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Airborne and spaceborne LiDAR data as a measurement tool for peatland topography, peat fire burn depth, and forest above ground biomass in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

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  • Zukunft - Umwelt - Gesellschaft (ZUG) gGmbH
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Technical Report
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This report was prepared by Carbomap Ltd. for the High Carbon Stock (HCS) Science Study. The aim of this study was to summarise recent literature on the application of LiDAR technology for assessing and modelling above-ground biomass of tropical forests; To derive default technical parameters for ALS data acquisition and forest inventory design for the assessment of forest carbon/above-ground biomass; And to derive a best practice approach for the modelling of above-ground biomass by LiDAR. The analysis in the report was prepared by Sam Fleming, Prof. Iain H. Woodhouse, Dr. Genevieve Patenaude, and Dr Antoine Cottin, all of Carbomap Ltd.
Article
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Tropical peatlands are one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems in terms of C stocks, and greenhouse gas emissions following disturbances such as deforestation, drainage or wildfire. Nitrous oxide dynamics in tropical peat systems is still poorly known. We quantified in situ N<sub>2</sub>O fluxes using closed chamber methods and compared them with CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> fluxes at sites representing differing land uses and land use change intensities, i.e. non-drained and drained selectively logged peat swamp forest, clear-felled drained recovering forest, deforested drained and burned peat, and agriculture on peat. The mean N<sub>2</sub>O flux rates (N<sub>2</sub>O-N ± SD, mg m<sup>−2</sup> h<sup>−1</sup>) varied as follows: drained forest (0.112 ± 0.293) > agricultural peat in Kalampangan site (0.012 ± 0.026) > drained burned peat (0.011 ± 0.018) > agricultural peat in Marang site (0.0072 ± 0.028) > nondrained forest (0.0025 ± 0.053) > clear-felled drained recovering forest (0.0022 ± 0.021). Most N<sub>2</sub>O fluxes were < 0.05 mg N<sub>2</sub>O-N m<sup>−2</sup> h<sup>−1</sup> efflux, but some modest peat N<sub>2</sub>O influx readings were also detected. Many very high flux rates (deviating markedly from the majority of observations) occurred both spatially and over time, and further studies using continuous flux monitoring methods are needed to better understand the contribution of these to cumulative emissions. The widest N<sub>2</sub>O flux amplitude was detected in the drained forest with moderately drained peat (max. 2.312 and min. −0.043 mg N<sub>2</sub>O-N m<sup>−2</sup> h<sup>−1</sup>. At the other sites the flux amplitude remained about 10 × smaller. Annual cumulative peat surface N<sub>2</sub>O emissions expressed as CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents as a percentage of the total greenhouse gas (N<sub>2</sub>O, CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub>) emissions was at the highest 9.2 %, but typically ~1 %.
Article
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The severe tensions between conservation and development are illustrated by events in Malinau Dstrict (Kalimantan, Indonesia). Conservationists decry proposed plans for logging and conversion of pristine tropical forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Although the local governments willing to declare the district a "conservation district," at the same time it shows interest in oil palm conversion. This article explores the impact of the potential conversion of 500 000 ha of forest to oil palm on forest cover, inmigration, and the local economy in Malinau. The simulation model was developed using STELLA® software, and relies on a combination of empirical data, data from the literature, and stakeholder perceptions. If a company were to clear the forest for timber without planting oil palm (as commonly happens), poverty levels are likely to rise rather than decline over the long term. If large-scale oil palm plantations were to be established, they could yield significant benefits to local authorities. However, such development would induce massive employment-driven migration, with wide-ranging consequences for the current inhabitants of the region. By visualizing and quantifying these trade-offs between conservation and development, the model stimulates debate and information exchange among conservationists, development actors, and district authorities so that well-informed choices can be made.
Article
The world has approximately 4 billion hectares of forests, roughly 30 percent of them primary forests.1 Their provision of goods and services plays an important role in the overall health of the planet and is of fundamental importance to human economy and welfare. These goods and services-collectively called ecosystem goods and services, or simply ecosystem services-include, among other things, food and timber, the formation of soils, the regulation of climate and hydrological processes, and the spiritual, aesthetic, and recreational opportunities associated with peoples enjoyment of nature.2. Copyright © 2008 Royal Institute of International Affairs. All rights reserved.