Induction of ICOSCXCR3CXCR5 TH cells correlates with antibody responses to influenza vaccination

Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, Baylor Research Institute, Dallas, TX 75204, USA.
Science translational medicine (Impact Factor: 15.84). 03/2013; 5(176):176ra32. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005191
Source: PubMed


Seasonal influenza vaccine protects 60 to 90% of healthy young adults from influenza infection. The immunological events that lead to the induction of protective antibody responses remain poorly understood in humans. We identified the type of CD4(+) T cells associated with protective antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccinations. The administration of trivalent split-virus influenza vaccines induced a temporary increase of CD4(+) T cells expressing ICOS, which peaked at day 7, as did plasmablasts. The induction of ICOS was largely restricted to CD4(+) T cells coexpressing the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR5, a subpopulation of circulating memory T follicular helper cells. Up to 60% of these ICOS(+)CXCR3(+)CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells were specific for influenza antigens and expressed interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, IL-21, and interferon-γ upon antigen stimulation. The increase of ICOS(+)CXCR3(+)CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells in blood correlated with the increase of preexisting antibody titers, but not with the induction of primary antibody responses. Consistently, purified ICOS(+)CXCR3(+)CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells efficiently induced memory B cells, but not naïve B cells, to differentiate into plasma cells that produce influenza-specific antibodies ex vivo. Thus, the emergence of blood ICOS(+)CXCR3(+)CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells correlates with the development of protective antibody responses generated by memory B cells upon seasonal influenza vaccination.

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Available from: Asuncion Mejias, Jun 11, 2015
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    • "Others have recently shown in humans that circulating Tfh cell responses correlate with antibody responses to influenza vaccination (Bentebibel et al., 2013) and the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV (Locci et al., 2013). Because malaria preferentially activates the less-functional CXCR3 + Tfh subset, we hypothesized that Tfh cell responses to malaria would not correlate with B cell and antibody responses induced by the same infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria-specific antibody responses are short lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated bouts of febrile malaria. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this apparent immune deficiency are poorly understood. Recently, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been shown to play a critical role in generating long-lived antibody responses. We show that Malian children have resting PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh cells in circulation that resemble germinal center Tfh cells phenotypically and functionally. Within this population, PD-1+CXCR5+CXCR3− Tfh cells are superior to Th1-polarized PD-1+CXCR5+CXCR3+ Tfh cells in helping B cells. Longitudinally, we observed that malaria drives Th1 cytokine responses, and accordingly, the less-functional Th1-polarized Tfh subset was preferentially activated and its activation did not correlate with antibody responses. These data provide insights into the Tfh cell biology underlying suboptimal antibody responses to malaria in children and suggest that vaccine strategies that promote CXCR3− Tfh cell responses may improve malaria vaccine efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Cell Reports
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    • "That TfH cells are actively engaged in responses to vaccination has been shown in a number of different virus systems. Bentebibel et al. reported that peripheral TfH-like cells, marked as CD4 + ICOS + CXCR3 + CXCR5 + , are associated with protective antibody responses after seasonal flu vaccination [16]. The efficacy of the foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) may also be enhanced through the generation of TfH cells [17] [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort based study has been undertaken to investigate the possible association of genetic polymorphisms in genes functionally related to follicular T helper (TfH) cells with non-responsiveness to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. A total of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 TfH related genes (CXCR5, ICOS, CXCL13, IL-21, BCL6 and CD40L) were investigated in 20 non-responders and 45 responders to HBV vaccination. Genetic association analysis revealed that three SNPs (rs497916, rs3922, rs676925) in CXCR5 and one SNP (rs355687) in CXCL13 were associated with hepatitis B vaccine efficacy. In addition, significantly unbalanced distributions of two haplotypes, defined by three SNPs (rs497916, rs3922, rs676925) within CXCR5, were also seen between non-responders and responders. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the rs3922 "GG" genotype was associated with higher levels of CXCR5 than the "AG" and "AA" genotype in a group of healthy volunteers. A dual luciferase report assay was used to confirm that the "G" allele in rs3922 may lead to higher gene expression than the "A" allele, implicating that rs3922 might be a functional SNP affecting CXCR5 expression. These results indicated that polymorphism associated changes in CXCR5 expression in TfH cells may be associated with non-responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination.
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    • "Recent studies in young subjects indicate a substantial cross-reactivity of CD4 T cell responses for different strains of influenza virus [9], consistent with better sequence conservation outside of NAb determinants. In addition, expansion of CD4 T cell responses following vaccination correlates with NAb responses in young subjects [10,11] suggesting that vaccine-mediated boosting of CD4 T cell responses may be important not only for generating Th1-like memory that can be directly protective [5,12], but also for generating CD4 T cells that can provide help for other components of the immune response. "
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    ABSTRACT: Current yearly influenza virus vaccines induce strain-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses providing protective immunity to closely matched viruses. However, these vaccines are often poorly effective in high-risk groups such as the elderly and challenges exist in predicting yearly or emerging pandemic influenza virus strains to include in the vaccines. Thus, there has been considerable emphasis on understanding broadly protective immunological mechanisms for influenza virus. Recent studies have implicated memory CD4 T cells in heterotypic immunity in animal models and in human challenge studies. Here we examined how influenza virus vaccination boosted CD4 T cell responses in younger versus aged humans. Our results demonstrate that while the magnitude of the vaccine-induced CD4 T cell response and number of subjects responding on day 7 did not differ between younger and aged subjects, fewer aged subjects had peak responses on day 14. While CD4 T cell responses were inefficiently boosted against NA, both HA and especially nucleocaspid protein- and matrix-(NP+M) specific responses were robustly boosted. Pre-existing CD4 T cell responses were associated with more robust responses to influenza virus NP+M, but not H1 or H3. Finally pre-existing strain-specific NAb decreased the boosting of CD4 T cell responses. Thus, accumulation of pre-existing influenza virus-specific immunity in the form of NAb and cross-reactive T cells to conserved virus proteins (e.g. NP and M) over a lifetime of exposure to infection and vaccination may influence vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses in the aged.
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