Guideline Promotes Early, Aggressive Sepsis Treatment to Boost Survival

ArticleinJAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 309(10):969-970 · March 2013with41 Reads
Impact Factor: 35.29 · DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.1295 · Source: PubMed
    • "However , inflammatory indices are normal or slightly elevated, differentiating the two conditions. Faced with a clinical suspicion of a septic status, the emergency room physician will treat the child promptly and aggressively, as indicated in such cases [38]. The treatment will include antibiotics – even before test results confirm the etiologic diagnosis – intravenous fluids to sustain blood pressure, dopamine or epinephrine, oxygen, and sometimes plasma infusion. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess all the possible differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), both in acute and chronic presentation, reviewing the data reported in published studies. There is an increase of reported cases of FPIES in recent years. As the disease presents with nonspecific symptoms, it can be misunderstood in many ways. The differential diagnosis includes, in acute presentations, the following: sepsis, other infectious diseases, acute gastrointestinal episodes, surgical emergencies, food allergies. In its chronic forms, FPIES may mimic malabsorption syndromes, metabolic disorders, primary immunodeficiencies, neurological conditions, coagulation defects, and other types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. A thorough clinical evaluation, including symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings, is necessary to lead the clinicians toward the diagnosis of FPIES. The major reason for delayed diagnosis appears to be the lack of knowledge of the disease.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To develop predictive models for early triage of burn patients based on hypersusceptibility to repeated infections. Background: Infection remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity after severe trauma, demanding new strategies to combat infections. Models for infection prediction are lacking. Methods: Secondary analysis of 459 burn patients (>=16 years old) with 20% or more total body surface area burns recruited from 6 US burn centers. We compared blood transcriptomes with a 180-hour cutoff on the injury-to-transcriptome interval of 47 patients (<=1 infection episode) to those of 66 hypersusceptible patients [multiple (>=2) infection episodes (MIE)]. We used LASSO regression to select biomarkers and multivariate logistic regression to built models, accuracy of which were assessed by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and cross-validation. Results: Three predictive models were developed using covariates of (1) clinical characteristics; (2) expression profiles of 14 genomic probes; (3) combining (1) and (2). The genomic and clinical models were highly predictive of MIE status [AUROCGenomic = 0.946 (95% CI: 0.906-0.986); AUROCClinical = 0.864 (CI: 0.794-0.933); AUROCGenomic/AUROCClinical P = 0.044]. Combined model has an increased AUROCCombined of 0.967 (CI: 0.940-0.993) compared with the individual models (AUROCCombined/AUROCClinical P = 0.0069). Hypersusceptible patients show early alterations in immune-related signaling pathways, epigenetic modulation, and chromatin remodeling. Conclusions: Early triage of burn patients more susceptible to infections can be made using clinical characteristics and/or genomic signatures. Genomic signature suggests new insights into the pathophysiology of hypersusceptibility to infection may lead to novel potential therapeutic or prophylactic targets.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Annals of Surgery
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with sepsis admitted to hospitals in Victoria, Australia, during the period 2004-14. The data include incidence, severity and mortality.Methods In all, 44 222 sepsis hospitalisations were identified between 2004-05 and 2013-14 from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset. The dataset contains clinical and demographic information on all admissions to acute public and private hospitals. Using the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) Australian Modification codes, incidence rates, severity of disease and mortality were calculated.Results Sepsis hospitalisation rates per 10 000 population increased significantly (P < 0.01) over the period, from 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-7.8) to 10.0 (95% CI 9.1-11.1), an annual growth rate of 3.8%. The age-standardised in-hospital death rates per 100 000 population grew significantly (P < 0.01) from 9.2 (95% CI 7.8-10.4) in 2004-05 to 13.0 (95% CI 11.7-14.6) in 2013-14, an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Among people under 45 years of age, the 0-4 years age group had the highest hospitalisation rate (3.0 per 10 000 population; 95% CI 2.7-3.4). Nearly half (46.2%) of all sepsis hospitalisations were among patients born overseas, with a rate of 14.5 per 10 000 population (95% CI 12.4-16.2) in that group compared with a rate of 5.9 per 10 000 population (95% CI 5.3-6.7) for patients born in Australia. The age-standardised sepsis hospitalisation rate was 2.6-fold greater in the lowest compared with highest socioeconomic areas (12.7 per 10 000 population (95% CI 11.2-13.8) vs 4.8 per 10 000 population (95% CI 4.1-5.7), respectively).Conclusion This paper shows a significant upward trend in both sepsis separation rates and in-hospital death rates over the period; unlike sepsis, in-hospital death rates from all diagnoses fell over the same period. The results can be used to stimulate review of clinical practice. Greater understanding of the epidemiology of sepsis could improve care quality and outcomes.What is known about the topic? Sepsis is associated with high mortality rates and severe sepsis is the most common cause of death in intensive care units (ICU). The last published study of sepsis in Victoria (in 2005) showed a gradual rise in rates; since then, there is little information as to whether there has been any significant improvement in treatment outcomes.What does this paper add? This paper provides new information by analysing trends and variations in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria by several demographic groups from 2004-05 to 2013-14.What are the implications for practitioners? Patients with severe sepsis consume approximately half the ICU resources. Reliable and recent data on the growth of this disease are important for prevention, allocation of resources and to track the effectiveness of care. A key area for intervention is promoting greater adherence to clinical guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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