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The Structurogram of the Mobbing Diagnostic Model

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Abstract

The article discusses the specifics of modelling, presents the stages the formation of the model designed by the author; the stages are discussed in detail. The diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations in order to improve organizations’ climate is presented and it could be used for prevention and intervention of the mobbing phenomenon. The essence of the model – three stages of diagnostics (identification of the state of organization’s climate; insights of mobbing phenomenon; managerial decisions of mobbing intervention), four fields (the field of manager’s will, the field of employees’ will; financial / economical field; ethical /moral field), monitoring and feedback.
scholarly papers ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011
Guest Editor
Dr. Hab. Tomasz Bernat
ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011
Partneriai-leidėjai
Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas Vilniaus universiteto
fakultetas įkurtas (1964 m.) ne sostinėje, 2004 metais kartu
su Vilniaus universiteto 425-uoju įkūrimo jubiliejumi,
švenčia savo įkurtuvių 40-metį. Dauguma fakulteto
studentų studijuoja vadybą ir verslo administravimą,
ekonomiką, finansus bei informacines technologijas, kiti
gilinasi į filologines studijas - lietuvių, vokiečių, anglų ir
rusų kalbas. Vilniaus universiteto Kauno humanitarinis
fakultetas (VU KHF) yra tarptautinio mokslo darbų leidinio
Verslo ir ekonomikos transformacijos įkūrėjas-leidėjas. Nuo
2004 m. VU KHF suvienijo leidybos pajėgas su VU
Ekonomikos fakultetu.
Universiteto tinklapis: http://www.vu.lt
Brno technologijos universiteto (Čekijos Respublika)
istorinės ištakos siekia 1849 metus, o Verslo ir vadybos
fakultetas 2002 švęsdamas 10-ies metų jubiliejų,
suorganizavo 10-ąją kasmetinę tarptautinę konferenciją
Verslas ir ekonomikos plėtra Centrinėje ir Rytų Europoje:
ekonominės integracijos į platesnę Europą reikšmė.
Dvišalė bendradarbiavimo sutartis su Vilniaus universiteto
Kauno humanitariniu fakultetu pasirašyta 2001 metais.
Universiteto tinklapis: http://www.vutbr.cz
Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika) įkurtas 1862
metais. Latvijos universiteto Ekonomikos ir vadybos
fakultetas, būdamas didžiausiu fakultetu, užtikrina
ekonomikos ir vadybos krypties studijas bei mokslo
tyrimus, o tai sutampa su šiuolaikinės Latvijos poreikiais.
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Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University
(Republic of Lithuania) was founded in 1964, as the only
faculty outside the capital of Vilnius, and celebrates its 40th
anniversary in the year 2004, alongside with the 425th
anniversary of Vilnius University (est. 1579) itself. The
majority of students study business management,
economics, finance and information technologies, while the
rest are involved in philological studies of Lithuania,
German, English and Russian languages. Kaunas Faculty of
Humanities, Vilnius University (VU KHF), is Founding
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Transformations in Business & Economics. In 2004, VU
KHF united its publishing efforts with the Faculty of
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- in 1992. It celebrated the 10th anniversary in 2002 with the
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VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
TRANSFORMACIJOS
ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Vilniaus universitetas
Brno technologijos universitetas (Čekijos Respublika)
Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika)
leidžia mokslo darbus
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TRANSFORMACIJOS
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publish scholarly papers
TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011
Brno Kaunas Riga Vilnius
2011
EDITORIAL BOARD - REDAKTORIŲ KOLEGIJA
Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. (HP) Dalia ŠTREIMIKIEN
Ė Vyriausioji redaktorė
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
e-mail: dalia@mail.lei.lt
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Habil. Dr. Vaclovas LAKIS
Vyr. redaktorės pavaduotojas
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Executive secretary
Atsakingoji sekretorė
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
e-mail: kanapickiene@vukhf.lt
Editors: Nariai:
Prof. Dr. Peter OPPENHEIMER
Oxford University, UK
(Economics, 04S)
Oksfordo universitetas, Jungtinė Karalystė
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Edmundas K. ZAVADSKAS
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,
Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
Prof. Dr. Andras INOTAI
Institute for World Economics, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Hungary
(Economics, 04S)
Vengrijos mokslų akademijos Pasaulio ekonomikos
institutas, Vengrija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. Bruno S. SERGI
Messina University, Italy
(Economics, 04S)
Mesinos universitetas, Italija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. (HP) Stasys Albinas GIRDZIJAUSKAS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Dr. Algis PREKER-BRAUN
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Philology, 04H)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Filologija, 04H)
Prof. Dr. Gregory BROCK
Georgia Southern University, the USA
(Economics, 04S)
Pietų Džordžijos universitetas, JAV
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. Marie McHUGH
Ulster University, Northern Ireland, UK
(Economics, 04S)
Ulsterio universitetas, Šiaurės Airija, Jungtinė
Karalystė
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Remigijus
Č
IEGIS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S);
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Borisas MELNIKAS
Vilnius Gediminas Technical
University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
© Vilnius University, 2002-2011
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
© University of Latvia, 2002-2011
Prof. Dr. Baiba ŠAVRINA
University of Latvia, Latvia
(Economics, 04S)
Latvijos universitetas, Latvija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. (HP) Birutė GALINIENĖ
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. (HP) Saulius GUDAS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Informatics, 09T)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Informatika, 09T)
Prof. Dr. Heikki JUSLIN
University of Helsinki, Finland
(Economics, 04S)
Helsinkio universitetas, Suomija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. Vojtech KORAB
Brno University of Technology, the
Czech Republic
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Brno technologijos universitetas,
Čekijos Respublika
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
Prof. Dr. Rodica Milena ZAHARIA
Bucharest University of Economics,
Romania
(Economics, 04S)
Bukarešto ekonomikos universitetas, Rumunija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Dr. Alfredo Martinez BOBILLO
University of Valladolid, Spain
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Valadolido universitetas, Ispanija
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
Prof. Dr. (HP) Linas ČEKANAVIČIUS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Andrzej GOSPODAROWICZ
Wroclaw University of Economics,
Poland
(Economics, 04S)
Vroclavo ekonomikos universitetas, Lenkija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Vytautas Pranas PRANULIS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
Prof. Dr. Eugene D. JAFFE
Bar-Ilan University, Israel
(Economics, 04S)
Bar-Ilan universitetas, Izraelis
(Ekonomika, 04S)
Habil. Dr. Tomasz BERNAT
University of Szczecin, Poland
(Economics, 04S)
Ščecino universitetas, Lenkija
(Ekonomika, 04S)
---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
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© Vilnius University, 2002-2011
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
© University of Latvia, 2002-2011
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
ISSN 1648 - 4460
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© Vilniaus universitetas, 2002-2011
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10 tomas, 2A (23A), 2011
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Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
221
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
CONTENTS
GUEST EDITORIAL
Tomasz Bernat. Introduction to the Issue ...................................................................................
225
ARTICLES
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES
Ryszard Barczyk. Possibilities of Using Theoretical Hypotheses for the Analysis of
Contemporary Economic Recession ……………………………….………………
226
Patrycja Zwiech. Initial Situation of the Member States in the Context of Strategic
Objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy ……………………………………………..
233
Tomasz Bernat. Building Monopolistic Position – Contemporary Decisions, Old Solutions .... 248
Danuta Milaszewicz. Probability of Non-Keynesian Effects of Public Finance Consolidation
in Poland ……………………………………………..……………………..
258
LABOUR MARKETS AND EMPLOYMENT CHALLENGES FOR THE EU
Waclaw Jarmolowicz, Magdalena Knapinska. Labour Market Theories in Contemporary
Economics……………………...………………………………………………..
268
Danuta Kopycinska. Generation of Young People in the EU Member States The
Generation of Unemployed? ……………………………………………………….
281
Robert W. Wlodarczyk. Comparative Analysis of Employment Sectoral Structure in
Eurozone Countries …………………………………………………………...
292
Magdalena Rekas. Taxation as an Instrument of Family Policy: Effects for Womens
Employment …………………..………………………………………………
303
Jolita Vveinhardt. The Structurogram of the Mobbing Diagnostic Model………………… 317
INNOVATION POLICIES
Elzbieta Pohulak-Zoledowska. Innovative Activity of Universities Knowledge Creation in
Developed and Fast Developing Countries……...………………………
334
Jaroslaw Poteralski. Support for the Innovativeness of Polish Economy Quoting the
Example of Innovative Economy Operational Programme …….…………………….
345
Ewa Okon-Horodynska, Rafal Wisla, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Business Strategy of
Innovative Enterprises: The Case of IBM …………...……...…………………………...
357
---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
© Vilnius University, 2002-2011
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
© University of Latvia, 2002-2011
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
222
GLOBALISATION ISSUES
Katarzyna Wlodarczyk-Spiewak. Globalization Process vs. Consumer Behaviour in the
Market ………………...……………………………………………………
367
Krystyna Przybylska. The Degree of Export Intensity of Polish Companies ……………
379
Ramunas Casas, Monika Kavaliauske, Vilma Dambrauskaite. The Impact of External
Business Environment Factors to Internationalization of Born Global Companies by
Promoting Entrepreneurship ………………………………………………………..
389
CAPITAL MARKETS
Michal Sosnowski. Tax Competition and Harmonization of Direct Taxation within the
European Union …………..……………………………………………...
401
Aleksanda Duliniec. The Cost of Capital from the Polish Companies Perspective ………..
412
Urszula Hanusik, Urszula Langowska-Szczesniak. Households’ Consumption on the
Background of Socio-Economic Transformation in Rural Areas of Poland, 1993-2009 …….
421
Teresa Kaminska, Elzbieta Babula, Marcin Brycz. What about Efficiency and Equity
Dilemma in Poland’s Economy? ………………………………………………...
430
INDUSTRIAL SECTORS IN THE EU
Elzbieta Adamowicz, Konrad Walczyk. Cyclical Fluctuations of Business Activity in the
New EU Countries ……………………………………………………………….
440
Ewa Okon-Horodynska, Rafal Wisla, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Evaluation of the
Development Potential of the Information Society in European Union Countries on the Basis
of Patent Activity in the ICT Sector ……………………………………………..
452
Bozena Borkowska, Mikolaj Klimczak. From A Monopoly towards an Imperfectly
Competitive Electricity Market in Poland ……..………………………..…………….
463
NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS ............................................................................................................ 475
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
223
10 tomas, 2A (23A), 2011
TURINYS
KVIESTINIO REDAKTORIAUS ŽODIS.
Tomasz Bernat. Leidinio įvadas ..................................................................................................
225
STRAIPSNIAI
TRANSFORMACIJŲ IŠŠŪKIAI EKONOMIKOS VYSTYMUISI
Ryszard Barczyk. Teorinių hipotezių naudojimo galimybės šiuolaikinio ekonominio
nuosmukio analizei……………………………...…………….……………………
226
Patrycja Zwiech. Pradinė valstybių-narių situacija Europos 2020 strategijos tikslų
kontekste …………………………………………..…………………..
233
Tomasz Bernat. Monopolistinės padėties kūrimasšiuolaikiniai sprendiniai, seni metodai ..... 248
Danuta Miłaszewicz. Neokeinsizmo tikimybės padariniai Lenkijos viešųjų finansų
konsolidacijoje ……………………...………………..………………………..
258
DARBO RINKOS IR UŽIMTUMO IŠŠŪKIAI EUROPOS SĄJUNGOJE
Wacław Jarmołowicz, Magdalena Knapińska. Darbo rinkos teorijos šiuolaikinėje
ekonomikoje ………………...…….……………………………………………..
268
Danuta Kopycińska. ES valstybių narių jaunimo karta - bedarbių karta? ………………. 281
Robert W. Włodarczyk. Lyginamoji užimtumo analizė euro zonos šalių sektoriuose …...…… 291
Magdalena Rękas. Apmokestinimas kaip šeimos politikos instrumentas: moterų užimtumo
padariniai………………..……………………………………………….……
303
Jolita Vveinhardt. Mobingo diagnozavimo modelio struktūrograma ……………………… 317
INOVACIJŲ POLITIKA
Elżbieta Pohulak-Żołędowska. Novatoriška universitetų veikla žinių kūrimas išvystytose
ir greitai besivystančiose šalyse ………….………...………………………………
334
Jarosław Poteralski. Parama Lenkijos ekonomikos inovacijoms, remiantis novatoriškos
ekonomikos operacinės programos pavyzdžiu …….………………………………….
345
Ewa Okoń-Horodyńska, Rafał Wisła, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Novatoriškų įmonių verslo
strategija - IBM atvejis……………….………...……...…………………………...
357
VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
--------- TRANSFORMACIJOS --------
© Vilniaus universitetas, 2002-2011
© Brno technologijos universitetas, 2002-2011
© Latvijos universitetas, 2002-2011
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
224
GLOBALIZACIJOS IŠŠŪKIAI
Katarzyna Włodarczyk-Śpiewak. Globalizacijos procesas prieš vartotojų elgseną rinkoje
367
Krystyna Przybylska. Lenkijos įmonių eksporto intensyvumo laipsnis….…………
379
Ramūnas Časas, Monika Kavaliauskė, Vilma Dambrauskaitė. Išorinių verslo aplinkos
veiksnių įtaka “Born Globalįmonių internacionalizacijai, skatinant verslumą …..……………
389
KAPITALO RINKOS
Michał Sosnowski. Tiesioginio apmokestinimo mokesčių konkurencija ir harmonizavimas
Europos sąjungoje ………………………..…………………………………...
401
Aleksanda Duliniec. Kapitalo kaina: Lenkijos įmonių perspektyva ……………………..
412
Urszula Hanusik, Urszula Łangowska-Szczęśniak. Lenkijos namų ūkių vartojimas kaimo
vietovėse, 1993-2009, socialinės ekonominės transformacijos metu …………...….
421
Teresa Kamińska, Elżbieta Babula, Marcin Brycz. Kaip dėl efektyvumo ir turto dilemos
Lenkijos ekonomikoje?
…………………………………………………….…....
430
RINKTINIAI ES PRAMONĖS SEKTORIAI
Elżbieta Adamowicz, Konrad Walczyk. Verslo veiklos cikliniai svyravimai naujose
Europos sąjungos šalyse ……………………………………………………………
440
Ewa Okoń-Horodyńska, Rafał Wisła, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Informacinės visuomenės
potencialo išsivystymo įvertinimas Europos sąjungos šalyse patentuotos veiklos IKT sektoriuje
pagrindu ………………………………………………………...……………..
452
Bożena Borkowska, Mikołaj Klimczak. Nuo monopolijos link Lenkijos netobulos elektros
rinkos konkurencijos ……..………................................…………………..…………….
463
REIKALAVIMAI STRAIPSNIAMS ..........................................................................................................
478
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GUEST EDITORIAL
Introduction to the Issue
JEL classification
: Y20.
Contemporary economies are recovering after crisis of 2007-2009. Even if formally it
approached the finish, companies and consumers still feel its burden; and even a possible new crisis is
on the horizon. This issue of Transformations in Business & Economics (TIBE) tries to research
basic economic entities in nowadays world. It covers six main sections. They are related to the
following topics: development of the economies in transforming economies, challenges for the EU in
the context of labour markets and employment, innovation policy, problems of globalization, analysis
of capital markets and, ultimately, the industries operating in the European Union.
In Section 1 on economic development, the issues addressing today’s recession and the
possible use of theoretical hypotheses for the analysis are offered. Evaluation of the EUs strategic
objectives presented in the 2020 Strategy document, Europe is being analysed in its relation to the
establishment of member countries. Impact of foreign investments in Africa, following the case of
Chinese companies, while building their monopolistic position is also presented. A closing paper
covers issues on public finances in Poland.
The second section on labour markets include topics related to the theories of labour markets
in modern economies, the problems of the younger generation which is defined as a generation that is
threaten by growing unemployment. Taxation as an instrument of family policy is presented. Also
sectoral employment in European countries is under analysis. A paper discussing the difficult issues of
mobbing could also catch your attention.
Innovation policy is the third section in this Issue, which is covering universities in creating
knowledge in an innovative way, supporting innovation of the Polish economy by EU programmes
and finally formulating innovative business strategies in entrepreneurial practices, like IBM.
Section 4 discusses the implications for globalization. It relates to the behavioural analysis of
two different market participants: consumers and companies. Consumers are assessed in terms of their
attitudes towards globalisation effects. Institutional topics are referred to the intensity of companies
exports and the issue of “born globalas a factor of entrepreneurship.
Capital markets are another important part of the Issue. Section 5 incorporates the issues on
harmonization of direct taxation in the European Union area and the problems of capital costs from the
perspective of firms. Household consumption is next point for analysis. It is assesses in the light of
socio-economic transformation. Finally, the classic economic dilemma: efficiency and equity issues
are defined by using the example of the Polish economy.
The last section of the Issue presents the analysis of industrial sectors in the European Union.
Problems are addressed to cyclical fluctuations of business activity in the new EU countries, potential
development estimation in the information society in relation to patent activity. The electric market is
also analysed in the context of changing its market structure to a more competitive one.
The presented papers are of immense interest and relevance, covering the latest trends and
tendencies across the European Union and the world. I encourage you to read.
Guest Editor
Hab. Dr. Bernat Tomasz,
Head of Microeconomics Department,
University of Szczecin, Poland
Szczecin,
5th June, 2011
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© Vilnius University, 2002-2011
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
© University of Latvia, 2002-2011
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Vveinhardt, J. (2011), The Structurogram of the Mobbing Diagnostic
Model, Transformations in Business & Economics, Vol. 10, No 2A
(23A), pp.317-333.
THE STRUCTUROGRAM OF THE MOBBING DIAGNOSTIC
MODEL
Jolita Vveinhardt
Faculty of Economics and Management
Vytautas Magnus University
44246 Kaunas
Lithuania
Tel.: +370 37 327850
Fax: +370 37 327857
E-mail: jolitaw@gmail.com
Jolita Vveinhardt, PhD of Social Sciences (Management and
Administration), Associate Professor at the Department of
Management, the Faculty of Economics and Management, Vytautas
Magnus University, Lithuania. J. Vveinhardt has obtained the Bachelor
of Management and Business Administration degree in the Faculty of
Social Sciences, Šiauliai University, where she has prolonged her
further studies and obtained the Master of Management degree. She
lectures the subjects of Management, Knowledge Management,
Modern Theories of Organizations, Organizational Behaviour,
Mobbing in Personnel Relationships, and The Methodology of Social
Research in Bachelor, Professional Bachelor and Master Studies. She
(after the obtaining the doctor‘s degree) is the author and co-author of
18 articles; the author of one educational book. J. Vveinhardts
scientific research trends are: Mobbing as the discrimination in
employees’ relations, Organizational climate.
Received: February, 2011
1st Revision: May, 2011
2nd Revision: August, 2011
Accepted: September, 2011
ABSTRACT
. The article discusses the specifics of modelling, presents
the stages the formation of the model designed by the author; the stages are
discussed in detail. The diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations in order to improve organizations climate is presented
and it could be used for prevention and intervention of the mobbing
phenomenon. The essence of the model three stages of diagnostics
(identification of the state of organizations climate; insights of mobbing
phenomenon; managerial decisions of mobbing intervention), four fields
(the field of managers will, the field of employees will; financial /
economical field; ethical /moral field), monitoring and feedback.
KEYWORDS
: employee, interpersonal relations, discrimination, mobbing,
diagnosis of mobbing, harassment, mobbing diagnostics, mobbing diagnostic
model.
JEL classification
: M12; M14; M19.
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© Vilnius University, 2002-2011
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
© University of Latvia, 2002-2011
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Introduction
Internal changes unfavourable for organizations, structures of an organization and
workplace, cultural peculiarities cause tension fields, which influence conflict environment
and make a possibility for the mobbing phenomenon to emerge. Mobbing differs from
conflicts emerging in work environment in the intensity of psychological pressure on a victim.
Frequency (not less than once a week) and sufficiently long duration (e.g., not shorter than
half a year) together with other factors (social, communication, organizational, etc.) cause
long-term stress, which crushes a victim (Einarsen, Raknes et al., 1994; Einarsen, Raknes,
1997; Rayner, Hoel, 1997; Einarsen, 2000a; 2000b; Einarsen, Hoel, 2001; Einarsen, Hoel et
al., 2003; Tracy, Lutgen–Sandvik et al., 2006; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005; Zapf, 2002; Esser,
Wollmerath, 2005; Hauge, Skogstad et al., 2009; Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2009a, b;
Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2010; etc.).
The state of organizations climate not only influences employees satisfaction with
the work as well as their activity results but also it can be evaluated as certain indicator.
Organizations climate, antagonism, the attitudes determining discriminating relations,
mobbing are closely related (Taylor, Cox et al.,1991; VartiaVaananen, 1996; Zapf, Knorz
et al., 1996; Resch, 1997; Meschkutat, Stackelbeck et al., 2002; Premper, 2002; Vartia–
Vaananen, 2003; Heames, Harvey, 2006; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005; Ashforth, 1997; Einarsen,
Raknes, 1997; Mikkelsen, Einarsen, 2002; Salin, 2005; Tepper, 2007; Šoljan, Josipovič et al.,
2009; Vveinhardt, 2009a; 2009b, etc.).
Inter antagonism negatively influences victims satisfaction with their work and their
personal wellbeing. It is established that mobbing being one of the organizations climate
factors correlates with other organizations climate factors and changes the directions of their
vectors. Thus the state of organizations climate can be considered as the indicator warning
about the existence of mobbing as discrimination in employees relations or the absence of
this phenomenon (Vveinhardt, 2009b). Ill psychological climate at workplace could be related
to discriminating actions of mobbing such as harassment, emotional pressure, which are
performed by co-workers or a manager.
Mobbing manifests in such planes as interrelationship of employees and managers,
communication, conflicts, humour, management policy, group relations. Mobbing minimizes
motivation of organizations members, their loyalty to the organization, their concentration,
orientation to goals, the sense of belonging and assistance. Negative influence upon is made
by the fact that the risk to become a victim of the attack exists. These and other reasons oblige
the organization to observe the work environment, to watch the state of the climate and to
attentively analyse emerging conflicts.
The observance of the state of organizations climate has preventive importance. It
should be mentioned that declining organizations climate not necessarily determines
mobbing conflicts; however it is the signal that within the organization the environment
favourable for such conflicts is being formed or mobbing has already manifested, only the
management has not known about it yet. As well as the favourable climate does not yet ensure
that mobbing conflicts have in principle been eliminated. Thus in stressing the systemic
relation between the organizations climate and mobbing it was sought to create the universal
complex diagnostic model, which would serve both for prevention and intervention of the
phenomenon.
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The research problem raises the following questions: what should be the mobbing
diagnostic model and how could it function in order to ensure prevention and intervention of
the mobbing phenomenon?
The research object: the mobbing diagnostic model.
The research aim is to design the mobbing diagnostic model.
The research aim is to be attained by means of the following objectives:
1. to review stages of the mobbing diagnostic model;
2. to define the diagnostic actions of the state of organizations climate at the first
stage;
3. to distinguish the diagnostic actions of the mobbing phenomenon at the second
stage;
4. to discuss the stage of mobbing intervention choice.
The research is based on the analysis an synthesis of scientific literature, deduction,
modelling, generalisation as well as comparison.
The research limitations. Mobbing diagnostics implies special instruments; however
the article seeks only to demonstrate the diagnostic mechanism in detailed three stages.
1. Mobbing Diagnostic Model: Macro View
The concept of diagnostics most frequently is used when derangements of the
functioning of complex phenomena, processes, states, which can be determined by different
reasons (a diagnostician does not know them, he / she only finds out about them from certain
evidences and their complexes). Mobbing victims can hide a conflict due to different reasons,
and the mobbing process distorts the information about a mobbing victim; thus due to these
and other (e.g., internal communication) problems the possibilities of the management to get
information about mobbing conflicts can be limited. In order to identify mobbing, the state of
organizations climate can become an important complex feature at the first stage. The
function of reversible information when direct interaction is impossible is attributed to the
applied works of management field. Reversible information about states of the process is the
basis of managerial decisions; thus feedback is emphasised in the model presented in the
article. Reversible information serves for ensuring transparent and efficient managerial
decisions. Modelling is the system of certain objects. The disclosure of relations of objects
systems or processes and behaviour in designing and analysing models also is considered as
modelling, and a model is a theoretical key of practical decisions. Due to various social,
cultural differences it should not be referred only to diagnostic models of foreign authors. On
the other hand, as R. Adomaitiene (2002) states, there is no sense to create new models, which
would essentially differ from the models already tested at organizations, either. However
practically implementing the theoretical systems it is not possible not to also evaluate specific
peculiarities of the environment facilitating, impeding or even making the functioning of the
instrument impossible. In this article national socio-cultural peculiarities are not detailed, the
diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in employees relations in order to improve
organizations climate, which is aimed both to Lithuanian and foreign organizations, is
presented (Figure 1).
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Source: made by the author.
Figure 1. The Diagnostic Model of Mobbing as Discrimination in EmployeesRelations in Order to
Improve the Organizational Climate in Lithuania
The performed researches prove the correlation of work environment climate and
mobbing (Meschkutat, Stackelbec, 2002; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005, etc.). Mobbing manifests as
the symptom of ill climate and vice versa the climate unfavourable for employees signals
about destructive interpersonal conflicts or unfavourable environment for them to manifest.
The climate influences mobbing emergence; in addition, according to the data of the
researches, most respondents indicate that mobbing negatively influences the climate. Thus
mobbing diagnostics is closely related to the decisions of phenomenon prevention and
interpretation. The relation among climate characteristics, mobbing and the results of the
organizations activity is noticeable. Inter-antagonism can negatively influence victims
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satisfaction with their work and wellbeing (Ashforth, 1997; Einarsen, Raknes, 1997;
Mikkelsen, Einarsen, 2002; Salin, 2005; Tepper, 2007, etc.) and this can be costly for the
organization because it induces employees idle time, health bulletins, personnel rotation, as
well as the loyalty, commitment for the work and productivity decrease; negative opinions
about the organization occur (Ashforth, 1997; Hoel, Einarsen ir kt., 2003; Salin, 2005;
Tepper, 2007, etc.). Thus the creation of good psychological social work conditions as well as
mobbing prevention and intervention becomes more important.
The axiom is that the system of motives or absence of these motives determines the
organizations decisions considering the structure of the members of the organization
interrelations. Cohesions of interpersonal relations and conflicts are not necessarily relevant
for the people who are making decisions within the organization. Thus the models
functionality mostly depends on power fields, which symbolically and in general can be
divided into four closely inter-correlating groups: the field of managers will, the field of
employees will, the field of financial / economical will, and the field of ethical / moral will.
The field of managers will
The will conditioned by managers internal disposition to solve mobbing conflicts by
relating them to personal as well as organizations maximum effective activity expectations is
important. E. Zuperkienė and V. J. Zilinskas (2008) point out that the success of the activity
of organizations employees depends on managers initiative, activity and positive disposition
by paying attention to the cohesion of manager’s attitudes and influence upon other
organizations members. In this case the manager’s motives, which in the perspective of the
functionality of organizations members evaluate mobbing as problem or disturbance for the
achievement of personal and organizations goals, are defined.
The sum of interest units of employees as individuals is safe and comfortable work
and social environment. Employees hope for guarantees that, when implementing the
organizations aims, they will receive adequate reaction to their individual goals and motives
from their organization, or to be more precise organizations initiative. In this case legal
expectations, which are supposed by the organization when recruiting workforce, are
considered. When implementing their goals, employees join trade union organizations; in
addition, their influence upon the organization can manifest in forming public opinion inside
and outside. The pressure can manifest as rotation in negative aspect or lawsuits for the
organization – such practice gets popular in Lithuania as well.
Ethical /moral system supposes requirement for organizations activity humanism,
social and moral responsibility, the understanding of the importance of which (together with
economical factors) influences the actions of both an organizations manager and
organizations members. R. Alas, J. Gao, J. Carneiro (2010) determined the dependence
between national culture and ethics. According to the authors, the understanding of ethics
gives a possibility to solve emerging conflicts. Collectivism of a group, future orientation and
gender equality, activity orientation, human orientation, institutional collectivism are
important dimensions of culture.
Financial /economical field of will forces to solve the problems, which prevent from
achieving the optimal result of organizations activit