = 0.012, respectively for males; odds ratios: 6.6 (95% CI [1.3–13.9]), p < 0.001 and 2.7 (95% CI [1.4–5.5]), p = 0.004, respectively for females). Discussion Anemia is prevalent in both male and female adolescent students in sports clubs. Iron deficiency and excessive training indicated by elevated creatinine kinase levels may contribute to the risk of anemia. Physicians should assess the amount of exercise, and not merely iron storage, in clinical practice.
... While protein intakes were adequate in these subpopulations [5], the top two sources of iron were from plant-based, iron fortified sources (breakfast cereals and breads and bread rolls). With regard to higher iron bioavailability and density, animal-based protein sources may be another strategy to address iron intake, particularly among females, as it has been previously shown to be a less popular food choice among Australian children and adolescents [49] and avoided by young female adults [50,51]. Research also shows that children are more likely to consume vegetables in the evening meal if they also consume meat [52]. ...
Article
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Adolescents in Australia have a poor dietary intake, leading to large numbers of them being at risk for inadequate intake of micronutrients, and excessive intake of less healthful dietary components. This study examined dietary intakes at multiple eating occasions to identify opportunities for more targeted recommendations and strategies to improve dietary intakes among adolescents. Data from the first 24-h recall of 14–18 years old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 772). Participant-defined eating occasions were classified as breakfast, lunch, dinner or other eating occasions combined. The mean percent contribution to the total day intake of top shortfall nutrients (calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, iron), discretionary calories, saturated fat, free sugars and sodium, as well as nutrient density, the foods consumed and the percent of consumers at each eating occasion, were calculated. Breakfast had the lowest prevalence of consumers (81%), contributed the least to total daily energy (14.6%) and almost a quarter of daily calcium and iron. Other eating occasions combined contributed 47.5% of free sugars and were top contributors of daily calcium (34.6%) and magnesium (31.7%). Discretionary foods contributed 32.4% of the energy at lunch, and the sodium content at lunch was 415 mg/1000 kJ. Key opportunities identified for adolescents were to increase breakfast consumption, given the high nutrient densities of breakfasts consumed; improve overall lunch quality, particularly the sodium content; promote the intake of milk, fruit and a variety of vegetables at both lunch and dinner; maintain healthful choices at in-between meal eating occasions while focusing on decreasing the intake of discretionary foods.
... Semi-vegetarian Fish/shellfish and poultry are the only animal flesh consumed likely to be vegetarian than men (Beardsworth & Bryman, 1999;McLennan & Podger, 1995;White & Frank, 1994), which is consistent with findings that some nonvegetarian women avoid eating meat and poultry (Fayet, Flood, Petocz, & Samman, 2013), eat less meat than their male counterparts (Beardsworth et al., 2002), and are more likely than men to be decreasing their meat consumption (Beardsworth et al., 2002;Fargerli & Wandel, 1999;Ruby, 2012). ...
Article
Optimal zinc status is an important consideration when evaluating the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets. In the absence of animal tissue sources of zinc and with increased intake of inhibitors of zinc absorption, phytic acid in particular, the bioavailability of zinc is thought to be lower from vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diets. The aim of this chapter is to review the research that examines the effects of vegetarian compared to omnivorous diets on zinc intake and zinc status in the elderly, adults, children, pregnancy, and lactation. A narrative review of the published literature was undertaken, focusing on observational studies in humans that reported zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status at various stages of the life cycle. Compared to their respective nonvegetarian control groups, adult male and female vegetarians have lower dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations. However in the elderly, children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether zinc intake and status are lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores. Inconsistencies in study findings reflect variations inherent in the definition of vegetarian diets, and in many instances compromised statistical power due to a small sample size. Improved methods for the assessment of zinc status are required to determine whether homeostatic responses are sufficient to maintain an adequate zinc status in vegetarians, particularly during times of increased requirement. Appropriate dietary advice to increase the zinc content and bioavailability of vegetarian diets throughout the life cycle is prudent. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Thus, it is not surprising that a study of female university students found a decrease in the average B 12 intake that was below recommendations (from 3.9 to 1.2 mg) when more than one foodstuff from the meat and poultry group was eliminated. 86 ...
Article
Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... A população vegetariana habitualmente ingere menor quantidade de selénio, porém a ingestão depende da disponibilidade de selénio nos solos (64,76) . Embora a ingestão esteja diminuída, esta habitualmente supre as recomendações (64,76,96) e os níveis plasmáticos são semelhantes aos da população não vegetariana havendo, por isso, uma provável adaptação fisiológica (64,76) . ...
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Dietary patterns consisting exclusively, or mostly, of plant foods seem to have been common knowledge and followed since as far as the classical antiquity, essentially on philosophical and religious grounds, but also for health reasons. Over the last decades, alongside with an increase of knowledge on nutrition and environmental sciences, there has been an increment on scientific evidence in favor of a greater presence of plant foods in our diet. Populations showing high or exclusive consumption of plant foods seem to be less prone to develop chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancers, diabetes and obesity. This dietary pattern, or 'diet', is not a uniform one, as it may consist solely of plant foods (strict vegetarian or vegan) but it can also include other elements such as eggs and dairy products (ovolactovegetarian). At its core there is usually fruit, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds, which should preferably be local ones, in season and minimally processed. The guidelines for a healthy vegetarian diet which are proposed in this document have been designed considering the healthy adult, which is why they should not be applied to other stages of a life cycle. The adequacy of this "diet" to the different stages of life, including childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, lactation, old age, and even to athletes, requires appropriate planning and monitoring. In order for this dietary pattern to be considered nutritionally adequate, factors such as the appropriate intake and bioavailability of certain nutrients such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iodine, iron, calcium and zinc and also caloric intake should be taken into account. Moreover, it is important to consider food diversity, the reduction in quantities of salt, sugar and saturated fats, and the adequate intake of water. In the case of vitamin B12, and due to the absence of nutritional sources in a vegan diet, it has to be provided through enriched foods or supplements. Although this food pattern is generally healthy and easy to adopt, particularly in countries like Portugal, where there is a varied and abundant offer of fruit, vegetables and other plant foods throughout the year, and where traditional cooking methods already include plant foods in their base, there is still considerable lack of information on the part of health and education professionals, associated with poor-quality information on online formats, a situation which this manual aims at improving.
... A plausible explanation for the observed decline in vitamin B 12 may be related to changes in food choices, such as replacing meat products with plant alternatives (e.g. legumes) (48)(49)(50) , given that (i) protein intake remained stable over time, (ii) it did not differ between cases and controls and (iii) food items of animal origin are the only source of vitamin B 12 (46) . However, such a change would have to be translated into higher intakes of dietary fibre among depression cases, as plant sources are also rich in fibre, but such an increase was not observed. ...
Article
Studies have investigated the potential protective effects that diet may have on late-life depression incidence. This disorder can, however, affect the person's food intake, widely known as the reverse causality hypothesis of depression. To test this hypothesis, we compared mean nutrient intakes from three 24-h recalls during the year depression was detected (Geriatric Depression Scale ≥11 or antidepressant medication) with intakes from 1 year earlier among community-dwelling older adults (67-83 years) followed up annually in the 4-year Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging, who were free of depression and cognitive impairment at baseline. Participants (n 158, 64·4 % female) who became depressed and had data available for all follow-up years were matched by age group and sex with non-depressed participants. General linear mixed models were adjusted for percentage changes in physical activity, functional autonomy and stressful life events reported at the time of positive screening. A significant group effect for the dietary intake of all three B-vitamins was observed, as depression cases had consistently lower dietary intakes than controls (P<0·01). Over time, intakes of dietary vitamin B12 declined within depressed participants in bivariate analysis, but there was no time×group effect for any nutrient tested in the multivariate analyses. Intakes of energy, protein, saturated fat and total dietary fibre did not change in cases v. Controls: Among community-dwelling older adults, declines in dietary vitamins B6, B12 and folate may precede depression incidence. To help preventative efforts by programmes and practitioners, longitudinal cohorts of longer duration should investigate the extent of the decline in dietary intakes relative to the time of depression.
... It is of interest to note that the sample nonvegetarian menu includes only one meal that contains flesh food (salmon). This may be increasingly representative of a typical nonvegetarian diet in women; it appears in HIC that there is a trend toward a reduction in meat consumption, particularly in women (Fayet et al., 2014;Foster and Samman, 2015), and an increase in the consumption of exclusively plant-based meals in recognition that eating less meat (WHO, 2015) and more plant foods improves health. The sample menu of the Harvard Women's Health Watch contains only one serving of grain-based foods. ...
Chapter
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It is suggested that populations consuming plant-based diets require higher amounts of dietary zinc than omnivorous populations to maintain health. The present chapter explores dietary zinc intakes and requirements, zinc bioavailability, and zinc status in populations consuming plant-based diets across the life cycle, with consideration given to differences between populations from high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Many vegetarian groups have lower zinc status than their nonvegetarian counterparts; however, adults appear able to adapt to a wide range of zinc intakes with no apparent adverse effects on health. In populations with increased requirements, such as children and pregnant women, the relationships among zinc status, physiological adaptations to low zinc diets, and health outcomes require further investigation. To support the translation of zinc research in vegetarians into practice, consistency in study methodologies and design is required, as well as the further development of tools that assist the evaluation of zinc status.
... Bireylerde D ve B12 vitaminlerinin eksiklikleri ve bu vitaminlerin yol açtığı sağlık sorunları son yıllarda sık araştırılan konular arasındadır. Sosyal hayat ve yaşam tarzı değişiklikleri, güneş ile temasın azalması D vitamin eksiklik/yetersizliğine (1) , beslenme şekli ve besin özelliklerinin değişimi B12 eksikliğine neden olabilmektedir (2) . D vitaminin hidroksilize formu olan serum 25 OH vitamin D düzeyi, vücuttaki D vitamini durumu hakkında bilgi veren güvenilir bir göstergedir (3) . ...
... Throughout the last decade, diets that avoid meat consumption have become more common among youth and young women [24][25][26], as well as vegans [27]. It has been pointed out that the omission of red meat may have negative effects on health, e.g., a lack of iron and vitamins [28,29]. ...
Article
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Bovine meat provides healthy nutrients but has also been negatively linked to greenhouse gases and non-communicable diseases. A double-blind intervention study was carried out to compare beef meat from bulls fed with feed supplemented with selenium, vitamin D, E, K (SeDEK-feed), and n-3, or REGULAR feed. Thirty-four young healthy women (19–29 years old) consumed 300 g of these beef types per day for 6 days in a cross-over design. Diet registrations, blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and clinical data were collected four times. Both beef diets were higher than their habitual diet in protein, fat, saturated fat, and several micronutrients; contained more vegetables and fewer carbohydrates and were followed by a higher feeling of satiety. The SeDEK beef had higher amounts of selenium, vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), E, and K (MK4), and increased serum selenium and 25(OH)D3 from the participants’ normal values if they were below 85 µg/L of selenium and 30 nmol of 25(OH)D3/L, respectively. Our study showed that optimized beef increased serum selenium in young women having moderate selenium levels and improved blood 25(OH)D3 in a woman having low to normal 25(OH)D3. Meat should be optimized to increase specific consumer groups’ needs for selenium and vitamin D.
... Phillips (2012) Effect of vegetarian diets on zinc status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in humans Foster, Chu, Petocz, and Samman (2013) Proxy indicators for identifying iron deficiency among anemic vegetarians in an area prevalent for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies Wongprachum et al. (2012) Iron status and dietary iron intake of vegetarian children from Poland Gorczyca, Prescha, Szeremeta, and Jankowski (2013) Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet Pereira and Vicente (2013) Novel aspects of health promoting compounds in meat Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: A cluster randomized controlled trial Daly et al. (2014) Avoidance of meat and poultry decreases intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, selenium and zinc in young women Fayet, Flood, Petocz, and Samman (2014) Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a clusterrandomised, controlled feeding intervention trial Hulett et al. (2014) Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother Kocaoglu et al. (2014) Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns McNeill (2014) The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: A review of literature Pawlak, Lester, and Babatunde (2014) Continued meat eating were already issued before the First World War (Scholliers, 2013) and increased in amplitude after the Second World War, when theories on the association between (saturated) fat and Western disease were being developed (Keys et al., 1980). In the traditional sociology of scientific knowledge, biological facts are recognized only if it can be said that the scientific community has established closure of its controversies. ...
Chapter
In contemporary dietary advice, meat is depicted as a pharmakon: it is believed to either heal or poison the human body (and mind). Often, it also serves as a scapegoat for a wide range of public health issues and other societal problems. Related attitudes, practices, and beliefs pertain to a demarcated mode of thinking or episteme that is characteristic for the so-called post-domestic or industrialized societies. The latter are not only typified by an abundant yet largely concealed production of meat, but increasingly also by moral crisis and confusion about its nutritional meaning. For an improved appreciation of the ambiguous position of meat in human health and disease, as well as the concomitant scattering into different subject positions (e.g., the omnivore, flexitarian, vegetarian, vegan, permaculturalist, and carnivore position), an interdisciplinary approach is required. To this end, the current study tentatively combines food research with a selection of (post-structuralist) concepts from the humanities. The aim is to outline a historical and biosocial need for meat (as well as its rejection) and to analyze how its transformative effects have contributed to a polarized discourse on diet and well-being in academia and society at large. Excessive categorization (for instance with respect to meat's alleged naturalness, normalness, necessity, and niceness) and Manichean thinking in binary opposites are among the key factors that lead to impassioned yet often sterile debates between the advocates and adversaries of meat eating in a post-truth context.
... Sufficient intake of animal products is therefore particularly advisable for population groups with enhanced nutritional needs and is helpful to offer nutritional robustness during various stages of life. As such, it contributes to the physical and cognitive development of infants and children (Neumann et al., 2007;Hulett et al., 2014;Tang & Krebs, 2014;Cofnas, 2019) and prevents deficiencies in young females (Fayet et al., 2014;Hall et al., 2017). In the elderly, sufficient meat intake can prevent or improve malnutrition and sarcopenia, also improving health-related quality of life (Pannemans et al., 1998;Shibata, 2001;Phillips, 2012;Rondanelli et al., 2015;Torres et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Mainstream dietary recommendations now commonly advise people to minimize the intake of red meat for health and environmental reasons. Most recently, a major report issued by the EAT-Lancet Commission recommended a planetary reference diet mostly based on plants and with no or very low (14 g/d) consumption of red meat. We argue that claims about the health dangers of red meat are not only improbable in the light of our evolutionary history, they are far from being supported by robust scientific evidence. OPEN ACCESS here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408398.2019.1657063?
... GİRİŞ D vitamini ve B12 vitaminlerinin eksiklikleri ve bu vitaminlerin yol açtığı sağlık sorunları son yıllarda sık araştırılan konular arasındadır. Güneş ile temasın azalması D vitamini eksiklik/yetersizliğine, özellikle çocukluk çağında dengesiz ve yetersiz beslenme B12 eksikliğine neden olabilmektedir (1,2). ...
... In conclusion, while a key recommendation of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines is to consume "a variety of protein foods in nutrient-dense forms, " (21) these data suggest several of the subgroups named (i.e., legumes) are underconsumed. Protein foods are important sources of other nutrients, including B vitamins, selenium, choline, and zinc, but nutrients provided by various types of protein foods differ (33)(34)(35). For this reason, the latest Dietary Guidelines provide subgroup recommendations for the following protein sources: seafood; meats, poultry, and eggs; and nuts, seeds, and soy products. ...
Article
Background: Dietary protein serves a pivotal role in providing the body with essential amino acids, which are required for the maintenance of body proteins, and the assimilation of structural and functional components required for basic survival. Understanding how dietary protein sources potentially vary for different population subgroups will allow for future nutrition interventions to be more targeted for specific needs. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to identify the top ten food category sources of dietary protein by age and race and ethnicity in a nationally representative sample. Methods: Cross-sectional data on adults (18+ years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2016 with one 24-h dietary recall were analyzed (n = 15,697). Population proportions were calculated based on protein intake (g/day) for What We Eat In America food categories. Results: The analytic sample (n = 15,697) was 15.0% Hispanic (95% CI [12.1, 17.9], 65.0% non-Hispanic White (95% CI [60.8, 69.3]), 11.5% non-Hispanic Black (95% CI [9.1, 13.9]), 5.4% non-Hispanic Asian (95% CI [4.3, 6.6]), and 3.1% other (95% CI [2.5, 3.6]). In all racial and ethnic groups, as well as age categories, chicken (whole pieces) was the top-ranked source of dietary protein. In addition to chicken (whole pieces), beef (excludes ground), eggs and omelets, and meat mixed dishes food categories ranked in the top ten sources of protein for every race/ethnicity. Only two solely plant-based proteins appeared in the top ten sources: beans, peas and legumes for Hispanics, and nuts and seeds for Other. For all age categories, beef (excludes ground) was among the top five sources and egg/omelets appear in the top ten sources. Conclusion: The top ten sources of protein accounted for over 40% of dietary protein irrespective of race/ethnicity or age category, having major implications for the sustainability of our nation's food supply. Public health strategies that encourage diversity in protein sources in food preparation and incorporate legumes and nuts along with poultry have the potential to shift the overall population protein intake distribution toward improving overall diet quality.
... [37]. In a cross-sectional study of female university students, Fayet et al. found that the avoidance of animal foods adversely affected the intakes of zinc, bioavailable iron, selenium, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids [38]. Doubling the intakes of plant-based foods with commensurate decreases in animal products was accompanied by increases in iron and folate intakes and decreases in zinc, calcium, and vitamin D intakes among female adolescents [30]. ...
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Current evidence suggests a link between red and processed meat consumption and the risk of various cancers and other health outcomes. Using national survey data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2015, we aimed to model a dietary scenario to assess the potential effects of increasing the intake of currently consumed plant-based meat alternatives by 100% and decreasing the consumption of red and processed meat by 50% on the diet quality and nutrient intakes of Canadians (≥1 year). This dietary scenario had no significant impact on dietary energy intake (p > 0.05), but resulted in a significant increase in the dietary intakes of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium, and dietary folate equivalents (p < 0.05). On the other hand, this dietary scenario was accompanied by a significant decrease in protein (from 77.8 ± 0.6 g to 73.4 ± 0.6 g), cholesterol, zinc, and vitamin B12 intake (p < 0.05). Further, based on Nutrient Rich Food (NRF) scores, the overall nutritional value of the simulated diet was higher than the baseline diet. Our modeling showed that the partial replacement of red and processed meat with plant-based alternatives improves overall diet quality but may adversely affect the intake of some micronutrients, especially zinc and vitamin B12.
... This is particularly the case for low-and middleincome countries (Hulett et al., 2014;Domínguez-Salas et al., 2019;Adesogan et al., 2020), but also for vulnerable populations in high-income countries (cf. Koebnick et al., 2004;Phillips, 2012;Fayet et al., 2014;Tang and Krebs, 2014;Cofnas, 2019). Moreover, the nutritional challenges for mid-century relate to the provision of high-quality protein (biological value) and a list of micronutrients and other compounds (e.g., DHA, choline, and taurine) that are only or most easily obtained from animal foods due to either higher levels or better bioavailability (Nelson et al., 2018;Leroy and Cofnas, 2020). ...
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Humanity’s main societal and epistemic transitions also mirror changes in its approach to the food system. This particularly holds true for human–animal interactions and the consumption of animal source foods (red meat especially, and to a lesser degree dairy, eggs, poultry, and fish). Hunter-gathering has been by far the longest prevailing form of human sustenance, followed by a diffuse transition to crop agriculture and animal husbandry. This transition eventually stabilized as a state-controlled model based on the domestication of plants, animals, and humans. A shift to a post-domestic paradigm was initiated during the 19th century in the urbanizing populations of the Anglosphere, which was characterized by the rise of agri-food corporations, an increased meat supply, and a disconnect of most of its population from the food chain. While this has improved undernutrition, various global threats have been emerging in parallel. The latter include, among others, a public health crisis, climate change, pandemics, and societal class anxieties. This state of affairs is an unstable one, setting the conditions of possibility for a new episteme that may evolve beyond mere adjustments within the business-as-usual model. At least two disruptive scenarios have been described in current food discourses, both by scientists and mass media. Brought to its extreme, the first scenario relates to the radical abolishment of livestock, rewilding, a ‘plants-only’ diet, and vegan ideology. A second option consists of a holistic approach to animal husbandry, involving more harmonic and richer types of human–animal–land interactions. We argue that – instead of reactive pleas for less or none – future thoughtscapes should emphasize ‘more of the better.’
... The nutrients in meat support the immune system, participate in the formation of muscle tissue, red blood cells (RBCs), and hormones, and warranty accurate functioning of the nervous system. These nutrients also affect the human senses of smell and taste, benefit our thyroids, and support antioxidant production [7,8]. Muscular tissue in live healthy animals is virtually free any contaminant microorganisms. ...
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Red and white meat is a perfect, high-quality protein that comprises all of the nine essential amino acids (EAAs) that cannot be synthesized endogenously. Meat is the normal source of this vitamin, as well as other types of vitamins. Meat affords a range of significant vitamins and minerals that the human body needs, many of which are more bioavailable and easily absorbed than the nutrients found in plant sources. The nutrients in meat support the immune system, participate in the formation of muscle tissue, red blood cells (RBCs), and hormones, and warranty accurate functioning of the nervous system. These nutrients also affect the human senses of smell and taste, benefit our thyroids, and support antioxidant production. The main sources of pathogens in meat and meat products are; the animal itself; human handlers; equipment’s in contact, environmental sources, and water used in the preparation. Meat Borne Diseases, since ancient times, played a central role in public health. This chapter is divided into nine parts, part one to part eight deals with the most important pathogens that have been associated with meat borne diseases (MBDs), these include, Meat Borne Prionic Diseases; Viral Diseases; Bacterial Diseases; Protozoal Diseases; Parasitic Diseases; Fungal Diseases; Mycotoxins; Rickettsial Diseases; while the nine-part deal with the methods of meat preservation and storage.
... Public health concerns have been raised regarding the widespread and excessive consumption of caffeinated energy drinks by young adults [33]. However results of the current study, taken together with reports of meat avoidance [34] and dieting practices [35] by young women suggest that reducing the consumption of caffeinated energy drinks may further lower vitamin B 12 intakes and increase the percent of women at risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency. The sources and dietary intakes of vitamin B 12 in women warrant further investigation. ...
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Background: Reducing meat consumption is often advised, however inadvertent nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may result in residual neurodevelopmental harms to offspring. This study assessed possible effects of maternal diets in pregnancy on adverse substance use among adolescent offspring. Methods: Pregnant women and their 13 year old offspring taking part in a prospective birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), provided food frequency questionnaire data from which dietary patterns were derived using Principal Components Analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models including potential confounders evaluated adverse alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use of the children at age 15 years. Results: Lower maternal meat consumption was associated with greater problematic substance use among 15 year old offspring in dose response patterns. Comparing never to daily meat consumption after adjustment, risks were greater for all categories of problem substance use; alcohol, odds ratio OR=1.75, 95% CI = [1.23, 2.56], p < 0.001, tobacco use OR=1.85, 95% CI = [1.28, 2.63], p < 0.001 and cannabis OR=2.70, 95% CI = [1.89, 4.00], p < 0.001. Given the likelihood of residual confounding, potential causality was evaluated using stratification for maternal allelic variants that impact biological activity of cobalamin (vitamin B12) and iron. Lower meat consumption disproportionally increased the risks of offspring substance misuse among mothers with optimally functional (homozygous) variants (rs1801198) of the gene TCN2 which encodes the vitamin B12 transport protein transcobalamin 2 implicating a causal role for cobalamin deficits. Functional maternal variants in iron metabolism were unrelated to the adverse substance use. Risks potentially attributable to cobalamin deficits during pregnancy include adverse adolescent alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use (14%, 37% and 23% respectively). Conclusion: Lower prenatal meat consumption was associated with increased risks of adolescent substance misuse. Interactions between TCN2 variant status and meat intake implicate cobalamin deficiencies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Introduction: Vitamin B12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B12 values obtained. Material and method: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted on a sample consisting of 5,531 patients from Barajas Health Primary Centre, Madrid, between 2008 and 2012, and on whom a blood test was performed for any reason, with values of vitamin B12. Results: A deficiency was found in 9.1% (SD 2.3) of the patients, of whom 49.4% were less than 65 years. The deficiencies were associated (P<.001, 95% CI) with age, dementia, changes in blood red cell counts, memory, and with the taking of metformin and proton pump inhibitors (P=.007). Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in our served population is similar in patients older and younger than 65 years. The extended screening was relevant.
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Dietary patterns consisting exclusively, or mostly, of plant foods seem to have been common knowledge and followed since as far as the classical antiquity, essentially on philosophical and religious grounds, but also for health reasons. Over the last decades, alongside with an increase of knowledge on nutrition and environmental sciences, there has been an increment on scientific evidence in favour of a greater presence of plant foods in our diet. Populations showing high or exclusive consumption of plant foods seem to be less prone to develop chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancers, diabetes and obesity. This dietary pattern, or 'diet', is not a uniform one, as it may consist solely of plant foods (strict vegetarian or vegan) but it can also include other elements such as eggs and dairy products (lacto-ovo vegetarian). At its core there is usually fruit, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds, which should preferably be local ones, in season and minimally processed. The guidelines for a healthy vegetarian diet which are proposed in this document have been designed considering the healthy adult, which is why they should not be applied to other stages of a life cycle. The adequacy of this "diet" to the different stages of life, including childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, lactation, old age, and even to athletes, requires appropriate planning and monitoring. In order for this dietary pattern to be considered nutritionally adequate, factors such as the appropriate intake and bioavailability of certain nutrients such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iodine, iron, calcium and zinc and also caloric intake should be taken into account. Moreover, it is important to consider food diversity, the reduction in quantities of salt, sugar and saturated fats, and the adequate intake of water. In the case of vitamin B12, and due to the absence of nutritional sources in a vegan diet, it has to be provided through enriched foods or supplements. Although this food pattern is generally healthy and easy to adopt, particularly in countries like Portugal, where there is a varied and abundant supply of fruit, vegetables and other plant foods throughout the year, and where traditional cooking methods already include plant foods in their base, there is still considerable lack of information on the part of health and education professionals, associated with poor-quality information on online formats, a situation which this manual aims at improving.
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Animal source foods are evolutionarily appropriate foods for humans. It is therefore remarkable that they are now presented by some as unhealthy, unsustainable, and unethical, particularly in the urban West. The benefits of consuming them are nonetheless substantial, as they offer a wide spectrum of nutrients that are needed for cell and tissue development, function, and survival. They play a role in proper physical and cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents, and help promote maintenance of physical function with ageing. While high-red meat consumption in the West is associated with several forms of chronic disease, these associations remain uncertain in other cultural contexts or when consumption is part of wholesome diets. Besides health concerns, there is also widespread anxiety about the environmental impacts of animal source foods. Although several production methods are detrimental (intensive cropping for feed, overgrazing, deforestation, water pollution, etc.) and require substantial mitigation, damaging impacts are not intrinsic to animal husbandry. When well-managed, livestock farming contributes to ecosystem management and soil health, while delivering high-quality foodstuffs through the upcycling of resources that are otherwise non-suitable for food production, making use of marginal land and inedible materials (forage, by-products, etc.), integrating livestock and crop farming where possible has the potential to benefit plant food production through enhanced nutrient recycling, while minimising external input needs such as fertilisers and pesticides. Moreover, the impacts on land use, water wastage, and greenhouse gas emissions are highly contextual, and their estimation is often erroneous due to a reductionist use of metrics. Similarly, whether animal husbandry is ethical or not depends on practical specificities, not on the fact that animals are involved. Such discussions also need to factor in that animal husbandry plays an important role in culture, societal well-being, food security, and the provision of livelihoods. We seize this opportunity to argue for less preconceived assumptions about alleged effects of animal source foods on the health of the planet and the humans and animals involved, for less top-down planning based on isolated metrics or (Western) technocratic perspectives, and for more holistic and circumstantial approaches to the food system.
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Dieting is a common practice among young women, irrespective of age, race, ethnicity, and weight. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dieting and its relationship with eating behavior, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in college women. This was a cross-sectional survey of female students aged 18-35 years (n = 308). Measures included BMI, restraint, disinhibition, hunger, dieting, weight loss, and perceived weight. A high percentage of college females consider themselves overweight or obese, despite having a BMI in the normal range. Dieting was practised by 43%, and 32% were avoiding weight gain, despite 78% having a healthy BMI. Women classified themselves as overweight or obese (27%), while only 11% were actually in these categories. Exercise was a common method of weight loss and positive associations were observed between dieting and BMI. Assessment of eating behavior showed that 27% were classified as high-restraint. Restraint and disinhibition were positively correlated with BMI. Despite the widespread availability of nutrition information, there is incongruity in measured and perceived BMI in young educated women. Dieting practices and BMI are associated with restraint and disinhibition. Nutrition professionals should consider educating college women about healthy body weight regardless of their clients' BMI.
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To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but <20.0 MJ/d, were included in the analyses. Pregnancy status was not significantly predictive of diet quality, before or after adjusting for area of residence and socio-economic status. Pregnant women and those who had given birth in the previous 12 months had marginally higher ARFS (mean (se): 30.2 (0.4) and 30.2 (0.3), respectively) than 'other' women (29.1 (0.1)). No single food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.
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focusing mainly on short-term outcomes such as infant survival and stunting. 2 However, the longer term eff ects on adult health 3 of a poor start to life suggest a further perspective. Developmental eff ects have been viewed traditionally in the context of major disruptions such as caused by teratogens, prematurity and growth retardation, but there is increasing appreciation of the role of developmental plasticity, which provides individuals with the fl exibility to adjust their trajectory of development to match their environment. Plasticity operates across the entire range of environment, from undernutrition to excessive nutritional environments associated with gestational diabetes or maternal obesity, 4,5
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To examine the extent to which women planning a pregnancy comply with recommendations for nutrition and lifestyle. Prospective cohort study. Southampton, United Kingdom. 12 445 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 recruited to the Southampton Women's Survey through general practices, 238 of whom became pregnant within three months of being interviewed. Folic acid supplement intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, and physical activity before pregnancy. The 238 women who became pregnant within three months of the interview were only marginally more likely to comply with recommendations for those planning a pregnancy than those who did not become pregnant in this period. Among those who became pregnant, 2.9% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 6.0%) were taking 400 microg or more of folic acid supplements a day and drinking four or fewer units of alcohol a week, compared with 0.66% (0.52% to 0.82%) of those who did not become pregnant. 74% of those who became pregnant were non-smokers compared with 69% of those who did not become pregnant (P=0.08). Women in both groups were equally likely to consume five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day (53% in each group, P=1.0), but only 57% of those who became pregnant had taken any strenuous exercise in the past three months compared with 64% in those who did not become pregnant (P=0.03). Only a small proportion of women planning a pregnancy follow the recommendations for nutrition and lifestyle. Greater publicity for the recommendations is needed, but as many pregnancies are unplanned, improved nutrition and lifestyles of women of childbearing age is also required.
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The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.
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To describe the lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes of the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cohort of men and women recruited through general practices or by post to include a high proportion of non meat-eaters. Dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected at baseline and four diet groups were defined. United Kingdom. In total, 65 429 men and women aged 20 to 97 years, comprising 33 883 meat-eaters, 10 110 fish-eaters, 18 840 lacto-ovo vegetarians and 2596 vegans. Nutrient intakes and lifestyle factors differed across the diet groups, with striking differences between meat-eaters and vegans, and fish-eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Mean fat intake in each diet group was below the UK dietary reference value of 33% of total energy intake. The mean intake of saturated fatty acids in vegans was approximately 5% of energy, less than half the mean intake among meat-eaters (10-11%). Vegans had the highest intakes of fibre, vitamin B1, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium and iron, and the lowest intakes of retinol, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium and zinc. The EPIC-Oxford cohort includes 31 546 non meat-eaters and is one of the largest studies of vegetarians in the world. The average nutrient intakes in the whole cohort are close to those currently recommended for good health. Comparisons of the diet groups show wide ranges in the intakes of major nutrients such as saturated fat and dietary fibre. Such variation should increase the ability of the study to detect associations of diet with major cancers and causes of death.
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Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity. Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference periods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity. Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's rho clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median rho of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode. The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18- to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment.
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To investigate the proportion of middle-aged Australian women meeting national dietary recommendations and its variation according to selected sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. This cross-sectional population-based study used a food-frequency questionnaire to investigate dietary patterns and compliance with 13 commonly promoted dietary guidelines among a cohort of middle-aged women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Nation-wide community-based survey. A total of 10,561 women aged 50-55 years at the time of the survey in 2001. Only about one-third of women complied with more than half of the guidelines, and only two women in the entire sample met all 13 guidelines examined. While guidelines for meat/fish/poultry/eggs/nuts/legumes and 'extra' foods (e.g. ice cream, chocolate, cakes, potatoes, pizza, hamburgers and wine) were met well, large percentages of women (68-88%) did not meet guidelines relating to the consumption of breads, cereal-based foods and dairy products, and intakes of total and saturated fat and iron. Women working in lower socio-economic status occupations, and women living alone or with people other than a partner and/or children, were at significantly increased risk of not meeting guidelines. The present results indicate that a large proportion of middle-aged Australian women are not meeting dietary guidelines. Without substantial changes in their diets, and help in making these changes, current national guidelines appear unachievable for many women.
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To validate the folate and vitamin B12 intakes estimated by a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to be used in a case-control study on the association between maternal dietary intake and the risk of having a child with a congenital heart defect. The FFQ was filled out by 53 women of reproductive age. Immediately thereafter, blood samples were taken to determine serum folate, red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Subsequently, three dietary 24-h recalls (24HR) were completed during a period of three successive weeks and used as a reference method. The recalls comprised two weekdays and one weekend day. Using the method of triads, validity coefficients were calculated by comparing nutrient intakes derived from the FFQ and 24HR with the corresponding nutritional biomarkers in blood. The validity coefficient is the correlation between the dietary intake reported by the FFQ and the unknown 'true' dietary intake. The comparison of B-vitamin intakes reported by the FFQ and the mean of the 24HR revealed deattenuated correlation coefficients of 0.98 for folate and 0.66 for vitamin B12. The correlation coefficients between the B-vitamin intakes estimated by the FFQ and concentrations of serum folate, RBC folate and serum vitamin B12 were 0.20, 0.28 and 0.21, respectively. The validity coefficients for serum folate, RBC folate and serum vitamin B12 were 0.94, 0.75 and 1.00, respectively. The estimated folate and vitamin B12 intakes were comparable with the results of the most recent Dutch food consumption survey. The adapted FFQ is a reliable tool to estimate the dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, folate and vitamin B12 in women of reproductive age. Therefore, this FFQ is suitable for the investigation of nutrient-disease associations in future. Funding was provided by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (Grant 2002.B027).
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To compare the sociodemographic characteristics, health status and health service use of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. In cross-sectional data analyses of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2000, 9113 women (aged 22-27 years) were defined as non-vegetarians if they reported including red meat in their diet, as semi-vegetarians if they excluded red meat and as vegetarians if they excluded meat, poultry and fish from their diet. The estimated prevalence was 3% and 10% for vegetarian and semi-vegetarian young women. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more likely to live in urban areas and to not be married. Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians had lower body mass index (mean (95% confidence interval): 22.2 (21.7-22.7) and 23.0 (22.7-23.3) kg m(-2)) than non-vegetarians (23.7 (23.6-23.8) kg m(-2)) and tended to exercise more. Semi-vegetarians and vegetarians had poorer mental health, with 21-22% reporting depression compared with 15% of non-vegetarians (P < 0.001). Low iron levels and menstrual symptoms were also more common in both vegetarian groups. Vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women were more likely to consult alternative health practitioners and semi-vegetarians reported taking more prescription and non-prescription medications. Compared with non-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians were less likely and vegetarians much less likely to be taking the oral contraceptive pill. The levels of physical activity and body mass indices of the vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women suggest they are healthier than non-vegetarians. However, the greater reports of menstrual problems and the poorer mental health of these young women may be of clinical significance.
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Associations between intake of specific nutrients and disease cannot be considered primary effects of diet if they are simply the result of differences between cases and noncases in body size, physical activity, and metabolic efficiency. Epidemiologic studies of diet and disease should therefore be directed at the effect of nutrient intakes independent of total caloric intake in most instances. This is not accomplished with nutrient density measures of dietary intake but can be achieved by employing nutrient intakes adjusted for caloric intake by regression analysis. While pitfalls in the manipulation and interpretation of energy intake data in epidemiologic studies have been emphasized, these considerations also highlight the usefulness of obtaining a measurement of total caloric intake. For instance, if a questionnaire obtained information on only cholesterol intake in a study of coronary heart disease, it is possible that no association with disease would be found even if a real positive effect of a high cholesterol diet existed, since the caloric intake of cases is likely to be less than that of noncases. Such a finding could be appropriately interpreted if an estimate of total caloric intake were available. The relationships between dietary factors and disease are complex. Even with carefully collected measures of intake, consideration of the biologic implications of various analytic approaches is needed to avoid misleading conclusions.
Chapter
Total energy intake deserves special consideration in nutritional epidemiology for three reasons: firstly, the level of energy intake may be a primary determinant of disease; secondly, individual differences in total energy intake produce variation in intake of specific nutrients unrelated to dietary composition because the consumption of most nutrients is positively correlated with total energy intake; and, thirdly, when energy intake is associated with risk of disease but is not a direct cause, associations with specific nutrients may be distorted (confounded) by total energy intake. Before examining these three issues in detail, this chapter discusses the physiologic aspects of energy utilization and the determinants of variation in energy intake in epidemiologic studies.
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• We estimated the 10-year incidence of major weight gain (a gain in body mass index of ≥5 kg/m2 and overweight (a body mass index of ≥27.8 for men and ≥27.3 for women) in US adults using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Persons aged 25 to 74 years at baseline were reweighed a decade after their initial examination (men, 3727; women, 6135). The incidence of major weight gain was twice as high in women and was highest in persons aged 25 to 34 years (men, 3.9%; women, 8.4%). Initially overweight women aged 25 to 44 years had the highest incidence of major weight gain of any subgroup (14.2%). For persons not overweight at baseline (men, 2760; women, 4295), the incidence of becoming overweight was similar in both sexes and was highest in those aged 35 to 44 years (men, 16.3%; women, 13.5%). We conclude that obesity pervention should begin among adults in their early 20s and that special emphasis is needed for young women who are already overweight.(Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:665-672)
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This longitudinal study examined the role of marital and psychological distress on healthful dietary change. A theoretical model is proposed that specified barriers to healthful dietary behavior as mediating the effect of depressive symptoms, role disagreement, inequity, and education on dietary change over time. Subjects were 97 married couples interviewed in their homes at 2 separate times. Selection in the first wave was by random area sampling based on population concentration. The findings provide evidence of the negative influence of interpersonal and intrapsychic distress on positive dietary change. For wives, marital and psychological distress and the barriers to dietary change were important factors in actual changes in dietary behavior. For both husbands and wives, higher barriers were associated with lesser positive dietary change.
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One of the most remarkable successes of epidemiology was the demonstration in the late twentieth century that spina bifida and anencephaly-two of the most common and severe birth defects-are caused primarily by folate deficiency. This article reviews the descriptive epidemiological studies that began when we did not have a clue about etiology. The paper tells the success story of the trials that proved that folic acid would prevent folic-acid-preventable spina bifida. Finally, it will tell how difficult it is to get prevention policy implemented, even when the scientific evidence is compelling. It concludes by noting that the inaction or inappropriate actions of food regulatory bodies in so many countries means that only 10% of folic-acid-preventable spina bifida is actually being prevented--a serious failure of public health policy.
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Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens). Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004. Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years. Weight status, dietary intake (fruit, vegetables, fat, calories), unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort. Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about current and former vegetarian status when assessing risk for disordered eating behaviors.
Article
We estimated the 10-year incidence of major weight gain (a gain in body mass index of greater than or equal to 5 kg/m2 and overweight (a body mass index of greater than or equal to 27.8 for men and greater than or equal to 27.3 for women) in US adults using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Persons aged 25 to 74 years at baseline were reweighed a decade after their initial examination (men, 3727; women, 6135). The incidence of major weight gain was twice as high in women and was highest in persons aged 25 to 34 years (men, 3.9%; women, 8.4%). Initially overweight women aged 25 to 44 years had the highest incidence of major weight gain of any subgroup (14.2%). For person not overweight at baseline (men, 2760; women, 4295), the incidence of becoming overweight was similar in both sexes and was highest in those aged 35 to 44 years (men, 16.3%; women, 13.5%). We conclude that obesity prevention should begin among adults in their early 20s and that special emphasis is needed for young women who are already overweight.
Article
We studied physical fitness and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 10,224 men and 3120 women who were given a preventive medical examination. Physical fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Average follow-up was slightly more than 8 years, for a total of 110,482 person-years of observation. There were 240 deaths in men and 43 deaths in women. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates declined across physical fitness quintiles from 64.0 per 10,000 person-years in the least-fit men to 18.6 per 10,000 person-years in the most-fit men (slope, -4.5). Corresponding values for women were 39.5 per 10,000 person-years to 8.5 per 10,000 person-years (slope, -5.5). These trends remained after statistical adjustment for age, smoking habit, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, parental history of coronary heart disease, and follow-up interval. Lower mortality rates in higher fitness categories also were seen for cardiovascular disease and cancer of combined sites. Attributable risk estimates for all-cause mortality indicated that low physical fitness was an important risk factor in both men and women. Higher levels of physical fitness appear to delay all-cause mortality primarily due to lowered rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Article
Associations between intake of specific nutrients and disease cannot be considered primary effects of diet if they are simply the result of differences between cases and noncases in body size, physical activity, and metabolic efficiency. Epidemiologic studies of diet and disease should therefore be directed at the effect of nutrient intakes independent of total caloric intake in most instances. This is not accomplished with nutrient density measures of dietary intake but can be achieved by employing nutrient intakes adjusted for caloric intake by regression analysis. While pitfalls in the manipulation and interpretation of energy intake data in epidemiologic studies have been emphasized, these considerations also highlight the usefulness of obtaining a measurement of total caloric intake. For instance, if a questionnaire obtained information on only cholesterol intake in a study of coronary heart disease, it is possible that no association with disease would be found even if a real positive effect of a high cholesterol diet existed, since the caloric intake of cases is likely to be less than that of noncases. Such a finding could be appropriately interpreted if an estimate of total caloric intake were available. The relationships between dietary factors and disease are complex. Even with carefully collected measures of intake, consideration of the biologic implications of various analytic approaches is needed to avoid misleading conclusions.
Article
In this study, college students visiting a university health service were categorized according to various anthropometric measurements and completed a questionnaire. Fifty-five per cent of the men were realistic in their self-perception of body size, but 63 per cent of the women perceived themselves to be one category of weight higher than they actually were. Fifty-six per cent of the students sampled (but only 60 per cent of those who were dissatisfied with their body images) said they were modifying their eating practices. The majority of students were realistic in their goals for weight loss, but 46 per cent of the women wanted to be underweight or slightly underweight.
Article
The study was designed to investigate the nutritional intake and haematological status of adult vegetarians. Cross-sectional comparison of vegetarians and age/sex-matched omnivores. Free-living community subjects. Fifty vegetarians were recruited by local advertisement. Each vegetarian selected their own age/sex-matched 'friend' control. Each subject completed a 12 day dietary record. Haemoglobin, red cell indices, and serum ferritin, B12 and folate were measured. Protein, saturated fat and vitamin D intake were significantly lower in the vegetarians, particularly in the vegans. Dietary fibre was higher in the vegetarians, and intake of calcium and zinc was similar. Mean (SD) iron intake in the vegetarians and vegans of 16.8 (4.8) mg/day was significantly greater than that of the omnivores: 14.6 (4.3) mg/day (P = 0.02). All the iron consumed by the vegetarians was non-haem; for the omnivores 10% was haem iron. Serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower in male vegetarians than omnivores; mean (SD): 36.6 (36.0) and 105.4 (78.7) ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.01; and significantly more had values below 12 ng/ml (P < 0.001), despite having higher iron intakes which exceeded the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). Female vegetarians also had lower ferritin concentrations than omnivores; mean (SD) 13.6 (7.5) compared to 33.6 (54.3) ng/ml, P < 0.01, but similar numbers of women had values below 12 ng/ml (42% and 39%). The vegans all had B12 intakes below the RNI; and 35% of the long-term vegetarians and vegans had serum vitamin B12 concentrations below the reference range. Although the vegetarians had diets nearer to the recommended diet with a lower fat and salt content, a significant number need advice to improve their haematological status. Recommended intakes of iron may also need to be higher for vegetarians, particularly men.
Article
A coding scheme is presented for classifying physical activity by rate of energy expenditure, i.e., by intensity. Energy cost was established by a review of published and unpublished data. This coding scheme employs five digits that classify activity by purpose (i.e., sports, occupation, self-care), the specific type of activity, and its intensity as the ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate (METs). Energy expenditure in kilocalories or kilocalories per kilogram body weight can be estimated for all activities, specific activities, or activity types. General use of this coding system would enhance the comparability of results across studies using self reports of physical activity.
Article
To determine reported vitamin and mineral intakes, vitamin supplement use, and food consumption patterns of young adults. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1988-1991 on a cross-sectional sample of 504 young adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana, between the ages of 19 and 28 years (58% female; 70% white). Reported vitamin and mineral intake data were analyzed for race and gender differences. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated where appropriate. Food sources of selected vitamins and minerals were also examined. Reported intakes of vitamins A, B6, E, D, and C, folacin, magnesium, iron, zinc, and calcium were most likely to be inadequate compared with the Recommended dietary Allowances (RDA); with more females than males reported nutrient intakes less than two thirds of the RDA. Approximately 10% of the population reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement over the 24-h survey period. Food source data indicated that breads and grains, milk, vegetables and soups, fruits, and beef were the primary contributors of the selected vitamins and minerals. Public health organizations and dietitians need to educate young adults on practical strategies for making wise food choices rich in nutrient content relative to energy value to ensure intakes that approach the RDAs.
Article
Many young people call themselves vegetarians because they don't eat meat, but the eating style they are adopting is fraught with health risks. In this article, which won CMAJ's 1996 Army Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest for Canadian journalism students, Laura Brydges Szabo looks at the "new vegetarianism" and the recommendations health care professionals are making to young people intent on following this incomplete diet. The contest encourages journalism students to write on health care topics.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on the role of physical activity in the treatment of adult overweight and obesity. Three specific questions are addressed: (1) Does exercise alone produce weight loss? (2) Does exercise in combination with diet produce greater weight loss than diet only? and (3) Does exercise in combination with diet produce better maintenance of weight loss than diet alone? The literature initially identified by the Expert Panel on Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of Obesity, three key meta analyses, and additional literature searches were used to identify randomized trials related to the three aforementioned topics. These articles were reviewed and tabulated. Six of 10 randomized studies found significantly greater weight loss in exercise alone versus no treatment controls. The magnitude of the effect averaged 1-2 kg. Only 2 of 13 studies found significant differences in initial weight loss for diet plus exercise versus diet only, although almost all studies pointed in this direction. Six studies were identified with maintenance periods of at least 1 yr. In two of the six there were significant long term differences favoring diet plus exercise, but in every study considered the direction of the difference favored diet plus exercise. Other strong evidence showing benefits of exercise for long-term weight loss comes from correlational analyses which consistently find that those individuals who report the greatest exercise have the best maintenance of weight loss. Randomized trials consistently show benefits of exercise for weight loss, but the effects are often modest. This may result from small sample sizes, short study duration, and poor adherence to the exercise prescriptions. To better define the doses and types of exercise that will promote long-term weight loss, it is necessary to develop better ways to measure exercise and promote adherence to exercise.
Article
Physical activity and a healthy diet have been recommended to help reverse the increasing prevalence of overweight among adolescents and adults in the United States. Data is from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. A representative sample of US undergraduate college students (n = 4609) were analyzed to examine associations of physical activity and food choice with weight management goals and practices. Based on self-reported height and weight, 35% of students were overweight or obese (body mass index > or = 25.0). Nearly half (46%) of all students reported they were trying to lose weight. Female students were less likely than male students to be overweight, but more likely to be trying to lose weight. Among female and male students, using logistic regression to control for demographics, trying to lose weight was associated with participation in vigorous physical activity and strengthening exercises, and consumption of < or = 2 servings/ day of high-fat foods. Female and male students who reported using exercise to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight were more likely than those who did not to participate in vigorous, strengthening, and moderate physical activity, and were more likely to eat > or = 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables and < or = 2 servings/day of high-fat foods. Among students who were trying to lose weight, only 54% of females and 41% of males used both exercise and diet for weight control. Colleges should implement programs to increase student awareness of healthy weight management methods and the importance of physical activity combined with a healthy diet.
Article
Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower plasma cholesterol, contribute significantly to tissue omega-3 fatty acid and provide a good source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A study of human and pre-human diet history shows that for a period of at least 2 million years the human ancestral line had been consuming increasing quantities of meat. During that time, evolutionary selection was in action, adapting our genetic make up and hence our physiological features to a diet high in lean meat. This meat was wild game meat, low in total and saturated fat and relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The evidence presented in this review looks at various lines of study which indicate the reliance on meat intake as a major energy source by pre-agricultural humans. The distinct fields briefly reviewed include: fossil isotope studies, human gut morphology, human encephalisation and energy requirements, optimal foraging theory, insulin resistance and studies on hunter-gatherer societies. In conclusion, lean meat is a healthy and beneficial component of any well-balanced diet as long as it is fat trimmed and consumed as part of a varied diet.
Article
To examine age-related differences in the physical activity behaviors of young adults. We examined rates of participation in vigorous- and moderate-intensity leisure-time activity and walking, as well as an index of physical activity sufficient for health benefits in three Australian cross-sectional samples, for the age ranges of 18--19, 20--24, and 25--29 yr. Data were collected in 1991, 1996, and 1997/8. There was at least a 15% difference in vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity from the 18--19 yr to the 25--29 yr age groups, and at least a 10% difference in moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity. For the index of sufficient activity there was a difference between 9 and 21% across age groups. Differences in rates of walking were less than 8%. For all age groups, males had higher rates of participation for vigorous and moderate-intensity activity than did females, but females had much higher rates of participation in walking than males. Age-associated differences in activity levels were more apparent for males. Promoting walking and various forms of moderate-intensity physical activities to young adult males, and encouraging young adult females to adopt other forms of moderate-intensity activity to complement walking may help to ameliorate decreases in physical activity over the adult lifespan.
Article
Energy intake (EI) is the foundation of the diet, because all other nutrients must be provided within the quantity of food needed to fulfill the energy requirement. Thus if total EI is underestimated, it is probable that the intakes of other nutrients are also underestimated. Under conditions of weight stability, EI equals energy expenditure (EE). Because at the group level weight may be regarded as stable in the timescale of a dietary assessment, the validity of reported EI can be evaluated by comparing it with either measured EE or an estimate of the energy requirement of the population. This paper provides the first comprehensive review of studies in which EI was reported and EE was measured using the doubly labeled water technique. These conclusively demonstrate widespread bias to the underestimation of EI. Because energy requirements of populations or individuals can be conveniently expressed as multiples of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), EE:BMR, reported EI may also be expressed as EI:BMR for comparison. Values of EI:BMR falling below the 95% confidence limit of agreement between these two measures signify the presence of underreporting. A formula for calculating the lower 95% confidence limit was proposed by Goldberg et al. (the Goldberg cutoff). It has been used by numerous authors to identify individual underreporters in different dietary databases to explore the variables associated with underreporting. These studies are also comprehensively reviewed. They explore the characteristics of underreporters and the biases in estimating nutrient intake and in describing meal patterns associated with underreporting. This review also examines some of the problems for the interpretation of data introduced by underreporting and particularly by variable underreporting across subjects. Future directions for research are identified.
Article
Exclusion of animal products and having only plant protein in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the elevation of plasma homocysteine concentration. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of homocysteine and related B-vitamins in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The effects of biochemical parameters of B-vitamins and dietary protein on plasma homocysteine were also examined. The study was performed at the Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, in the central part of Taiwan. Thirty-seven vegetarians (28.9 +/- 5.5 y) and 32 nonvegetarians (22.9 +/- 1.6 y) were recruited. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained. Plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B-12 were measured. Vitamin B-6 status was assessed by direct measures [plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA)] and indirect measures [erythrocyte alanine (EALT-AC) and aspartate (EAST-AC) aminotransaminase activity coefficient]. There was no significant difference in vitamin B-6 intake between the two groups, although the vegetarian group had a significantly lower vitamin B-12 intake than the nonvegetarian group. Vegetarian subjects had significantly lower mean plasma PLP and vitamin B-12 concentrations than did nonvegetarian subjects (p < 0.05); however, a significantly higher mean plasma folate concentration was found in the vegetarian group. Vegetarian subjects had a significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine concentration than nonvegetarian subjects (13.2 +/- 7.9 vs. 9.8 +/- 2.2 micromol/L). Negative correlations were seen between plasma homocysteine and vitamin B-12 concentrations in the vegetarian (p = 0.004), nonvegetarian (p = 0.026), and pooled (p < 0.001) groups. From best subsets regression analyses, the plasma homocysteine concentration could be significantly predicted by total protein intake (p = 0.027) and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (p = 0.005) in the pooled group. When the intake of protein is not considered, vitamin B-12 concentration is still a strong predictor of plasma homocysteine concentration (p = 0.012). Vitamin B-12 intake and mean plasma vitamin B-12 concentration were lower for vegetarian subjects than for nonvegetarian subjects, leading to an increase in plasma homocysteine concentration. Vitamin B-6 and folate had little effect on plasma homocysteine concentration when individuals had adequate vitamin B-6 and folate status.
Article
BACKGROUND; The self-perception of weight appropriateness is an important component of eating and weight-loss behaviors. Self-perceived weight status, however, is not fully explained by objective weight status. To examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on Americans' perceptions of their weight appropriateness, controlling for objective weight status. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respondents were asked, "Do you consider yourself now to be overweight, underweight, or about the right weight?" Responses to this question were compared with how respondents (n=15,593) would be classified by medical standards given their body mass index (BMI). A proportional odds logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive effects of various sociodemographic factors on weight self-perception. Overall, 27.5% of women and 29.8% of men misclassified their own weight status by medical standards. Of particular note, 38.3% of normal weight women thought they were "overweight," while 32.8% of overweight men thought they were "about the right weight" or "underweight." Multivariate regression analysis revealed that, controlling for BMI, numerous factors-including gender, age, marital status, race, income, and education-were independently associated with the self-evaluation of weight status. The self-perceived appropriateness of weight status varies in highly predictable ways among population-level subgroups, likely reflecting differences in the normative evaluation of bodily weight standards. Such evaluations may assist in the explanation of discrepancies between clinical recommendations based on weight status and actual weight control behaviors, discrepancies that are socially patterned along some of the same subgroupings.
Article
Prevention of obesity and weight maintenance have become important public health issues. One strategy for prevention of obesity is to identify critical periods of weight gain across the life span. The purpose of this initial evaluation was to determine whether the transition from high school to college is such a critical period. A total of 135 college students were weighed in September and December of their freshman year and a subset also provided data in May. Results showed that statistically significant but modest weight increases occurred during the freshman year for most participants. However, one quarter of participants gained at least 2.3 kg during the first semester of college, and the proportion of participants classified as overweight or obese increased markedly. For this subset of participants, the freshman year of college could be considered a critical period for weight gain. Identifying critical periods for weight gain may be an important first step towards the development of effective obesity prevention programs.
Article
Accurate monitoring of prevalence and trends in population levels of physical activity (PA) is a fundamental public health need. Test-retest reliability (repeatability) was assessed in population samples for four self-report PA measures: the Active Australia survey (AA, N=356), the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, N=104), the physical activity items in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, N=127) and in the Australian National Health Survey (NHS, N=122). Percent agreement and Kappa statistics were used to assess reliability of classification of activity status as 'active', 'insufficiently active' or 'sedentary'. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to assess agreement on minutes of activity reported for each item of each survey and for total minutes. Percent agreement scores for activity status were very good on all four instruments, ranging from 60% for the NHS to 79% for the IPAQ. Corresponding Kappa statistics ranged from 0.40 (NHS) to 0.52 (AA). For individual items, ICCs were highest for walking (0.45 to 0.78) and vigorous activity (0.22 to 0.64) and lowest for the moderate questions (0.16 to 0.44). All four measures provide acceptable levels of test-retest reliability for assessing both activity status and sedentariness, and moderate reliability for assessing total minutes of activity.
Article
The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). <br /
Article
Associations between eating behaviours and dietary variables have not been thoroughly investigated in healthy postmenopausal women in a real life uncontrolled context. To investigate how eating behaviours (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger) were associated with food and drink consumption, energy density and meal pattern in 112 healthy postmenopausal women (age 56.8 (SD 4.4) years) not on.hormonal therapy. Women completed a 3 d weighed food record and filled out the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The sample was divided according to the median of the distribution of cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition (9 and 6 respectively). Both subgroups of women with high restraint level (presenting either high or low disinhibition) consumed a diet with a lower energy density than subgroups of women with lower restraint level. Women with high restraint-low disinhibition had a lower consumption of red meat and processed meat and a lower consumption of diet soft drinks than women with low restraint-high disinhibition. They were also characterised by a higher intake of whole grains than women with high restraint-high disinhibition and than women with lower restraint level (with either high or low disinhibition). Women with high restraint-high disinhibition levels showed differences in dietary variables when compared with subgroups of women with lower restraint level, namely for refined grains and diet soft drinks. We conclude that in healthy postmenopausal women, dietary consumption of specific food and drink may be related to particular eating behaviours. Women with high restraint and low disinhibition levels generally showed the most healthy dietary pattern.
Article
To compare the ability of alternative measures of physical activity and fitness to quantify associations with health outcomes. Associations between a range of subjective and objective physical activity and fitness measures and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using data from 1,631 Australians aged 26-36 years. Anthropometry, fitness, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured at study clinics. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and 7-day pedometer diaries; they also reported sedentary behavior (sitting, television viewing). In men and women, associations were strongest for fitness, with those in the highest (vs. lowest) fitness quarter having a 75% to 80% lower prevalence of two or more primary risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance). In men, a 60% to 70% reduced prevalence of two or more risk factors was observed across extreme quarters of IPAQ leisure, IPAQ vigorous, sitting duration, and pedometer measures. Similar reductions in prevalence were observed only across extreme quarters of pedometer activity and television viewing in women. Associations between alternative measures and cardiometabolic risk were relatively independent, suggesting that a range of physical activity and fitness measures may be needed to most accurately quantify associations between physical activity and health.
National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians? Public Health Nutr
  • S Baines
  • J Powers
  • W J Brown
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1998) National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide, 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Baines, S., Powers, J. & Brown, W.J. (2007) How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians? Public Health Nutr. 10, 436–442.
National Physical Activity Guidelines. Canberra Available at
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Department of Health and Ageing. (2010) National Physical Activity Guidelines. Canberra. Available at: http://www. health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#guidelines_adults (accessed on 6 September 2011).
Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey The scientific basis for eliminating folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a modern miracle from epidemiology
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Nesbitt, A., Majowicz, S., Finley, R., Pollari, F., Pintar, K., Marshall, B., Cook, A., Sargeant, J., Wilson, J., Ribble, C. & Knowles, L. (2008) Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey. BMC Public Health. 8, 370. Oakley, G.P. Jr. (2009) The scientific basis for eliminating folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a modern miracle from epidemiology. Ann. Epidemiol. 19, 226–230.
Promoting Healthy Weight Available at
  • Department
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Department of Health and Ageing. (2009) Promoting Healthy Weight. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-hlthwt-index.htm (accessed on 10 April 2012).
Promoting Healthy Weight Available at: http://www
  • Department
  • Ageing Health
Department of Health and Ageing. (2009) Promoting Healthy Weight. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-hlthwtindex.htm (accessed on 10 April 2012).
National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1998) National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide, 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
National Physical Activity Guidelines. Canberra Available at: http://www. health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health- pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#guidelines_adults
  • Department
  • Ageing Health
Department of Health and Ageing. (2010) National Physical Activity Guidelines. Canberra. Available at: http://www. health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health- pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#guidelines_adults (accessed on 6 September 2011).
National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide, 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1998) National Nutrition Survey: User's Guide, 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.