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Effect of boxing exercises on physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian elite boxers

Authors:
  • Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University

Abstract

Boxing is a combat sport characterized by High intensity movements during limited rounds, with short breaks are insufficient for full recovery. Physiologists should be conscious of the physiological and biochemical changes that might cause by boxing exercises. The aim of the study is to assess the effects of boxing exercises on physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian elite boxers. Seventeen Egyptian elite male boxers (age range 18-23 years) registered in the Egyptian boxing federation, volunteered to participate in the study. Physiological and biochemical measures were obtained at baseline and at the end of boxing training programme. Student's (T) test was followed out to examine pre- and post-test values. Data noted that boxing exercises were associated with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in resting heart rate (HRrest), recovery heart rate after 1 minute (RHR1st), recovery heart rate after 2 minutes (RHR2nd), recovery heart rate after 3 minutes (RHR3rd), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values, and blood lactate (BL) concentration, while they connected with significant increases (p < 0.05) in peak heart rate (HRPeak), relative and absolute VO2Max, Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) values. The authors' statistics demonstrate considerable physiological and biochemical changes significantly affected by boxing exercises in elite boxers. Examining relationships connected with the effects of training on physiological and biochemical aspects add new dimensions that can help in assessing, directing and developing athletic training programmes.
Journal of Physical Education and Sport
®
(JPES), 12(1), Art 18, pp. 111 - 116, 2012
online ISSN: 2247 - 806X; p-ISSN: 2247 – 8051; ISSN - L = 2247 - 8051 © JPES
Corresponding Author:
:
Said El-Ashker Email: dr_said24@yahoo.com
111
Original Article
Effect of boxing exercises on physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian
elite boxers.
SAID EL-ASHKER
1,
, MOSTAFA NASR
1
1
Athletic Training Department, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Mansoura University, EGYPT
Published online: March 31, 2012
(Accepted for publication March 25, 2012)
Abstract:
Boxing is a combat sport characterized by High intensity movements during limited rounds, with short breaks
are insufficient for full recovery. Physiologists should be conscious of the physiological and biochemical
changes that might cause by boxing exercises. The aim of the study is to assess the effects of boxing exercises on
physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian elite boxers. Seventeen Egyptian elite male boxers (age
range 18-23 years) registered in the Egyptian boxing federation, volunteered to participate in the study.
Physiological and biochemical measures were obtained at baseline and at the end of boxing training programme.
Student’s (T) test was followed out to examine pre- and post-test values. Data noted that boxing exercises were
associated with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in resting heart rate (HR
rest
)
,
recovery heart rate after 1 minute
(RHR
1st
)
,
recovery heart rate after 2 minutes (RHR
2nd
)
,
recovery heart rate after 3 minutes (RHR
3rd
)
,
respiratory
exchange ratio (RER) values, and blood lactate (BL) concentration, while they connected with significant
increases (p < 0.05) in peak heart rate (HR
Peak
), relative and absolute VO
2Max
, Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate
Dehydrogenase (LDH) values. The authors’ statistics demonstrate considerable physiological and biochemical
changes significantly affected by boxing exercises in elite boxers. Examining relationships connected with the
effects of training on physiological and biochemical aspects add new dimensions that can help in assessing,
directing and developing athletic training programmes.
Key Words: Boxing, VO2max, Heart rate, Blood lactate, Creatine kinase
Introduction
Boxing is a combat sport where two participants of the same weight battle each other with their fists in a
series of three-minute rounds (AIBA, 2010). Modification in boxing technical & competition rules especially in
the duration and number of rounds might have incorporated ascending physiological changes in boxers. Despite
the shortness of boxing match length (3 rounds x 3 min), it is distinguished that boxers should be equipped for
huge efforts on the ring (El-Ashker, 2011). Most specialists in the combat sports fields emphasized on the
importance of studying physiological changes associated with combating effort (Beneke et al., 2004; Toskovic et
al., 2002; Kravitz et al., 2003; Ghosh, 2010; Chatterjee et al., 2006). The level of performance advances
whenever such positive physiological changes occurred to achieve training adaptations lead to execute boxing
bouts efficiency, without decreasing energy production (El-Ashker, 2004).
Energy from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism relies on the intensity and length of the activity
(Kraemer et al., 2011). Boxing is characterized by High intensity movements during rounds with short breaks are
not enough for full recovery. Consequently, this results in the production of lactic acid, and elevated blood
lactate (Khanna and Manna, 2006). Boxing rounds put a heavy load on boxers who have ascending heart rate and
blood lactate concentration through bouts (Ghosh et al., 1995). Simultaneously, physiologists and athletes should
be more conscious of the biochemical changes that might caused by prolonged exercise (Warburton et al., 2002).
As a result, the best method to assess training adaptations and to prevent overtraining is examining the selected
biochemical markers (Urhausen and Kindermann, 2002; Gleeson, 2002; Umeda et al., 2008). Therefore, the
trainer should be familiar with the physiological aspects related to training.
A small number of studies have been informed in the literature concerning the physiological demands of
boxing (Khanna and Manna, 2006). The physiological requirements of boxing have been investigated on account
of heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake (VO
2Max
), blood lactate (BL) (Kravitz et al., 2003; Ghosh, 2010; Ghosh et
al., 1991). Earlier studies on Egyptian boxers focus on motor ability, aerobic and anaerobic capacities of
Egyptian Boxers (El-Ashker, 2004; Hafez, 1997; El-Hawy, 1983). Rare studies investigated the biochemical
responses of Egyptian boxers (Shehata, 2010) have been conducted. To the authors’ information, this is the first
study to analyse both physiological and biochemical responses in Egyptian boxers. Consequently, the purpose of
this study was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of Egyptian elite boxers subsequent to
boxing exercises.
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Materials and methods
Participants
The study was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education,
Mansoura University, Egypt, and the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for the
use of human subjects were accepted in the study. A total of 17 Egyptian elite male boxers (age range 18 ~ 23
yr) volunteered to participate. Subject characteristics (Mean ± SD) are located in Table 1. All of them were
registered in the Egyptian boxing federation, with a minimum of 4 years of national boxing participation. The
objective of the study was explained to the participants. Selected boxers are volunteered, and could withdraw if
they wished.
Table 1. Baseline characteristics of the study subjects (n= 17).
Variable (Mean ± SD) Range
Age (years) 19.47 ± 1.26 18.0 – 22.6
Height (m) 175.3 ± 0.02 1.71 – 1.79
Body mass (kg) 73.8 ± 5.1 68.0 – 83.2
% Body Fat 14.4 ± 1.9 11.8 – 17.54
Training age (years) 5.1 ± 1.27 3.6 – 7.5
Before acceptation as a subject, all participants were supplied with a consent form and a physical activity
willingness questionnaire. The willingness questionnaire asked about any medical troubles or situations that may
exclude participants from the study. Participants were given the type of food they are accustomed to, as well as
the training programme has been conducted in the same conditions they are familiar with.
Procedures
To evaluate the physiological and biochemical variables, Participants attended the laboratory in a comfortable
situation with at least one full rest day since their last training session. For all Participants, physiological [resting
heart rate (HR
rest
), peak heart rate (HR
Peak
), recovery heart rate after 1 minute (RHR
1st
), recovery heart rate after
2 minutes (RHR
2nd
), recovery heart rate after 3 minutes (RHR
3rd
), relative maximal oxygen uptake (VO
2Max1
),
absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO
2Max1)
, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER)] and biochemical [Blood
Lactate (BL), Creatine Kinase (CK), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)] measures were acquired two times; at
baseline and at the end of the training programme. Data collected using a well defined data capture sheet.
Research assistants registered physiological and biochemical measures at baseline and after eight weeks.
Participants were told not to take any drugs or tobacco in the day their physiological and biochemical measures
were to be estimated. They were also informed not to execute any exercises in the 48 hours before assessing
measures.
Physiological parameters Measurement
Heart rate responses were calculated automatically by a pulse monitor (Polar Sport-tester
TM
PE 3000; Polar
Electro, Finland) and calculated at 15-second intervals. Relative and absolute VO2
max
and RER were calculated
according to standard methodology (Astrand and Rodahl, 1986). After warming-up for 15 min comprised (a
standardized 10 min routine followed by 5 min of full-body stretching routine) all participants were asked to run
on the motor-driven treadmill at a velocity of 6 km/h for 2 min. After that, the workload was augmented by 2
km/h for each 2 min unto causing volitional exhaustion. Expired gases were sampled and calculated from an
integration chamber by programmed respiratory gas analyzer device (ZAN 600™, nSpire Health GmbH,
Germany).
Biochemical parameters Measurement
Blood lactate (BL) was calculated with a portable lactate analyzer (Accusport, Boehringer Mannheim, Germany)
using adequate blood sample amount of finger pricking taken immediately after cessation of complete boxing
match. Ten millilitres of a blood sample were taken from an antecubital vein under the influence of fasting
conditions early in the morning, in complete comfort for a period of not less than 6-8 hours prior to tests under
research. Five millilitres of the blood sample were utilized to examine CK, and 5 ml were utilized to examine
LDH. Samples were cooled and stocked at -20
C until analyses for CK, and LDH. Specialists from the medical
laboratories at Mansoura University Hospital helped the researchers take blood samples, and carry out the
biochemical Measurements.
In order to protect the participants and guarantee the accuracy of the values, nine participants were excluded
from the experiment because of medical conditions (high blood pressure - high blood sugar), and those whose
biochemical examinations have shown up normal values in the CK, LDH enzymes, due to their association with
certain pathogens affecting the activity of enzymes.
Training programme
The training programme was planned by the coach of Mansoura sports club. It comprised 8 weeks of total 32
sessions (53 hours). Researchers divided the training programme into three phases (see Table 2). 1
st
phase was
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aimed to overall development of physical fitness components (e.g. strength, mobility, endurance) as well as
developing fundamental motor skills; 2
nd
phase intended to develop specific physical fitness components and
enhance advanced technical skills alongside competition experience; 3
rd
phase was proposed to adjust technical
performance, train for the main competition in addition to emphasizing tactical and competition experience.
Intensity of the training programme was calculated by means of Karvonen’s formulae [Target Heart Rate =
((HR
Peak
HR
rest
) × %Intensity) + HR
rest
] (Brown et al., 2006); HR
Peak
was estimated as 220 minus participant’s
age. HR
rest
was acquired for all participants at pre-test by asking them to recline on their own for 5 min and
wearing a pulse monitor (Polar Sport-tester
TM
PE 3000; Polar Electro, Finland), in calm area with no
distractions. HR
rest
was subsequently recorded and used to estimate target heart rate intensities. Workouts consist
of [core conditioning – running - speed work - strength training - shadow boxing - skipping rope - boxing cardio
exercises - working on heavy, double end and speed bags -boxing combinations - defensive, offensive and
counter attack skills - free sparring].
Table 2. Boxing training programme phases and variables during the training period.
phases
Variables
1
st
phase
(Basic)
2
nd
phase
(Specific)
3
rd
phase
(Taper)
Weeks 2 3 3
Workouts per week 4 4 4
Resting days per week 3 3 3
Workout duration per min 110 100 90
Intensity 70 % 80 % 90 %
Data Analysis
Data were collected from participants and then were collated and inserted in the statistical software
package, SPSS-16 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Il). Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. Values are
presented as Mean ± Standard deviation. Student’s (T) test was followed out to examine pre- and post-test
results. For all statistics, the level of significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results
Were the intervention boxers alike in physiological parameters at baseline and after 8 weeks boxing
exercises?
Table 3 illustrates statistical significant differences in all of the physiological parameters at p < 0.05 between pre
and post values. Boxers’ mean HR
rest
decreased (from 73.1 to 67.3 beats/min), but, in contrast, boxers’ mean
HR
Peak
increased (from 197 to 204 beats/min). During the same period, Boxers’ mean RHR
1st
, RHR
2nd
and
RHR
3rd
dropped (p < 0.05)
(from 171, 146.5 and 139 beats/min to 166.6, 141 and 128 beats/min respectively).
Simultaneously, relative and absolute VO
2Max
increased significantly (p < 0.05) (from 58.2 to 64.6 ml/kg/min;
from 4.65 to 5.23 l/min respectively). During the same period intervention boxers’ mean RER decreased
significantly (p < 0.05) (from 0.83 to 0.79).
Table 3. Pre and post-training programme physiological parameters (n=17).
95% Confidence Limits
Parameter Pre-Test
Mean (SD)
Post-Test
Mean (SD) Difference
a
Min Max P-value
HR
rest
73.1 ± 2.7 67.3 ± 1.9 - 5.8 + 3.4 + 7.1 < 0.05
HR
Peak
197 ± 5.8 204 ± 7.2 + 7.0 - 8.1 - 4.4 < 0.05
RHR
1st
171 ± 7.2 166.6 ± 5.1 - 4.4 + 3.9 + 5.1 < 0.05
RHR
2nd
146.5 ± 6.9 141 ± 6.9 - 5.5 + 4.6 + 6.1 < 0.05
RHR
3rd
139 ± 7.1 128 ± 5.1 - 11.0 + 6.6 + 8.6 < 0.05
VO
2 Max1
58.2 ± 6.9 64.6 ± 7.2 + 6.4 - 10.3 - 3.2 < 0.05
VO
2
Max2
4.65 ± 0.30 5.23 ± 0.60 + 0.6 - 0.68 - 0.36 < 0.05
RER 0.83 ± 0.02 0.79 ± 0.2 - 0.04 + 0.02 + 0.06 < 0.05
Note:
a
= post-test mean minus pre-test mean, HRrest = resting heart rate (beats/min), HR
Peak
= peak heart rate
(beats/min), RHR
1st
= recovery heart rate after 1 minute (beats/min), RHR
2nd
= recovery heart rate after 2
minutes (beats/min), RHR
3rd
= recovery heart rate after 3 minutes (beats/min),
VO
2Max1
= relative maximal
oxygen uptake (ml/kg/min), VO
2Max2
= absolute maximal oxygen uptake (l/min), RER = respiratory exchange
ratio.
Were the intervention boxers alike in biochemical parameters at baseline and after 8 weeks boxing exercises?
Table 3 illustrates statistical significant differences in all of the biochemical parameters at p < 0.05 between pre
and post values. A significant reduction in the BL concentration was reported among the intervention boxers
(from 8.7 to 7.3 mMol/L). Furthermore, intervention boxers’ mean CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) (from
205.4 to 239.4 IU/l). Additionally, intervention boxers’ mean LDH increased significantly (from 279.7 to 349.9
IU/l ).
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Table 4. Pre and post-training programme biochemical parameters (n=17).
95% Confidence Limits
Parameter Pre-Test
Mean (SD)
Post-Test
Mean (SD) Difference
a
Min Max P-value
BL
8.7 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.0 - 1.4 + 1.2 + 1.5 < 0.05
CK 205.4 ± 16.6 239.4 ± 9.2 + 34.1 - 42.9 - 25.3 < 0.05
LDH 279.7 ± 14.1 349.9 ± 79.5 + 70.25 - 81.1 - 58.8 < 0.05
Note:
a
= post-test mean minus pre-test mean, BL = Blood Lactate (mMol/L), CK = Creatine Kinase (IU/l), LDH
= Lactate Dehydrogenase (IU/l).
Discussion
The studied boxers executed the training programme period without any symptoms of clinical signs that
would exclude them from the study. The authors’ statistics express significant physiological and biochemical
responses to boxing exercises in elite boxers. Regarding physiological parameters, by comparing the post-
training programme values with pre-training programme values (Table 3), our results noted that boxing exercises
training programme was associated with significant decreases in HR
rest,
RHR
1st,
RHR
2nd,
RHR
3rd,
and RER values,
while it associated with significant increases in HR
Peak
, relative and absolute VO
2Max
. In connection with HR
values, a lowered resting HR has long been known as an indicator of improving aerobic capacity (Reilly et al.,
1990). It has become a fact that physical activity has a high impact on well-being enhancement in athletic
activities (Aubert et al., 2003). Our findings proposed that boxing exercises may be helpful in promoting
physiological parameters among elite boxers. This could be consequently interpreted as improved aerobic
capacity in boxers (Chatterjee et al., 2006). Thus, we can say that boxing exercises help to develop
cardiovascular fitness over time, in other words, boxing exercises are cardioprotective (serving to protect the
heart). The maximal oxygen uptake (VO
2max
) is one of the essential indicators that provides an appropriate
prediction of performance in amateur boxing (Guidetti et al., 2002), and it is considered as one of the best tests
of aerobic performance (Hale, 2003; Morris, 2010), which plays a vital role in boxing and has a main effect on
technical and tactical performance effectiveness (El-Ashker, 2004). The findings of the recent research pointed
out that boxing exercises affect significantly VO
2max
, which affirms possibility of boxing exercises’s for
enhancing aerobic performance. Pre-training relative and absolute VO
2max
values began at 58.2 ml/kg/min and
4.65 l/min respectively. Subsequent to the 8-weeks boxing training programme, relative and absolute VO
2max
values were elevated to 64.6 ml/kg/min and 5.23 l/min respectively. The average values for VO
2max
of post-
training programme were higher than the Indian elite boxers (59.5 ml/kg/min) (Ghosh, 2010); and also much
higher than levels of previous Indian boxers (54.5 ml/kg/min) (Ghosh et al., 1995); and slightly higher than
England senior national boxers (63.8 ml/kg/min) (Smith, 2006). This statistics proposes that boxing exercises
improve VO
2max
efficiently within an eight-week period.
The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) refers to the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen used during
metabolism (v
co2
/ V
O2
), and it is associated with the intensity of training exercises and the major kind of energy
used (Kraemer et al., 2011; Guidetti et al., 2002). As regards RER, by comparing the pre and post-training
programme values, our findings suggested that boxing training programme was connected with decreases in
RER levels from 0.83 at baseline to 0.79 after eight-week period. This supported proposals that RER is lower
compared with before training in participants doing exercise at an sub-maximal power output (Friedlander et al.,
1997; Martin et al., 1993).
Furthermore, numerous biochemical parameters are changed by exercise. By comparing the post and
pre-training programme values (Table 4), our results showed that boxing exercises were associated with
significant decreases in BL values, and with significant increases in both CK and LDH values.
One of the main significant biochemical parameters in sport medicine is lactate (Karnincic et al., 2009), a
metabolite formed from glycolytic pathways, which is a sign for the onset of fatigue (Garrett and Kirkendall,
2000). With reference to BL, Table 4 illustrates statistical significant differences between pre and post-training
programme values in the concentration of BL, which decreased from 8.7 at baseline to 7.3 mMol/L after the
intervention training programme. Lactate constructed by muscles or other tissues can circuit in the blood and
then be used by inactive skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, and the kidneys to produce glycogen or be altered to
pyruvate (Brooks, 2000). For instance, when blood lactate concentration increase higher than resting values,
such in anaerobic performance, inactive muscle can use lactate to create glycogen or pyruvate, consequently
reducing blood lactate concentration (Kraemer, et al., 2011). Accordingly, our result proves that the reduction of
BL concentration attributes to the development of the athletes' functional training.
Analyzing both CK and LDH at baseline illustrates that, although the participants had not started boxing training
programme yet, the average values of CK and LDH levels were 205.4 IU/l and 279.7 IU/l respectively, which
were greater than the normative values for healthy men. Normative values in healthy men ranged between 55 to
170 IU/l for CK (Pagana and Pagana, 1995; Tilkian et al., 1995), and between 100-190 IU/l for LDH
(Rosmarakis et al., 2005). We can explain that by their previous conditioned training programme they
participated in. The comparisons of baseline with post-test values suggested a positive relationship between
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115
boxing exercises and elevating CK, LDH levels. Changes in glycolytic enzymes may enhance performance in
aerobic and anaerobic actions together with rising ATP availability from glycolysis (Kraemer et al., 2011).
Increases in LDH levels have been revealed after weight training (Tesch and Alkner, 2003), speed training
(MacDougall et al., 1998; Ross and Leveritt, 2001)
and endurance training (Abernethy et al., 1990). A number of
similar researches supported our findings that significant increases in the activity of CK enzyme have been
demonstrated after physical exercises (Parra et al., 2000; Ehlers et al., 2002).
There are several potential limitations of this study. One of these limitations is the complexity in
quantifying each exercise load in the boxing training programme. The outcome results would need to be
confirmed by extra studies including a larger sample size, so as to be sufficiently powered statistically.
Prospective studies need to confirm the recent findings, examine further possible physiological and biochemical
variables and, investigate more issues (e.g., psychological – immunological – neuromuscular).
Conclusions
Within the research sample and the available possibilities, we can conclude that boxing exercises have
positive impact on the physiological and biochemical variables under research. This impact may be the result of
participating in a boxing training programme regularly, which declares that boxing exercises induce changes in
various physiological and biochemical parameters. In view of the fact that physiological and biochemical
statistics on Egyptian boxers are insufficient, the recent study might supply useful data help to promote boxing
training. The study of the physiological demands through sport activity helps in designing training programmes
on a biological foundation. Physiological and biochemical variables are considerable indicators of changes in
body systems as a result of training. In conclusion, detecting relationships associated with the effects of training
on physiological and biochemical aspects adding new dimensions that can assist in evaluating, directing and
developing athletic training programmes.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the boxers who joined in the study for their cooperation and
motivation. We also thank the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education at Mansoura University for allowing us
to use the Applied Physiology Research Lab.
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JPES
... El-Ashker and Nasr [101] submitted 17 elite boxers from Egypt to a training program composed by 8 weeks, in which athletes performed 32 sessions (four times by week) divided into three phases: 1 st phase -development of physical fitness components as well as developing fundamental motor skills; 2 nd phase -develop specific physical fitness components and enhance advanced technical skills alongside competition experience; 3 rd phase -to adjust technical performance, train for the main competition in addition to emphasizing tactical and competition experience, in three intensities organized as presented in the table below (Table 31). Before and after the training program athletes were submitted to a treadmill maximal incremental test in which VO2max, HRmax, HR after 1, 2 and 3-min recovery, moreover, it was analyzed HR at rest were evaluated. ...
... Both the aforementioned studies reported improvement of VO2max, with the Ravier et al. [100] study reporting more detailed information about the training sessions that allows the application of this training program. In the El-Ashker and Nasr [101] study the exercise intensity training was well controlled by the HR, but the method employed to predict HRmax (220-age equation) has some limitations as previously mentioned in the present chapter. Overall, they utilized specific movements from boxing and showed an increase of VO2max as well. ...
... Training may be directed to improve both power and capacity because some athletes need to improve both capacities concomitantly. Considering the training principles (individuality needs, reversibility, specificity and progressive-overload), although combat sports are composed by specific movements and techniques, knowledge about the utilization of specific exercises to develop aerobic fitness in combat sports are still incipient, once all investigations used running in the training program [31,95,97,100,101,103], with exception of Borowiak et al. [94] that used running and specific movements of judo, Sterkowicz et al. [96] that used running and rowing, and Franchini et al. [98,99] that used lower-and upper-body cycle ergometer and specific movements of judo as well. ...
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Volume 16(1s) ~ 2021 ~ DOI: 10.18002/rama.v16i1s.7000 Strength and conditioning for combat sports athletes Abstract This chapter describes the physiological responses associated with aerobic power and capacity of combat sports athletes from different modalities (judo, Brazilian jiuJitsu , wrestling, Olympic boxing, taekwondo, karate and muay-thai) during specific and non-specific situations. Moreover, we describe the most used methods for the control and monitoring of these variables. Finally, the longitudinal studies that investigated the effects of aerobic power and capacity training for combat sports athletes are descripted.
... Alguns estudos já demonstraram a importância da análise de golpes básicos nas modalidades de lutas com o intuito de fornecer informações técnicas sobre os princípios mecânicos dos movimentos realizados, a fim de diminuir a margem de erros durante um combate. A avaliação do golpe por parte da equipe técnica, remete à reorganização das tarefas motoras com o objetivo de melhorar o processo de manutenção do desempenho esportivo durante a competição, possibilitando identificar e avaliar as variáveis de maior repercussão no desempenho do golpe, aperfeiçoando a execução da técnica e redimensionando os treinamentos (El-Ashker;Nasr, 2012;Kumar;Kumar, 2012;Gianfaldoni, 2017). ...
... Alguns estudos já demonstraram a importância da análise de golpes básicos nas modalidades de lutas com o intuito de fornecer informações técnicas sobre os princípios mecânicos dos movimentos realizados, a fim de diminuir a margem de erros durante um combate. A avaliação do golpe por parte da equipe técnica, remete à reorganização das tarefas motoras com o objetivo de melhorar o processo de manutenção do desempenho esportivo durante a competição, possibilitando identificar e avaliar as variáveis de maior repercussão no desempenho do golpe, aperfeiçoando a execução da técnica e redimensionando os treinamentos (El-Ashker;Nasr, 2012;Kumar;Kumar, 2012;Gianfaldoni, 2017). ...
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Objetivo: Analisar a eficiência mecânica do chute frontal no kickboxing visando identificar se o desgaste fisiológico pode influenciar o desempenho do gesto técnico durante um combate. Métodos: Participaram do estudo dois praticantes da modalidade. Apenas um foi analisado e o outro participou somente na fase da simulação de combate. A pesquisa ocorreu em duas fases, iniciando com o teste progressivo em esteira para a identificação dos limiares de lactato e frequência cardíaca. Amostras de sangue do lóbulo da orelha foram coletadas em repouso e durante o teste sendo ao final de cada incremento. A segunda fase foi a simulação de combate para a identificação de alterações fisiológicas e biomecânicas decorrentes de cada round, bem como da Percepção Subjetiva de Esforço (PSE). Resultados: Correlações altas foram encontradas entre ângulo máximo, amplitude de movimento e porcentagem de fadiga com as variáveis fisiológicas de PSE e concentração de lactato durante a luta, foi observado uma similaridade no padrão cinemático angular dos segmentos analisados, houve um decréscimo nos valores de cada round quando comparadas ao valor de repouso, bem como em relação à amplitude de movimento. Conclusão: O desgaste fisiológico encontrado durante os rounds em um combate de Kickboxing pode influenciar na angulação máxima e amplitude de movimento do chute frontal com salto.
... Boxing is a martial arts sport that originated in ancient Egyptian civilization and may be the oldest martial arts sport in place (Said el-Aksher, 2018). This sport brings together two people of the same weight (El-Ashker & Nasr, 2012). In the course of this sport undergoes many changes, ranging from regulations and also the equipment used so as to reduce the risk of injury from athletes (Put, 2016). ...
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The research objective was to see the physical condition of boxing athletes in the ontang-anting gym prepared for the 2020 championship, as well as to prepare for PORPROV in 2022 because the majority of athletes are included in the Kediri City PUSLATKOT team. The research method used a quantitative descriptive approach. This type of research was non-experimental. The research population was all male and female boxing athletes, male and female, 15 athletes. Sampling technique with saturated sampling. The data collection instruments were in the form of tests and measurements, while the test items included leg muscle strength, leg muscle power, arm power, arm muscle strength, leg muscle agility, cardiovascular endurance and back flexibility. Data analysis using a percentage. The results of this study show the results of the overall tests carried out, athletes who are in the very good category are 20.00%, athletes who are in the good category are 46.67%, athletes who are in the moderate category are 20. , 00%, while athletes who were in the poor category were 6.67% and those who were in the less category were 6.67%).
... This could suggest that many boxers believe they are already obtaining sufficient strength and power improvements through more traditional means, to meet the demands of the sport. Boxing-specific circuit training can improve aerobic capacity and induce slight improvements in strength amongst other physical attributes [30]; however, it may not necessarily develop the rapid force production abilities and proximal to distal sequencing essential for forceful movements such as punching [11,[31][32][33][34]. Considering the perceptions of many amateur boxers, additional support and education on the scientific principles and benefits to select training modes, particularly in SDB, who may not have access to performance staff, would improve physical preparation in amateur boxing. This is reflected in the low overall support for strength or power as the most important physical qualities to boxing performance, perhaps justifiably so. ...
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Physical training, testing, and monitoring are three key constitutes of athlete physical performance; however, there is a currently a lack of information on the prevalence of such methods in amateur boxing. This study aimed to explore the physical preparation practices of senior elite (SEB) and senior development (SDB) amateur boxers, and to determine whether these practices were discriminated by competitor level. One hundred and one amateur boxers (SEB n = 59, SDB n = 42) were surveyed on their understanding, perceptions and application of physical training, monitoring, and testing practices. SEB were associated with strength/power training (SEB 78%, SDB 50%, P = 0.005), monitor of training intensities (SEB 68%, SDB 40%, P = 0.006), and performing regular fitness testing (SEB 76%, SDB 50%, P = 0.006), compared to SDB. Likewise, SEB were twice as likely (56%) to have their physical preparation managed by a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach or sport scientist, compared to SDB (26%; P = 0.005). For the first time, these data demonstrate the extent to which competitor level is associated with preparatory practices in amateur boxing. Cost was identified as the main barrier in implementing several forms of scientific support in SDB. These data serve as a framework to enhance preparatory practices across different competitor levels in amateur boxing. This might include boxer and coach education on the benefits to a more scientific approach, and the use of cost-effective methods to develop, monitor and assess amateur boxers physical performance. This may be of particular importance where boxers are not funded, such as the SDB in the current study. However, this work may also be used to emphasise the importance of strength/power training, physical fitness testing and monitoring at the elite level of amateur boxing.
... Indeed, Anderson et al. [26] have shown that to sufficiently recover from an exhaustive activity, athletes may require between 48 h to 72 h. Amateur boxers' cardiorespiratory fitness is one of the most relevant aspects of competitive performance [4,6,27]. In this context, well-developed aerobic fitness might help the boxer to maintain repetitive high-intensity actions within a boxing contest, also to accelerate the recovery process and to keep the boxer fit until the end of the contest [1,28]. ...
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This study aimed at examining physiological responses (i.e., oxygen uptake [VO2] and heart rate [HR]) to a semi-contact 3 x 3-min format, amateur boxing combat simulation in elite level male boxers. Eleven boxers aged 21.4 +/- 2.1 years (body height 173.4 +/- 3.7, body mass 74.9 +/- 8.6 kg, body fat 12.1 +/- 1.9, training experience 5.7 +/- 1.3 years) volunteered to participate in this study. They performed a maximal graded aerobic test on a motor-driven treadmill to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), oxygen uptake (VO2AT) and heart rate (HRAT) at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal heart rate (HRmax). Additionally, VO2 and peak HR (HRpeak) were recorded following each boxing round. Results showed no significant differences between VO2max values derived from the treadmill running test and VO2 outcomes of the simulated boxing contest (p > 0.05, d = 0.02 to 0.39). However, HRmax and HRpeak recorded from the treadmill running test and the simulated amateur boxing contest, respectively, displayed significant differences regardless of the boxing round (p < 0.01, d = 1.60 to 3.00). In terms of VO2 outcomes during the simulated contest, no significant between-round differences were observed (p = 0.19, d = 0.17 to 0.73). Irrespective of the boxing round, the recorded VO2 was >90% of the VO2max. Likewise, HRpeak observed across the three boxing rounds were >= 90% of the HRmax. In summary, the simulated 3 x 3-min amateur boxing contest is highly demanding from a physiological standpoint. Thus, coaches are advised to systematically monitor internal training load for instance through rating of perceived exertion to optimize training-related adaptations and to prevent boxers from overreaching and/or overtraining.
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Background and Purpose: This study's aim was to conduct a systematic review to investigate whether respiratory endurance with core training enhances boxers' athletic performance. Methods: Identification of studies via PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORT Discus, and SciELO between January 1970, and November 2022 were included in there view. Results: 2540 citations that the search technique turned up, 29 of them matched the inclusion criteria, according to the systematic review's findings. When increased respiratory endurance and core strengthening were coupled, its how a noticeable positive effect on boxers' performance. Discussion and Conclusion: In conclusion on, improving core strength and respiratory endurance in boxers will enhance their athletic performance. Closer attention required during athletic Competition and more aggressive progression of training intensity including respiratory endurance and core strengthening may show greater improvements in future studies.
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This study aimed to collect and identify the physiological parameters that are required to produce winning performances in an army boxing competition. Army boxing competitions are sanctioned and governed by ‘England Boxing’ and consist of three rounds of two minutes with one-minute restorative periods. The Parachute Regiment are an elite infantry fighting force within the British military, with a continued success in the inter-army boxing championships. 22 male participants were recruited (mean ± SD age 28 ± 2 years, stature 178 ± 8.1cm, body mass 79 ± 7.1 kg, BMI 24.9 ±2.5).Body fat %. V̇O2max, lower limb power, and 1RM max strength test protocols for back squat and bench press were performed. Additionally, impact punch power measured from rear hand cross strikes, and punching velocities were measured using a linear positional transducer. Countermovement (CMJ) and repetitive (n=10) jump data were collected using a jump mat. The physiological parameters in mean scores; body composition showed body fat 11.8±8.1%: CMJ height 35.5±5cm: Repetitive jump 28.5±5.6cm: Wingate peak power (body mass to power ratio) 11.5±1.6W/kg: Wingate average power, 8.1±1.4W/kg: V̇O2max 53±4.8 ml.kg-1.min-1: Back squat (body mass to weight lifted ratio) 1.95±0.2kg: Bench press 1.1±0.1kg/BW: Rear cross strike velocity 8.47±0.8m/s: Impact power 15227±2250W. Significant relationships were observed between anthropometric data and power, strike velocity and V̇O2max in addition to relationships being evident between some strength and power variables. by the participants in this study. Although punch impact power is an essential performance indicator in boxing, other physiological factors, such as lower limb power and strength have been demonstrated to attribute to the continued winning performances by 3PARA boxing team.
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Volume 16(1s) ~ 2021 ~ DOI: 10.18002/rama.v16i1s Strength and conditioning for combat sports athletes
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Background: Some methods such as ergo nutritional aids, cooling or massage among others could improve recovery in combat sports (CS). The effects, doses, duration, and timing of these methods remains unknown. Nowadays, there is no clear consensus regarding the recovery strategies and it is necessary to understand the type of fatigue induced in CS and its underlying mechanisms. The main aim of this article is to review the update literature related to recovery strategies in CS. Methods: A literature search was conducted following preferred reporting items for review statement on the topic of: "combat sports", "recovery", "nutrition", "fatigue", "ergogenic aids", "weight cutting" and "hydration". Results: The initial search of the literature detected 369 articles about CS. Later, 307 were excluded after being determined unrelated to recovery or after failure to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Of the 80 included articles, 19 satisfied the final inclusion criteria. Conclusions: To optimize CS performance, adequate recovery is required during training and competition processes. Traditional ergo nutritional supplementation of carbohydrates and proteins combined. Besides, the consumption of evidence supported supplementation (green tea, beetroot gels, creatine or alkaline water) improve recovery processes. Further methods of recovery including: physical (cold water immersion, massage or Photobiomodulation) and physiological (types of active recovery, sleep and rest) therapies have also been shown useful. This narrative review elucidates the important role of recovery techniques in CS.
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The study was undertaken with a view to investigate the physiological responses of amateur boxers during specific activity in the boxing arena, with special reference to their physiological evaluation in the laboratory. The study was carried out on 6 elite Indian National boxers in 3 phases. In phase 1, the VO2max of the boxers was evaluated in the laboratory following a graded running protocol on a treadmill. In Phase 2, the boxers were evaluated in the boxing arena, during simulated boxing on a punching bag for 4 rounds of 2 min duration with 1 min rest pauses in between. The movements were kept similar to actual boxing and the punching frequencies were kept fast and individualized. The physiological variables were recorded on a COSMED K4 RQ portable telemetric gas analyzer (Cosmed, Italy). In Phase 3, heart rate and blood lactate responses of the boxers were observed during sparring for 2X6 rounds in the boxing ring, for 3 times during the training phase, to observe the lactate tolerance capacity. After the end of activi ty in each phase, a blood sample was collected from the fingertip for estimation of whole blood lactate on an YSI portable 1500 sport model lactate analyzer (YSI, USA). The mean VO2max of the boxers was 59.5 ± 4.7 ml/kg/min on the treadmill. The mean peaks VO2 of the boxers in 2X4 simulated rounds were 56.1, 57.5, 57.7 and 59.3 ml/kg/min, respectively. The mean heart rate and blood lactate were 192 bpm and 13.6 mMol/L, and were observed to be higher than most of the intermittent team events. The present study highlighted that the amateur boxers participating in 2X4 rounds, should be able to tolerate a high blood lactate concentration (14-15 mMol/L) and a high heart rate (190-200 b/min) over a total duration of one bout (11 min). The on court training in amateur boxing imparted high demands on cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables. 1)
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The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs. Key PointsThere were no significant differences in lactate concentrations at the end of the match between two proficiency levels of wrestlers.More proficient (elite) wrestlers raise lactates gradually through the wrestling match while less proficient (club) wrestlers raise it abruptly at the end of the first bout.Both groups of wrestlers are unable to sustain same level of activity through the match suggesting that they are utilizing too much energy from anaerobic glycolysis.
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The present study was conducted to study the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Indian National boxers as well as to assess the cardiovascular adaptation to graded exercise and actual boxing round. Two different studies were conducted. In the first study [N = 60, (junior boxers below-19 yrs, n = 30), (senior boxers-20-25 yrs, n = 30)] different morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. In the second study (N = 21, Light Weight category- <54 kg, n = 7; Medium weight category <64 kg, n = 7 and Medium heavy weight category <75 kg, n = 7) cardiovascular responses were studied during graded exercise protocol and actual boxing bouts. Results showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05) stature, body mass, LBM, body fat and strength of back and grip in senior boxers compared to juniors. Moreover, the senior boxers possessed mesomorphic body conformation where as the juniors' possessed ectomorphic body conformation. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) aerobic capacity and anaerobic power were noted in junior boxers compared to seniors. Further, significantly higher (p < 0.05) maximal heart rates and recovery heart rates were observed in the seniors as compared to the juniors. Significantly higher maximum heart rates were noted during actual boxing compared to graded exercise. Blood lactate concentration was found to increase with the increase of workload during both graded exercise and actual boxing round. The senior boxers showed a significantly elevated (p < 0.05) levels of hemoblobin, blood urea, uric acid and peak lactate as compared to junior boxers. In the senior boxers significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDLC were observed as compared to junior boxers. No significant change has been noted in HDLC between the groups. The age and level of training in boxing has significant effect on Aerobic, anaerobic component. The study of physiological responses during graded exercise testing may be helpful to observe the cardiovascular adaptation in boxers. Key PointsStudy on Indian boxersLaboratory testing.Physical, physiological and biochemical monitoring.Performance analysis during actual boxing and laboratory testing.
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Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0.8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg-1) were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l-1) highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %), haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl-1 and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl-1), bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 μmol·l-1) and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml-1). No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well-developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1. Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N) was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N), lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N) and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N). It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers health.
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Help your students develop an understanding of exercise physiology concepts and their application athletic performance and well-being with Exercise Physiology, 2e. Using an engaging evidence-based approach that combines research and theory with practical discussions of nutrition and training, the authors help students understand how the human body works and responds to exercise. The Second Edition includes new video clips, a fresh new design, and enhanced online teaching and learning resources to save you time and help your students succeed. Instructor Resources: • A pre-created PowerPoint Presentation speeds lecture preparation. • A Test bank of chapter-specific questions saves you time in building quizzes and exams • A complete image bank enhances lecture and exam preparation. • LMS cartridges allow you to connect to your preferred course management system with ease. • Answers to Review Questions speed student assessment. Student Resources: • Animations demonstrate complex concepts in a dynamic, memorable way. • Video Clips from experts demonstrate fascinating, real-life applications in a variety of exercise science careers. • Quiz bank provides online practice to help ensure content mastery.
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Athletes fail to perform to the best of their ability if they become infected, stale, sore or malnourished. Excessive training with insufficient recovery can lead to a debilitating syndrome in which performance and well being can be affected for months. Eliminating or minimizing these problems by providing advice and guidelines on training loads, recovery times, nutrition or pharmacological intervention and regular monitoring of athletes using an appropriate battery of markers can help prevent the development of an overtraining syndrome in athletes. The potential usefulness of objective physiological, biochemical and immunological markers of overtraining has received much attention in recent years. Practical markers would be ones that could be measured routinely in the laboratory and offered to athletes as part of their sports science and medical support. The identification of common factors among overtrained athletes in comparison with well-trained athletes not suffering from underperformance could permit appropriate intervention to prevent athletes from progressing to a more serious stage of the overtraining syndrome. To date, no single reliable objective marker of impending overtraining has been identified. Some lines of research do, however, show promise and are based on findings that overtrained athletes appear to exhibit an altered hormonal response to stress. For example, in response to a standardized bout (or repeated bouts) of high intensity exercise, overtrained athletes show a lower heart rate, blood lactate and plasma cortisol response. Several immune measures that can be obtained from a resting blood sample (e.g. the expression of specific cell surface proteins such as CD45RO+ on T-lymphocytes) also seem to offer some hope of identifying impending overtraining. If an athlete is suspected of suffering from overtraining syndrome, other measures will also required, if only to exclude other possible causes of underperformance including post-viral fatigue, glandular fever, clinical depression, poor diet, anaemia, asthma, allergies, thyroid disorders, myocarditis and other medical problems interfering with recovery.
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Preface. Exercise. Metabolic Aspects of Exercise. Strength and weight-training. Locomotive sports. Sprinting. Middle distance running. Marathon running. Race walking. Cycling. Sport on water and on ice. Swimming. Rowing. Sailing. Sport on ice. Games and exercises. The racquet sports. Football. Court games: volleyball and basketball. Physiology of Sports: an overview. Index.