Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Preoperative Liver Optimization with Multidisciplinary Approach. Toward a Better Outcome

Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, General Surgery Department, Ospedale San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 60, Milano, Italy, .
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.64). 03/2013; 37(6). DOI: 10.1007/s00268-013-1980-2
Source: PubMed


The diagnosis and treatment of hilar tumors requires a multidisciplinary approach based on the synergy of radiologists, surgeons, oncologists, and gastroenterologists. Klatskin tumor is a relatively rare disease with a poor prognosis. Currently, the only possible treatment is represented by the removal of the tumor associated with radical surgery, even though its results are still jeopardized by significant morbidity and mortality. A proper preoperative optimization of the patient, including staging laparoscopy, biliary drainage, and portal vein embolization, may improve short-term outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of preoperative optimization in patients affected by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

From January 2004 to May 2012, 94 patients with preoperative diagnosis of Klastkin tumors were candidates for surgery at the Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit of the Hospital San Raffaele in Milan. The data of all patients were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. The outcome was evaluated in terms of perioperative morbidity and mortality and overall and disease-free survival. Short-term outcome of patients undergoing preoperative optimization was compared with outcome of patients who did not undergo it in terms of intraoperative data, morbidity and mortality.

Of 94 patients undergoing surgery, 80 underwent hepatic and biliary confluence resection. Fourteen patients were considered unresectable due to the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis or advanced disease seen during staging laparoscopy or at laparotomy and therefore were excluded from the analysis. Seventy-five (93.7 %) patients underwent major liver resections: in 14 of these, surgery was performed at a distance of 30-40 days from PVE. In 55 patients, biliary drainage was preoperatively placed for palliation of obstructive jaundice. The postoperative morbidity rate was 51.2 % and mortality 6.2 %. The most frequent cause of death was postoperative liver failure. Five-year survival rate was 29 %. Patients undergoing preoperative optimization experienced a significant reduction of postoperative morbidity, especially in terms of infectious related events.

Klatskin tumor remains a disease associated with poor prognosis, but a correct preoperative diagnostic and therapeutic management provides tools to perform this type of surgery with acceptable morbidity and mortality, thus improving long-term results.

Download full-text


Available from: Francesca Ratti, Aug 28, 2015
  • Source
    • "Complete surgical resection is the only therapeutic strategy offering the chance of a cure to patients with HCCA [1,2,3,4]. Recently, the use of aggressive surgical management, including major hepatectomy, has increased tumor resectability and has improved long-term results for patients [1,4]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Extended liver resection may provide long-term survival in selected patients with Bismuth type IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). The purpose of this study was to identify anatomical factors that predict curative-intended resection. Methods Thirty-three of 159 patients with Bismuth type IV HCCA underwent major hepato-biliary resection with curative intent (CIR) between 2000 and 2010. Disease extent and anatomical variations were analyzed as factors enabling CIR. Results CIR ratio with hilar trifurcation bile duct variation (13/16) was significantly higher than that with other bile duct variation types (18/25). Hilum to left second bile duct confluence and tumor infiltration over left second bile duct confluence lengths in right-sided CIR were significantly shorter than those lengths in left-sided CIR (10.8 ± 4.9 and 2.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. 16.5 ± 8.4 and 7.0 ± 5.3 mm, respectively). Left-sided CIR patients had a marginally higher proportion of tumors invading ≤5 mm over the right second confluence than that in right-sided CIR patients (13/17 vs. 6/16; P = 0.061). The 3-year survival rate after CIR (28%) was significantly higher than after non-CIR (6.1%). Conclusion We recommend the criteria of CIR as bile duct variation type, length of hilum to contralateral second bile duct confluence, and extent of tumor infiltration over the second confluence for Bismuth type IV HCCA.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substantial time elapses before patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCC) receive surgical treatment because of time-consuming preoperative staging and other interventions, including biliary drainage and portal vein embolization. Prolonged times potentially lead to unresectability and the formation of metastases, yet these issues have not been investigated previously in HCC. This study aimed to evaluate the time between onset of symptoms and the provision of ultimate treatment in patients with HCC and the impact of the length of time on outcomes. Delays in the treatment of consecutive patients with HCC were evaluated by contacting general practitioners (GPs) and extracting data from hospital files. Time periods were correlated with resectability, occurrence of metastasis, tumour stage and survival using logistic and Cox regression analyses. Treatment times in 209 consecutive HCC patients were evaluated. The median time from first GP visit until presentation at the tertiary centre was 35 days. Time until treatment was longer when initial symptoms did not include jaundice (non-specific symptoms, P < 0.001). Duration of workup and preoperative biliary drainage at the tertiary centre prior to final surgical treatment resulted in an additional median time of 74 days. No correlation was found between treatment time in weeks and resectability [odds ratio (OR) 1.010, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.985-1.036], metastasis (OR = 0.947, 95% CI 0.897-1.000), tumour stage (OR = 1.006, 95% CI 0.981-1.031) or survival in resected patients (hazard ratio = 0.996, 95% CI 0.975-1.018). The time that elapses between the presentation of symptoms and final treatment in patients with HCC is substantial, especially in patients with non-specific symptoms. This time, however, does not affect resectability, metastasis, tumour stage or survival, which suggests that preoperative optimization should not be omitted because of potential delays in treatment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · HPB
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the outcomes of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma following referral to a specialist multi-disciplinary team. Over an 11-year period, patients referred with hilar cholangiocarcinoma were identified from a prospectively maintained registry. Collated data included demographics, operative findings and histo-pathological data. Survival differences and prognostic factors were determined. 345 patients were referred with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, of which 57 (16.5%) patients had surgery. Prior to 2008, of 143 patients referred, only 17 (11.9%) patients underwent surgery, compared to 40 (19.8%) of 202 patients referred from 2008 onwards (p = 0.051). In the surgery group, the majority of patients underwent left hemi-hepatectomy (n = 19). In addition, portal vein (n = 5), hepatic artery (n = 2) and inferior vena cava (n = 3) resections were performed. The R0 resection rate was 73.7%. The morbidity and mortality rates were 59.6% and 14.0%, respectively. The median disease-free survival was 16 (4-101) months. The presence of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002) was the only predictor of poorer disease-free survival. The 5-year overall survival was 39.5% and was significantly better than that of the palliative group (p < 0.001). Surgery is the optimal treatment option for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with better overall survival. Prompt referral to tertiary centres with a core team of clinicians to manage this difficult condition may allow more patients to come to potentially curative surgical resections.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
Show more