Fluoride Concentration of Drinking Waters and Prevalence of Fluorosis in Iran: A Systematic Review

Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects 02/2013; 7(1):1-7. DOI: 10.5681/joddd.2013.001
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to systematically review fluoride concentration of drinking waters and prevalence of fluorosis in Iran through systematically evaluating results of studies conducted in this regard.
In this systematic review study, the required data was collected using keywords including drinking water fluoride, fluoride concentration, Fluorosis, dent*, Iran*, and their Persian equivalents through PubMed, ScienceDirect, IranMedex, SID, MEDLIB, and Magiran databases. Out of 617 articles, 29 articles were finally considered after excluding the remaining articles which were not related to the study objectives. Following precise studying and extraction, the relevant data were summarized in extraction tables and analyzed manually. Excel 2007 software was used to draw diagrams.
4434 samples of surface, ground, and tap water resources collected within 236 months during all seasons in 17 provinces of Iran were used in 29 articles determining fluoride concentrations of drinking water. Average fluoride concentration was estimated to be 0.43 ± 0.17 ppm with zero and 3.06 as minimal and maximal values. The least concentration was seen in tap water. Fluoride concentration of only three provinces was in accordance with the global standard. According to estimations, prevalence of fluorosis was 61% with only 1% as severe fluorosis.
Despite lower than standard concentrations of fluoride in drinking water, a relatively high level of fluorosis was seen in Iran.

Download full-text


Available from: seyyed mostafa Mahmoudi, Jul 08, 2014
    • "Reference management software of Endnote X5 was used to organize study titles and abstracts and also to identify repeated cases (Azami-Aghdash et al., 2013;Ghojazadeh et al., 2013a;Moradi Khanghahi et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Oral cancer stands among the 10 top causes of cancer death in the world. Considering the role of epidemiologic information on planning and effective interventions, the present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of oral cancer in Iran. Materials and methods: The required information for this systematic review study was obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL,SID, Medlib, Magiran and Iranmedex databases, using key words "cancer", "oral cancer", "squamous cell carcinoma", "oral cavity carcinoma" and their Persian equivalents in combination with keywords of epidemiology, prevalence, etiology, frequency, and Iran from 1990 to 2014. From 1,065 related studies found, finally 25 were included to the study. Results: The mean age of 8,248 patients in 25 studies was 54.0±15.1 years. The male/female ratio for oral cancer was 1.91. Tongue with average percentage of 29.9 was the most involved site. Regarding microscopic grade, 65.7% of cases were grade 1. SCCs, accounting for an average of 70.0%, was the most common among all types of oral cancer. In the majority of studies, smoking including cigarette, hookah, and tobacco consumption was found to be a risk factor. Conclusions: The epidemiological pattern of oral cancer in Iran is somewhat similar to that of other countries. Yet the information on hand in this field is limited and considering the role of epidemiological data we suggest conducting more accurate studies to catch data that is required for effective programs and interventions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fluorosis occurs due to excessive fluorine entry into the body. Dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis are different types of fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to high concentration of fluoride during tooth development. The over exposure to fluorine may occur at any age, but it is higher in young age group. Prevalence of dental fluorosis varies in different parts of the world and there is wide geographic variation in prevalence of dental fluorosis in different geographic locations of the world. Like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis also has different distribution in different parts of the world.
    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: The fluoride (F) content and distribution pattern of groundwater, the main drinking water source, in 35 villages and towns in the Zarand area in Kerman Province of Iran were assessed using the F ion chromatography method. The average groundwater F concentration was 1.80 mg/L (range: 0.33–3.51 mg/L) and in 22 sites the F concentration exceeded 1.5 mg/L, the maximum F drinking water level recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Exposure to excess dietary F may lead to chronic disease with detrimental health effects, including dental and skeletal fluorosis, and providing safe water for domestic use is recommended. Keywords: Dental fluorosis; Distribution pattern; Drinking water; Groundwater; Iran.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
Show more