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MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Authors:
  • Aimil Pharmaceuticals

Abstract

Medicinal plants have important contributions in the healthcare system of local communities as the main source of medicine for the majority of the rural population. Use of herbal medicines represents a long history of human interactions with the environment. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases. A number of modern drugs currently in use have been obtained through further experimentation of medicinal plants used by indigenous people. Sexual contact is the most common means of transmission of these infections. The emergence of single and multiple antibiotic resistant strains call for the search of alternative agents with possible antimicrobial effects from natural resources. Introduction:
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MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SEXUAL
TRANSMITTED DISEASES
KAUR RAJANDEEP*, KUMAR SUMAN, SHARMA K ANIL
CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar Punjab
Abstract:
Medicinal plants have important contributions in the healthcare system of local communities
as the main source of medicine for the majority of the rural population. Use of herbal
medicines represents a long history of human interactions with the environment. Plants used
for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic
as well as infectious diseases. A number of modern drugs currently in use have been obtained
through further experimentation of medicinal plants used by indigenous people. Sexual
contact is the most common means of transmission of these infections. The emergence of
single and multiple antibiotic resistant strains call for the search of alternative agents with
possible antimicrobial effects from natural resources.
Introduction:
Since ancient times, several societies have
resorted to nature, mainly to plants as
medical and health sources. Today, a great
percentage of the world population,
particular in developing countries, uses
plants for facing primary needs of medical
assistance [1]. Human beings have used
plants for medicinal purposes for centuries.
It has been estimated that such use of
medicinal plants possibly go back in time
to around 3000 years B.P [2]. Traditional
forms of medicine have existed and still
exist in many countries of the world
including countries in the Indian sub-
continent like India, Pakistan and
Bangladesh. The various alternative
medicinal systems of India (Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha) uses more than 7500 plant
species [3].
Documentation of these
traditional medicinal systems is important
as a number of important modern
pharmaceuticals have been derived from
plants used by indigenous people. Modern
drugs like aspirin, atropine, ephedrine,
digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and
tubocurarine are examples, which were
originally discovered through observations
of traditional cure methods of indigenous
people [4]. There has been an increase in
worldwide realization of the use of
*Corresponding Author
KAUR RAJANDEEP
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medicinal plants in various traditional
health systems of developing countries.
Many reports estimated that about 80% of
population in developing countries still
relies on traditional medicine for their
primary healthcare [5].
Medicinal plants have
important contributions in the healthcare
system of local communities as the main
source of medicine for the majority of the
rural population. Plants have not only
nutritional value but also, in the eyes of the
local people, they have medicinal and
ritual or magical values [6]. The
ethnomedicinal healing systems vary
across cultures. Thus, medicinal plants are
widely used in the treatment of numerous
human and livestock diseases in different
parts of the world. Medicinal plants play a
key role in the development and
advancement of modern studies by serving
as a starting point for the development of
novelties in drugs [7]. The knowledge and
use of plants is an integral part of many
ethnic rural cultures in world, the extent of
which has not yet been studied in depth.
Use of herbal medicines
represents a long history of human
interactions with the environment. Plants
used for traditional medicine contain a
wide range of substances that can be used
to treat chronic as well as infectious
diseases [8]. The medicinal value of plants
lies in some chemical substances that
produce a definite physiological action on
the human body. The most important of
these bioactive compounds of plants are
alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, and phenolic
compounds [9]. Natural products are not
only the basis for traditional or ethnic
medicine, but also screening natural plant
products provided highly successful new
regimens for human welfare [10].
Herbal drugs have been used
since ancient times as medicines for the
treatment of a range of diseases. Medicinal
plants have played a key role in world
health. An increasing number of research
papers and reviews clearly indicate that
medicinal plants exhibit a variety of
therapeutic properties [11,12,13] and provide
health security to rural people in primary
health care. Many of the medicinal plants
are locally available, especially in
developing and underdeveloped countries.
Also, plants are often less prone to the
emergence of drug resistance. Due to all
these advantages, plants continue to be a
major source of new lead compounds.
Medicinal plants have a long history of use
and their use is widespread in both
developing and developed countries.
Herbal medicines provide rational means
for the treatment of many diseases that are
obstinate and incurable in other systems of
medicine.
From their very advent,
human beings have suffered from various
ailments. Lacking any other means, they
have very possibly relied on medicinal
plants for treatment of ailments. In fact, it
has been reported that using of medicinal
plants goes back thousands of years ago
and is common in all indigenous people
throughout the world [14]. A number of
modern drugs currently in use have been
obtained through further experimentation
of medicinal plants used by indigenous
people [15].
Sexual contact is the most
common but not the only means of
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transmission of these infections. It is now
well established that STDs (both ulcerative
and non-ulcerative) increase the risk of
transmission of other STIs, including
AIDS because of changes in the normal
vaginal epithelium. Current therapies for
AIDS and other STDs include drug
administration by various routes including
oral, parenteral, and topical (vaginal and
rectal). Since sexual mode of transmission
is the most common cause of occurrence
of STDs, vaginal and rectal approaches are
becoming significant for prevention of
their transmission. In the last decade,
major advancements have been reported in
the field of ‘microbicides’, i.e. compounds
or formulations which when applied
topically (vaginal or rectal) can prevent the
transmission of STDs including AIDS [16].
These include a few from plant sources
such as gossypol derivatives, Praneem
polyherbal preparations, and plantibodies
[17].
The emergence of
single and multiple antibiotic resistant
strains call for the search of alternative
agents with possible antimicrobial effects
from natural resources. This situation
forced scientists to search for alternate
antimicrobial substances, from plants
which are cheap, readily available for the
population, and have minimum side
effects. The World Health Organization
also supports the use of medicinal plants
provided it is proven to be efficacious and
safe. Contrary to the synthetic drugs,
antimicrobials of plant origin are not
associated with many side effects and have
an enormous therapeutic potential to heal
many infectious diseases [18].
A large number of active agents
are available for the symptomatic
treatment of STDs. Emergence of drug
resistant strains and dose limiting toxic
effects has complicated the treatment of
these infectious diseases. These
complications have necessitated the search
for new antimicrobial substances from
various sources. Extracts of plants and
phytochemicals have been shown to
possess activity against sexually
transmitted pathogens and may be a good
source of new active agents. Several plants
have been screened for activity against
STDs on the basis of
ethnopharmacological data and some of
these screening programs have yielded
potential leads [19,20]. In Europe, the use of
medicinal plants for symptomatic
treatment of STDs dates back at least to
1574 when ‘sarsaparilla’ (Smilax
officinalis , family Liliaceae) was first
introduced for the treatment of syphilis.
Sarsaparilla was a better alternative to
mercury, the standard medical treatment
for syphilis during that period. In clinical
studies, sarsaparilla was observed to be
effective in about 90% cases of acute
syphilis and 50% chronic cases [21]. Since
then, medicinal plants have been used for
the treatment of STDs without any
scientific evidence in traditional systems
of medicine. In the last century enormous
efforts have been made to select the plants,
isolate the active principles and screen the
crude extract/ fractions/compounds for
activity against various sexually
transmitted pathogens, and elucidate their
mechanism of action.
Urinary tract infections and
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like
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syphilis and gonorrhea are prevalent
throughout the world. Gonorrhea is caused
by the microorganism, Neisseria
gonorrhoeae, and is one of the most
common sexually transmitted infections in
developing countries. Symptoms of this
disease in men include burning or pain
during urination, increased urinary
frequency, discharges from the penis, red
or swollen opening of the urethra, and
tender or swollen testicles. In women, the
symptoms include burning and pain while
urinating, vaginal discharge, increased
urination, severe pain in lower abdomen,
and fever. Recent years have witnessed the
emergence of various strains of the
gonorrhea-causing microorganism, which
are resistant to the conventional antibiotics
used for treatment of this disease [22].
There has been an increase in worldwide
realization of the use of medicinal plants in
various traditional health systems of
developing countries. For example, recent
estimates by the World Health
Organization (WHO) revealed that about
80% of the population in Africa relies on
traditional medicine of which the
botanicals constituted greater components.
It is estimated that about 30,000 botanical
species are now recorded for their
medicinal properties [23].
Trichomonas vaginalis is a
prevalent urogenital infective agent in both
developed and in developing countries [24].
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted
disease and the most common cause of
vaginal discharge [25]. Clinically,
trichomoniasis ranges from an
asymptomatic state to an acute
inflammatory disease [26]. These infections
have been linked to various pathological
manifestations, including atypical pelvic
inflammatory disease and sterility [27,28]. In
the case of pregnant women, it can lead to
preterm delivery and low birth weight of
the infant [29]. Trichomonas vaginalis
infection also predisposes carriers to HIV
infections [30]. The drug of choice for
therapy of trichomoniasis has been
metronidazole. However, there is evidence
of emerging resistance [31, 32].
In this review an
attempt has been made to review plants
used by various tribes for the treatment of
sexual transmitted diseases.
List of Medicinal plants used for the treatment of Sexual transmitted diseases:
S. N
Plant Name/ Family
Common name
Habitat
Parts used
1.
Achyranthes aspera
Amaranthaceae
India, Kenya
Whole plant [33]
2.
Afzelia africana
Fabaceae
Africa
Root [23]
3.
Alchornea laxiflora
Euphorbiaceae
Nigeria
Stem
4.
Allium sativum
Liliaceae
Asia, Africa
Stem [34]
5.
Aloe barbadensis
Liliaceae
Africa
Leaves [33]
6.
Aloe ferox
Asphodelaceae
Africa
Leaves [35]
7.
Alternanthera sessilis
Amaranthaceae
Asia
Leaves [33]
8.
Amaranthus spinosus
Amaranthaceae
America
Leaves, Stem [33]
9.
Amomum subulatum
Zingiberaceae
India, Syria
Leaves, Seed [36]
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10.
Bligha sapida
Sapindaceae
Kenya, Guinea
Stem, bark [23]
11.
Boerhaavia diffusa
Nyctaginaceae
India
Leaf, Root [33]
12.
Bombax ceiba
Bombaceae
Malaysia,
Indonesia
Leaf, Root [37]
13.
Callophyllum inophullum
Clusiaceae
India, Australia
Nuts, Leaves [33]
14.
Carica papaya
Caricaceae
America
Roots [38]
15.
Cassine transvaalensis
Celasteraceae
Africa
Root [39]
16.
Centella asiatica
Umbelliferae
India, Australia
Leaves [40]
17.
Citrus aurantifolia
Rutaceae
South east Asia
Root [37]
18.
Clerodendrum vuscosum
Verbenaceae
India, Pakistan
Root [33]
19.
Crataeva religiosa
Capparaceae
India
Bark [37]
20.
Curculigo recurvata
Hypoxidaceae
India
Root
21.
Draceaena arborea
Agavaceae
Africa
Bark [38]
22.
Eupatorium odoratum
Asteraceae
Ghana, Jamaica
Leaves [34]
23.
Ficus asperfolia
Moraceae
Kenya,
Tanzania
Stem, Leaves
24.
Ficus exasperata
Moraceae
India, Sri Lanka
Leaves, roots [38]
25.
Foeniculum vulgare
Apiaceae
India, Pakistan
Leaves, Seeds [37]
26.
Gloriosa superba
Cochicaceae
Asia, Africa
Leaves [23]
27.
Heliotropicum indicum
Boraginaceae
Asia
Root
28.
Hibiscus tiliaceus
Malvaceae
Australia
Bark [40]
29.
Hippeastrum breviflorum
Amaryllidaceae
Africa
Bulbs
30.
Ipomoea aquatica
Convulvulaceae
South east Asia
Leaves [37]
31.
Jatropha curcas
Euphorbaceae
Mexico
Leaves [41]
32.
Kagelia africana
Bignoniaceae
S.Africa
Leaves, Root, Stem
[23]
33.
Landolphia owariensis
Apocynaceae
Tanzania
Leaves, stem [23]
34.
Manihot esculenta
Euphorbiaceae
S.America
Leaves [23]
35.
Maranthocloa cuspidata
Marantaceae
Africa
Leaves [38]
36.
Mucuna pruriens
Fabaceae
India
Seeds
37.
Musa sapentum
Musaceae
Philippines
Tuber
38.
Nuclea latifolia
Rubiaceae
Africa
Roots [37]
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39.
Ocimum basilicum
Labiatae
India
Whole plant [37]
40.
Ocimum sanctum
Labiatae
India
Leaves [34]
41.
Opuntia dillenii
Cactaceae
America
Stem, root [23]
42.
Palisota hirsute
Commelinaceae
Africa
Leaves [38]
43.
Piper capense
Piperaceae
Africa
Bark [39]
44.
Pistia straliotes
Aracaceae
Africa
Leaves [37]
45.
Plumeria acutifolia
Apocynaceae
Mexico, Brazil
Leaves, Fruit [37]
46.
Polianthus tuberosa
Aloaceae
India
Flowers, Tuber [33]
47.
Rauwolfia vomitoria
Apocynaceae
Africa
Leaves, Bark [38]
48.
Sapindus mukorossi
Sapindaceae
India
Leaves [34]
49.
Securidaca
longepedunculata
Polygalaceae
S.Africa
Root [23]
50.
Sida rhombifolia
Malvaceae
India
Leaf [42]
51.
Solanum aculeastrum
Solanaceae
Africa
Fruit [39]
52.
Solanum nigrum
Solanaceae
India, Africa
Leaves [23]
53.
Solanum surattense
Solanaceae
India
Whole plant [33]
54.
Sonchus oleraceus
Asteraceae
Asia, Europe
Roots [33]
55.
Sporobolus pyramidalis
Poaceae
Mexico,
Ethiopia
Roots
56.
Swertia chirata
Gentianaceae
India, Bhutan
Seeds [33]
57.
Syzygium cumine
Myrtaceae
India, Nepal
Fruit, Leaves [34]
Conclusion:
A number of modern drugs have become
ineffective because of development of
resistant strains of bacteria, fungus or
parasites. A further group of allopathic
drugs addresses either the symptoms of the
disease without curing the disease or have
serious side-effects. As a result scientific
interest is re-focusing on indigenous use of
medicinal plants, for experience has shown
that scientific studies based on indigenous
uses can be an effective way towards rapid
discovery of novel compounds with
therapeutic potential. A perusal of the
scientific literature of some selective
plants indicated that the scientific studies
validate the use of a number of medicinal
plants used by some tribes. That the use of
a number of medicinal plants have been
validated by scientific studies suggest that
more studies be conducted on the plants
for which such studies are absent. The
sheer number of plants used for treatment
of STDS presents a hopeful picture in the
sense that scientific evaluation of these
plant species can lead to discovery of
novel drugs with which multi-drug
resistant microbial strains can be
combated.
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Medicinal Plants for the treatment of STDs
Amaranthus spinosus Centella asiatica
Gloriosa superba Ipomoea aquatica
Swertia chirata Pistia straliotes
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Draceaena arborea Plumeria acutifolia
Sapindus mukorossi Callophyllum inophyllum
Eupatorium odoratum Manihot esculenta
... species(Mukherjee et al 2006). Documentation of these medicinal systems is important as number of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from plants used by indigenous people.(Galani et al, 2005 ). Many reports have estimated that 80 percent of population in developing countries still relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care.(Kaur et al 2012). Among 250,000 to 400,000 plant 269 Responsibility of contents of this paper rests upon the authors and not upon the Editor & Publisher. ...
... Medicinal plants, which formed the basis of traditional medicine practices, have long been used by mankind for preventive and curative purposes (3,4,5). Historically, ethnobotanical studies have resulted in drug discovery for numerous ailments including cancer (6,7). ...
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... There has been an increase in worldwide realization of the use of medicinal plants in various traditional health systems of developing countries. Many reports estimated that about 80% of population in developing countries still relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare 4 . ...
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In India, plants have always been a source of medicines for humans. According to WHO, diabetes is one of the most dreadful disease with serious threat to health of mankind. This review focuses on traditional medicinal plants found in India which are used in treatment of diabetes. The use of synthetic drugs in developing countries is expensive due topoverty and access to medicare, therefore medicinal plants are a great alternative to these synthetic drugs. The common and effective Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic properties includeFicus religiosa
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Since, COVID-19 is the most terrifying thing that is happening all over the globe, and it is really becoming unbelievable for us that we are really living in this “Corona Era”. So, COVID-19 stands for Corona Virus Disease-2019 as it penetrated its roots in late December, 2019, when its pandemic has caused a significant number of human cases related to respiratory infections and further deaths in China1 . The outbreak of this deadly disease has first started from a small city of China, Wuhan which then has affected the whole world and India has started reporting its cases from January, 2020 onwards and it has led various curfews and whole countries’ lockdowns like it is currently going on in our India and National quarantines in country like Italy which is currently an epicenter of Corona outbreak2 . We all are currently well-aware of this health crisis caused by the 2019- nCOV, thanks to all awareness campaigns done by our Government and off-course social media platform, but we can’t ignore the fact that this epidemic has also affected our agriculture in the same way. Agriculture is the main root of Indian economy and most of our population is dependent on it for food. It provides income as well as employment to approximately more than half of our population and it plays an important role in providing basic raw materials to the processing industries. Although the share of agriculture, including forestry and other allied is decreasing, its contribution to national GDP was improved (15.87%) in 2019 as compared to previous years3 . The country’s EXIM (ExportImport) policy also plays a significant role in increasing our national GDP as it covers almost all regions of the world and in case of livestock, as we all know, India holds the first rank in producing milk all over the world4 . In horticulture too, India has performed fairly well in the scenario of production of fruits, vegetables and flowers and this also plays an important part in country’s trade portfolio too.
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This chapter is all about plant genetic conservation and resource management and its importance
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