Article

[The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in central nervous system activity and mental disorders]

Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych UM w Poznaniu.
Psychiatria polska (Impact Factor: 0.73). 11/2012; 46(6):1043-52.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Oxytocin and vasopressin, "peptides of love and fear", except for their classic role in control of labor and breastfeeding and blood pressure regulation, are also implicated in various processes like sexual behaviours, social recognition and stress response. These hormones seems to be essential for appropriate and beneficial social interactions, play a very important role in maternal care and closeness, promote general trust and cooperation and prolong social memory. They also play a very important role in modulating fear and anxiety response, especially by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and amygdala activity by its projections to the brain stem and hypothalamic structures. Both hormones, particularly oxytocin, appears to be activating sexual behaviour or is responsible for increased sexual arousal. Evidence from clinical trials suggests their potential role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, autism and addiction together with possible therapeutic use in the above conditions. In schizophrenia, patients with higher peripheral oxytocin levels showed less severe positive, general and social symptoms and better prosocial behaviours. Literature suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be effective as an adjunctive therapy for that illness. Some data suggest that naturally occurring autoantibodies reacting with oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in depression, eating disorders and conduct disorder genesis.

0 Followers
 · 
7 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythm plays an important role in human physiology. Its abnormal functioning results, among others, in jet lag disorder (JLD- Jet Lag Disorder), which is a discomfort experienced by people travelling between time zones, as well as being the cause for metabolic diseases in people working shifts. Recent studies have shown the role of vasopressin V1a and V1b suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN- surachiasmatic nucleus) of the hypothalamus in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Mice genetically lacking receptors are resistant to disturbances of circadian rhythm, and are characterized by an almost immediate adjustment to the new rhythm. A similar effect is achieved by pharmacologically blocking V1a and V1b receptors. Research gives hope of overcoming this disorder to travellers who traverse time zones at high speed, as well as creating the possibility of adaptation to shift work without provoking any negative consequences over one´s health.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Pediatric endocrinology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: B. F. Kania. D. Wrońska, M. Błachuta Neurobiological importances of oxytocin for humans and animals Summary Oxytocin (OT), nonapeptide secreted by two different types of neurohypophysis neurons (magnocellular and parvocellular) exclusively in mammals from the 500 million years ago it was regarding a short time ago to neurohormon what be in charge of labor preparation and the onset of labor, as well as milk let down reflex after parturition. Although, in the past decade particular investigations in neuroanatomy, neurobiology and important possibilities of oxytocinergic neurons, fibres and specific binding oxytocin receptors were taking. In addition, oxytocin can be found within central and peripheral nervous system as well as almost in the all important peripheral organ and tissues (e.g., uterus, placenta, amnion, corpus luteum, testis, heart, adrenals). Also, in these organ, the localization of the oxytocin specific receptors were confirmed. They are in the brain (amygdala, nucleus accumbens, dorsal complex nucleus of the vagus centers, hippocampus, striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, medulla), spinal cord, jejunum, adrenal glands, gonads, udder, and others. Moreover, that oxytocin have important role in the parturition and lactation, to act also as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator via specific receptors in different tissues and organ. Apart from different physiological properties in the brain and different regions of organism, it can influence upon pathophysiology of the socio-mental behavior as a anxiety, aggression, stress, pain, depression, schizophrenia or autism in humans. Molecular basis of OT effects (known as exultation and happiness hormone) is based mainly on antagonistic influence to the amino acid L-glutamate, dopamine as well as GABA-ergic systems, certainly in the brain. L-glutamate, one of the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitters in mammalian CNS, is involved in the long-lasting adaptative changes that occur in response to factor exposure. Glutamate can bind to its receptors NMDA and exert its effect. Glutamate NMDA complex receptor it composed from ionotropic and metabotropic fragments. Release of excessive amounts of L-glutamate, occurring in conflict situation can provoke neurotoxic effects and neurodegenration, facilitate pain transmission or trigerring systemic hyperactivity in the stress conditions. It was demonstrated that activation of metabotropic receptors promote OT release from hypothalamo-neurophyseal systems, but direct evidence of a glutamate contribution in modulation of OT release in unanaesthetized animals is spare.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
Show more