Apathy, poor verbal memory and male gender predict lower psychosocial functioning one year after the first treatment of psychosis

Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, 0407 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: .
Psychiatry research 03/2013; 210(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.02.007
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: Apathy is a negative symptom associated with poor psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia but has not been sufficiently studied as predictor of poor functioning in first episode psychosis (FEP). OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the current study was to evaluate if apathy predicts poor functioning after 1 year in FEP patients in the context of other clinical variables with influence on outcome. METHOD: Sixty-four FEP patients completed an extensive clinical and neuro-psychological test battery at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS), apathy with the shortened Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-C-12) and psychosocial functioning with the functioning score from the split version of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-F). RESULTS: High levels of apathy, poor verbal memory and being male were the baseline variables that best predicted poor functioning at 1-year follow-up, explaining 34% of the variance in GAF-F. When PANSS negative factor was included in the analysis, the significance of AES-C-12 diminished. CONCLUSION: These findings points to a robust role for apathy among the negative symptoms in the development of persisting psychosocial dysfunction in FEP and supports the current effort in targeting motivation to improve functioning.

Download full-text


Available from: Svein Friis, Jun 06, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In the early course of schizophrenia, premorbid functioning, negative symptoms, and neurocognition have been robustly associated with several domains of daily functioning. Research with chronic schizophrenia patients suggests that attitudinal beliefs may influence daily functioning. However, these relationships have not been examined in recent-onset schizophrenia patients. Methods: The sample consisted of recent-onset schizophrenia outpatients (n = 71) who were on average 21.7 (SD = 3.3) years old, had 12.5 (SD = 1.8) years of education, and 5.9 (SD = 6.3) months since psychosis onset. Patients were assessed for premorbid adjustment, positive and negative symptoms, neurocognition, attitudinal beliefs, and daily functioning. Normal controls (n = 20) were screened for psychopathology and demographically matched to the patients. Results: Comparisons indicated that recent-onset patients had higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes and lower self-efficacy compared to healthy controls (t = 3.35, P < .01; t = -4.1, P < .01, respectively). Dysfunctional attitudes (r = -.34) and self-efficacy (r = .36) were significantly correlated with daily functioning. Negative symptoms were found to mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and daily functioning (Sobel test, P < .01), as well as between dysfunctional attitudes and daily functioning (Sobel test, P < .05). Neurocognition was a significant mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and daily functioning (Sobel test, P < .05). Discussion: Early course schizophrenia patients have significantly more dysfunctional attitudes and lower self-efficacy than healthy subjects. Both self-efficacy and dysfunctional attitudes partially contribute to negative symptoms, which in turn influence daily functioning. In addition, self-efficacy partially contributes to neurocognition, which in turn influences daily functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS) is the most extensively used real-world community functioning scale in schizophrenia research. However, the extensive time required to administer it and the inclusion of items that overlap conceptually with negative symptoms limit its use across studies. The present study examined the validity and utility of two abbreviated QLS measures against the full QLS excluding negative symptom items. Method The sample included 1427 patients with schizophrenia who completed the baseline visit in the CATIE study. The validity of two abbreviated QLS measures (7-item and 4-item) were examined with the full QLS, excluding the intrapsychic foundations subscale, using correlation analysis. The utility of the abbreviated measures was explored by examining associations between the functioning scales and clinical variables and longitudinal change. Results Both abbreviated QLS measures were highly predictive of the full QLS (both r = 0.91, p < 0.001), with no difference in predictive value between the abridged measures. Functional status was significantly associated with symptoms and cognition. Importantly, the strength of these associations was similar between the abbreviated and full QLS. Finally, multiple regression models examining the explanatory power of amotivation/apathy in predicting functioning scores after other symptoms and neurocognition had been accounted for were essentially identical irrespective of the QLS instrument used as the dependent measure. Longitudinal change was also similar across the three scales. Conclusions The 7-item abbreviated QLS is recommended as a brief measure of community functioning for individuals with schizophrenia, especially when assessment of functional outcome is not the focus.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apathy in schizophrenia patients is linked to marked functional impairments and can be defined as a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors. If there are now convincing arguments to consider apathy as a multidimensional psychopathological state (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral), there is a lack of validated and standardized instruments for detecting apathy and assessing its multidimensional aspects in schizophrenia. The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) is a semi-structured interview, yielding a global score and composite subscores for the different domains of apathy and has been validated in several different contexts but not in schizophrenia patients.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
Show more